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CONTENTS.

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PAGE

PAGE

Chamois ....

Adive .....................................

Aï, or Three-toed Sloth .......

Chetah .........................

Alpine, or Common Marmot ..... 59 Chinchilla ....................

65

Algazel.............

107 Chiru Antelope ...............

American Tapir..

84 Civet.........

Antelope ..............

104 Coati, or Coati-mondi

Anthus........

42 Collared Peccary

80

Arabian Camel .....

Collared White-eyelid Monkey ...

Arctic Fox ..........

Common Porpoise.

Argali ................

Cook's Phalanger ....................

Armadillo

Daman, or Coney ......

83

Arni .......

| Diana Monkey ...................

11

Ass .......

Dog-headed Opossum ...

Aurochs, or Zubr .......

Dolphin.....

117

Axis Deer

101 Domestic Dog.......

Babiroussa ...

Dormouse, Greater and Common

Bactrian Camel ........

Dugong ............

116

Badger .........................

Dziggtai, or Wild Ass ....

86

Elephant ..............

72

Bat ..............................

Bearded Sajou ...............

Elk .................."

Beaver .........

Entellus ............................

Beech Marten ............

Esquimaux Dog.........

Bicoloured Squirrel ...

Fallow Deer.........

100

114

Fennec ............

Black Spider Monkey ...

Ferret ............

Black Bear .........

27 Finfish

Black, or Silver Fox...

Fox

Bonnet Monkey ...................

13 Gallago......

Brown Bear ...

Garangan.

Buffalo ............................

Gazelle ........

Burchell's Zebra ............

87

Genet ...............

Cacajao........

16

Gibbon ..............

Cachalot, or Spermaceti Whale... Giraffe

Camel ......

89 Glutton.....

31

102

Gnu

Cameleopard ....

108

Cape Buffalo ......

Goat ......

Gour ......................

113

Cape Jackal........

Cape Polecat, or Zorille .........

33

Green Monkey.

12

Capuchin Monkey ............... 15 Grey Ichneumon ....

Capybara ...................

Grey Squirrel ...

Caraya .............*

15 Grey Sajou ...

Cervine Antelope ................

106 | Grizzly Bear .............

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NAMES OF ANIMALS DESCRIBED.

AGE

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PAGE

PAGE Masked Squirrel ....... | Puma ...

Tendrac ...... Masked Wild Boar 80 Quagga

Tenrec ........
Meminna.......
94 Rabbit

Tibet Bear....
Mephitic Weasels
sels ....................
Racoon..........................

Tiger .............
Rat, Common Brown ......

61 Mococo, or Ring-tailed Lemur ....

Titi.
Red Howler Monkey ..............

15 Mole ............

Tolai............
Mona Monkey
Red Lemur...........

| Unau, or Two-toed Sloth .....
Morse, or Walrus .....
Reindeer ..........

Ungka Ape ...
Mouflon....
Rhinoceros

Ursine Dasyurus.
Muntjak
101 Roebuck

Ursine Phalanger ......
Musk Deer ......
Ruffed Lemur......

Varied Tenrec .......
Musk Ox ....

Russian Musk Rat.....

24

Vicugna ...... Napu Musk Deer 95 Sable...........................

Villous Hyena ...
Narwal .....

118
Sagoin.........

16 Virginian Opossum
Nine-banded Armadillo..
69 Samboo .........................

Viscacha ..................... Nyl Ghau......

Scalope.....................

24 | Vulpine Phalanger .... Opossum ....... Sapajous.........

Walrus.......................... Orang-outan .....

Sakis

16 Wanderou Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus

Sea Elephant, or Proboscis Seal 52 Wapiti Deer ......
Oronoco Capuchin
Seal.

Water Shrew
Oryx ............

Sheep........

111 Weasel... Otter.......................... 36 Shrew ......

23 Weeper Monkey ..... Ouavapavi ........... Skunk.................

Whale, Common Ouistiti.......................... sloth.............................

White-faced Capuchin Monkey... Ox...................... 111 Sloth Bear............

| White-fronted Spider Monkey... Pangolin, or Manis ...

Spider Monkey ......

15 | White-lipped Peccary Paradoxure Genet..... Springbok

Widow Monkey... Pariah Dog .........

Squirrel ...

58 Wild Boar......
Patas, or Red Monkey
Squirrel Petaurus.

Wild Goat .....
Peccary
Squirrel Monkey

Wolf.
Phalanger ...............
Spotted Hyena ....

Wombat.
Pine Marten ...
33 Stag, or Red Deer...

100 Yack Polar Bear ..................

33 Zebra....... Polecat....................

Striated Ouistiti .......

16 Zebu.......
Porcupine ...................
Striped Hyena ............

Zibeth......
Porpoise .........................
Tapiti .......

Zorille ..
Proboscis Monkey ....................... 13 Teledu ..................... .........

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No.
1. The Orang-outan.
2. The Ungka Ape.
3. The Patas, or Red Monkey.
4. The Collared White-eyelid Mon-

key.
5. The Entellus.
6. The Mandrill.
7. The Ruffed Lemur.
8. The Kalong.
9. The Common Hedgehog.
10. The Brown Bear.
11. The Polar Bear.
12. The Racoon.
13. The Rufous Coati.
14. The Kinkajou.
15. The Badger.
16. The Glutton.
17. The Zorille.
18. Sable-hunters.
19. The Skunk.
20. The Teledu.

No.
21. The Otter.
22. The Esquimaux Dog.
23. The Jackal.
24. The Fennec.
25. The Ichneumon.
26. The Striped Hyena.
27. The Leopard.
28. The Jaguar.
29. The Opossum.
30. The Kangaroo.
31. The Harvest Mouse.
32. The Jerboa.
33. The Beaver.
34. The Porcupine.
35. The Chinchilla.
36. The Aï, or Three-Toed Sloth.
37. The Armadillo.
38. The Great-maned Anteater.
39. Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus.
40. Skeleton of the Elephant.
41. Skeleton of the Horse.

No.
42. The Hippopotamus.
43. The Collared Peccary.
44. The Syrian Hyrax, or Coney of

Scripture.
45. The Dziggtai, or Wild Ass of

Scripture. 46. The Dromedary. 47. The Elk. 48. The Llama. 49. The Reindeer. 50. The Wapiti Deer. 51. The Giraffe. 52. The Springbok. 53. The Cervine Antelope. 54. The Oryx. 55. The Gnu 56. The Syrian Goat. 57. The Ibex. 58. The Argali, or Four-horned Sheep. 59. The Indian Ox, or Brahmin Bull.

ENGRAVINGS INSERTED IN THE BODY OF THE WORK.

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PAGE
Skeleton of the Mole .................
Skull of a Dog ........................
Mechanism of the Lion's Paw....
Mechanism of the Lion's Talons
Skull of the Morse ........
Head of a Rabbit ........

58 Under Surface of Hind Foot of Viscacha........

66 Part of Lower Jaw of Capybara,

exhibiting the surface of the Grinders .............

PAGE

PAGE
Upper and Under View of the Skull of the Hippopotamus, and
Bill of the Ornithorhynchus

surface of its first Molar Tooth 79 Paradoxus ...........................

The Stomach of the Antelope .... Skull of African Elephant, and

Foot of the Camel....................... its Molar Tooth.

Foot of the Llama......
Skull of Asiatic Elephant, and its Horns of the Wapiti Deer ........

Molar Tooth ......................... Head of the Oryx .......
Section of a portion of Proboscis Skeleton of the Whale...

of the Elephant, showing the
interlacement of the Muscles... 77 |

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THE

BOOK OF QUADRUPEDS.

INTRODUCTION.

"O Lord, how manifold are thy works! in wisdom hast thou made them all: the earth is full of thy riches," Psa. civ. 24. Such was the declaration of the inspired psalmist; and surely in the works of the Almighty we have before us a book, every page of which presents to the Christian reader abundant and astonishing proofs of the wisdom, power, and goodness of Him, who said, "Let there be light, and there was light;" "who weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance;" "who led Joseph like a flock ;" and who condescends to be the Father and Friend of his people in all generations. If, Christian, this great and holy God is thy Father and thy Friend, thou wilt not behold the wonders of his hands with indifference : and as we all look with emotions of pleasure and love upon the hand-writing of an earthly friend or an earthly father, so wilt thou contemplate with admiration and gratitude the characters, more eloquent than speech, with which He has impressed the face of nature.

The study of Natural History is full of pure delights and solid advantages: the order, the design, and balance observable in its laws, the combinations of structure and mechanism with which they are associated, the ends to be obtained, and the simplicity of the means for obtaining them, are all so many proofs of Divine wisdom and superintendence. We look with delight, and with the more delight as we understand the more, on the beautiful and complicated machinery of our manufactories, which seems to perform so many labours as it were by enchantment; but in Natural History we behold a scheme more vast, a structure more curious, operations more complicated, ends more important, means more adapted, and laws more profound. Here the Christian philosopher, as he explores the mines of research, or investigates the various phenomena, the laws or habits of the tribes that people earth and air, will feel a calm and pure delight, unmixed with the baser passions, which the man of the world, in his pursuit of riches, or empty honours, or vain applause, can neither experience nor under

stand. Here he is led by the hand of Nature, and he leaves the city and the mart, and all the pageantry of artificial life—he leaves the turmoil, the follies, and the crimes of an agitated world, and goes forth into the green fields, and wanders by the river's flowery brink, or through the tangled wood, in holy and peaceful contemplation. To him the bounding deer, the crouching hare, the linnet carolling from the brake, the turtle cooing in the woodland gloom, the woodpecker tapping the aged tree, the kingfisher darting like a meteor down the stream, or the little warblers of the hedge-row, are objects of interest; the nimble lizard as it rustles through the leaves, the chirping grasshopper, and the busy insect tribes of brilliant hues, that glitter like diamonds in the sun, the active murmuring bee, the shard-born beetle that winds "his low but sullen horn "— all have claims on his attention, all are objects of contemplation, all lead him to the Cause of causes; for he forgetteth not His power who made and governs all—His, the eternal Word, who was in the beginning, and was with God, and was God, and without whom was not any thing made that was made.

The student of nature beholds every where an order, a balance, a harmony, the contemplation of which expands the intellect, produces a love of order, and habits of patient research: he is not content with a careless glance over what God has pronounced good, but he loves to trace His power and goodness with a more observant eye—His power, which is displayed as much in an insect's wing as in the pinions of the eagle, or the limbs of the gigantic elephant.

An acquaintance with nature leads also to a kindly feeling for all that God has created. How often does man exercise his wanton cruelty upon the dumb creatures, over whom he is placed as a master, and not a tyrant! but were he to familiarize himself with the instincts and habits of the animated beings below him, he would learn to regard them with sympathy and forbearing pity. He would remember God's mercy to him, unworthy and covered with guilt; he would remember what God has done for him ; he would remember the benevolence of his Lord and Master, who, while he proclaimed his abounding love for his people, whom he has ransomed with his Mood, expressed his care also for the commonest bird of the house-top. "Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. But the very hairs of your head are all numbered," Matt. x. 29, 30.

INTRODUCTION.

Christian reader, reflect on God's mercy to you; he has not dealt with you according to your sins, but he has held out to you offers of pardon; he has not rewarded you according to your iniquities, but he has provided a Saviour, an allsufficient one, in whose atoning blood there is presented to the guiltiest a fountain for sin and uncleanness; and by whose intercession we have access to the throne of grace. Such is God's free mercy and love to you. Imitate this great and glorious example, and, as thou hast obtained mercy, be merciful to all that breathes.

"I would not enter on my list of friends
(Though graced with polish'd manners and fine sense,
Yet wanting sensibility) the man
Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.
The inadvertent step may crush the snail
That crawls at evening in the public path;
But he that has humanity, forewarn'd,
Will tread aside, and let the reptile live."—Cowper.

All natural objects with which we are acquainted by means of our senses, and which constitute this globe, and all upon its surface, are separated into Two Great Divisions, or General Classes; namely, the Organic, and the InorGanic, distinguished by the laws which draw a decided line between them, the boundaries of which are precise and defined.

The organic division comprehends all bodies endued with vitality. The inorganic, those not possessing this principle. To the former, therefore, belong animals and plants; to the latter, all other bodies cognizable by our senses.

Animals are natural bodies, organized, living, and sentient.

Vegetables are natural bodies, organized and living, but not sentient.

Alt other bodies are neither organized, nor living, nor sentient.

The phenomena manifested by all organic bodies are the result of an inherent power, which the allwise God has associated to such combinations of matter, and which is generally termed vital principle—a power, the essence of which is enveloped in mystery, excepting as revealed to us in the Scriptures. The general results of this power may be said to consist in a concatenation or vortex of complicated internal movements or actions, having no relation to the laws of chemistry or mechanics, and which, enduring for a certain definite period, produces those external characters by which we at once know an organized being; namely, its essential shape and structure, its growth, by the absorption and assimilation (or conversion into a part of itself) of extraneous matter, and its power of resisting, during an appointed time, the influence of external agents.

Hence, organic bodies seem to maintain a perpetual struggle with the elements around them, perpetually resisting and making good the losses which their actions and influences occasion;

perpetually throwing off those particles which are no longer fit for the keeping up of the body's integrity, and taking up others, which they mysteriously convert into a portion of themselves; perpetually labouring till death.

Inorganic matter does not increase by powers within itself, or resist external agents by the operations of a vital principle. Its laws are those only of mechanics, chemistry, and electricity.

Organic bodies, then, comprehend animals and plants; and between these two great classes, which possess the common properties of vitality, there are several characteristic distinctions :—

1. The power of voluntary motion, which animals in the aggregate possess, demands an according modification of the organs of nutrition; and hence is derived their first and leading character, namely, an internal apparatus for the reception of food, in which it undergoes certain changes before its admission into the system—an admission effected by a multitude of minute tubes or vessels, all originating in the inside of this apparatus. Plants are rooted to one spot; they cannot employ voluntary motion in the search or reception of food; they have no internal digestive apparatus, and the absorbing tubes of nutrition all arise from the external surface. The aliment taken in by animals has to undergo various operations before it forms a juice proper for absorption; but the atmosphere and the earth present to vegetables juices already prepared, and which may be absorbed immediately.

2. Animal bodies, as they have functions more numerous and varied than plants, possess, with a structure accordingly more complicated, a circulatory system, (comprehending the arteries and veins,) by which their fluids are circulated, not, as is the case with plants, by the influence of heat and atmospheric action, but by internal innate energies. This system is, however, less essential than the digestive, because not necessary to, nor to be found in animals of the most simple organization.

3. Animals differ from plants in the chemical analysis of their constituent principles. The essential elements of organized matter appear to be carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and azote or nitrogen, together with alkaline and earthy salts. Now, the solid parts of all plants contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, but no azote. The solid parts of animals consist principally of lime or magnesia, united with carbonic or phosphoric acids. And in those beings of both kingdoms, which appear to be destitute of solid parts, the difference is even still more wide; the gum or mucilage of soft plants exhibiting no trace of azote, which enters as a constituent into the gelatine or albumen of soft animals.

4. Atmospheric air and water are the two sources whence the plant derives the principles necessary for the maintenance of vitality. Water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen; air, of oxygen, azote, and carbonic acid, which is a combination of oxygen and carbon.

Now, of these elements, the vegetable retains, as essential to its composition, the carbon, the hydrogen, and a part of the oxygen, and exhales or throws out the azote and superfluous volume of oxygen. The essential function, indeed, of vegetable life seems to be the exhalation of oxy

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