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LESSON XXIII RULE XV. Active verbs govern nouns and pronouns in the objective case; as, “We love her.", " They learn the lesson.

Rule XVI. Neuter verbs sometimes take an objective after them, of the same general signification with themselves ; as, “ To run a race." .6. He dreamed a dream.".. ..

RULE XVII. Passive verbs of asking, teaching, and some others, sometimes take an objective after them; as, 66 She was asked the question." 6. She was taught her lesson."

RULE XVIII. Participles may have the same case after them, as their verbs do, from which they are derived ; as, 6 Loving the Saviour, we desire to follow him." "Being God, he became man."

- Rule XIX. The infinitive mode may be governed by a verb, noun, participle, or adjective; as, “ He came to instruct us."" “ He is worthy to be regarded.

Rule XX. The infinitive mode is sometimes absolute, not depending on the rest of the sentence. .

Rule XXI. The infinitive mode is used after as, instead of the indicative.

Rule XXII. Verbs that follow bid, dare, feel, let, make, and some others, are in the infinitive, without the sign to; as, “ I bade him come.“He durst not come.“Let him

come.

RULE XXIII. Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, adjectives, and other adverbs.

RULE XXIV. Prepositions govern the objective case; as, “We went after him.” “He came to us.”

Rule XXV. Nouns expressing time, and those expressing measure and distance, are often in the objective, with a preposition understood ; as, (She boarded with us a year," “ He run a mile.

Rule XXVI. Conjunctions connect nouns and pronouns of the same case, and also verbs; as, “My father and mother went to meeting and returned.”

QUESTIONS, &c. You will first repeat all the Rules in the Lesson.-In the examples under Rule fourteenth, how do you parse her, and lesson ?--In the examples under the next Rule, how do you parse race, and dream ?- In the examples under the next, how do you parse question, and lesson?- In the examples under Rule seventeenth, in what case is Saviour ?-In what case is God?-In the examples under the next Rule, what governs to instruct ?-What governs to be regarded ? " To confess the truth, I was in fault.How do you parse to confess, in this sentence ; and by what Rule ? -" He conducted himself so well as to merit esteem?—How do you parse to merit; and by what Rule?-In the examples under Rule twenty-first, in what mode is come; and

by what Rule?- In the next examples, what words govern him, and us ?- In the last example, how do you parse the noun mother, and the verb returned ?

REVIEW.

OF Rule XV.-In English, the nominative case, denoting the subject, usually goes before the verb; and the objective case, denoting the object, follows the verb transitive; and it is the order that determines the case in nouns: as, Alexander conquered the Persians.' But the pronoun, having a proper form for each of those cases, is sometimes, when it is in the objective case, placed before the verb; and, when it is in the nominative case, follows the object and verb: as, 'Whom ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.'

This positiðn of the pronoun sometimes occasions its proper case and government to be neglected: as in the following instances: Who should I esteem more than the wise and good?' "By the character of those who you. choose for your friends, your own is likely to be formed.' • Those are the persons who he thought true to his interest.' 'Who should I see the other day but my old friend?' 'Whosoever the court favors.' In all these places it ought to be whom, the relative being governed in the objective case by the verbs.esteem, choose, thought,' &c. He, who under all proper circumstances, has the boldness to speak truth, choose for thy friend ;' It should be "him who,' &c.

Part of a sentence, as well as a noun or pronoun, may be said to be in the objective case, or to be put objectively, governed by the active verb: as, 'We sometimes see virtue in distress: but we should consider how great will be her ullimate reward.' Sentences or phrases under these circumstances may be termed objective sense tences or phrases.

Some writers, however, use certain neuter and intransitive verbs as if they were transitive, putting after them the objective case, agreeably to the French construction of reciprocal verbs; but this custom is so foreign to the

idiom of the English tongue, that it ought not to be adopted or imitated. The following are some instances of this practice. "Repenting him of his design. The king soon found reason to repent him of his provoking such dangerous enemies. The popular lords did not fail to enlarge themselves on the subject. The nearer his successes approached him to the throne.' "Go flee thee away into the land of Judah.' I think it by no means a fit and decent thing to vie charities,' &c. "They have spent their whole time and pains, to agree the sacred with the profane chronology

Transitive verbs are sometimes as improperly made intransitive: as, 'I must premise with three circumstances.' « Those that think to ingratiate with him by calumniating me. They should be, 'premise three circumstances; “ingratiate themselves with him.? .

The neuter and intransitive verb is varied like the transitive; but having in some degree the nature of the passive, it admits, in many instances, of the passive form, retaining still the neuter signification, chiefly in such verbs as signify some sort of motion, or change of place or condition: as, 'I am come; I was gone; I am grown; I was fallen.' The following examples, however, appear to be erroneous, in giving the intransitive verbs a passive form, instead of a transitive one.The rule of our holy religion, from which we are infinitely swerved." The whole obligation of that law and covenant was also ceased.' Whose number was now amounted to three hundred.' (This mareschal, upon some discontent, was entered into a conspiracy against his master.' "At the end of a campaign, when half the men are deserted or killed.' They should be, have swerved, had ceased,' &c.

OF RULE XVI.-Phrases, such as those contemplated in this Rule are of frequent occurrence; as, She lives a virtuous life ; she sleeps her long sleep.' -Indeed neuter verbs sometimes take an objective after them, of a signification different from their own; as, ' To wall: the horse ; to dance the child. In these cases, however, the verb may not improperly be regarded as active.

OF RULE XVII.--Examples of the application of this Rule are furnished by the best English writers. Phrases such as these She was asked the question ; she was

taught her lesson; they were offered a pardon ; they were denied their request ;' &c, are of frequent occurrence ; and it seems better, after the example of the Latin, to provide for them by a special rule, than to condemn them as inaccuracies.

OF RULE XVIII.-The participle of an active verb governs the objective case, just like its verb; and the participle of a neuter or passive verb takes the same case after it, as that which next precedes it, when both nouns refer to the same thing.

The present participle, with the definite article the before it, becomes a substantive, and must have the proposition of after it : as, 'These are the rules of grammar, by the observing of which, you may avoid mistakes. It would not be proper to say, by the observing which ;' nor, ‘by observing of which ;' but the phrase, without either article or preposition, would be right; as, by observing which.' The article a or an, has the same effect: as, “This was a betraying of the trust reposed in him.'

The following are a few examples of the violation of this rule.' 'He was sent to prepare the way by preaching of repentance ;' it ought to be, by the preaching of repentance;' or, by preaching repentance.' By the continual mortifying our corrupt affections ;' it should be, 'by the continual mortifying of, or, by continually mortifying our corrupt affections. They laid out themselves towards the advancing and promoting the good of it ;' towards advancing and promoting the good.' It is an overvaluing ourselves, to reduce every thing to the narrow measure of our capacities ;' 'it is overvaluing

ourselves,' or, an overvaluing of ourselves.' Keeping · of one day in seven,' &c. it ought to be, the keeping of one day ;! or, keeping one day.'

A phrase, in which the article precedes the present participle, and the possessive preposition follows it, will not, in every instance, convey the same meaning, as would be conveyed by the participle without the article and preposition. "He expressed the pleasure he had in the hearing of the philosopher,' is capable of a different sense from, 'He expressed the pleasure he had in hearing the philosopher.' When, therefore, we wish, for the

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