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gake of harmony or variety, to substitute one of these phraseologies for the other, we should previously consider, whether they are perfectly similar in the sentiments they convey.
We sometimes meet with expressions like the following: in forming of his sentences, he was very exact;'
From calling of names, he proceeded to blows.?. But this is incorrect language; for prepositions do not, like articles and pronouns, convert the participle itself into the nature of a substantive; as we have shown above in the phrase, “By observing which.' And yet the participle with its adjuncts, inay be considered as a substantive phrase in the objective case, governed by the preposition or verb, expressed or understood: as, ‘By promising much, and performing but little, we become despicable.' 'He studied to avoid expressing himself too severely.' · As the perfect participle and the imperfect tense, are sometimes different in their form, care must be taken that they be not indiscriminately used. It is frequently said, ' He begun,' for ' he began;' " He run,' for 'he ran;'
He drunk,' for he drank; the participle being here used instead of the imperfect tense: and much more frequently the imperfect tense instead of the participle: as, 'I had wrote,' for I had written;' I was chose,' for I was chosen:' I have eat,' for I have eaten.' His words were interwove with sighs;' were interwoven.!
He would have spoke;' spoken.' He hath bore witness to his faithful servant;' borne." "By this means he overrun his guide;' "overran.' "The sun has rose;'
risen.' His constitution has been greatly shook, but his mind is too strong to be shook by such causes;' (shaken,' in both places. "They were verses wrote on glass;' written.' Philosophers have often mistook the source of true happiness:' it ought to be mistaken.'
The participle ending in ed, is often improperly contracted, by changing ed into t: as, “In good behaviour, he is not surpast by any pupil of the school.' She was much distrest.' They ought to be,' surpassed,' distressed.'
'In the sentence, 'What do you think of my horse's running to-day?' it is implied that the horse did actually run. If it is said, 'What think you of my horse running
to-day?' it is intended to ask, whether it be proper for my horse to run to-day. This distinctioil, though frequently disregarded, deserves attention: for it is obvious, that ambiguity may arise, from using the latter only of these phraseologies, to express both meanings.
The active participle is frequently introduced without an obvious reference to any noun or pronoun; as, Generally speaking, his conduct was very honorable:' Granting this to be true, what is to be inferred from it?? It is scarcely possible to act otherwise, considering the frailty of human nature. In these sentences, there is no noun expressed or implied, to which speaking, granling, and considering, can be referred. The most natural construction seems to be, that a pronoun is to be understood: as, ' We considering the frailty of human nature,' &c.; 'I granting this to be true,' &c.
The word the before the active participle, in the following sentences, and in all others of a similar construction, is improper and should be omitted: “ This style may be more properly called the taiking upon paper than writing:' " The advising, or the attempting, to excite such disturbances, is unlawful:' "The taking from another what is his, without his knowledge or allowance, is called stealing. They should be; - May be called talking upon paper;' ' Advising or attempting to excite disturbances;' " Taking from another what is his,' &c.
OF RULE XIX.--Government is the influence which one word has over another, in directing its case or mode In determining therefore, in any case, what word governs the infinitive mode, we must determine what word causes it to be in the infinitive. What previous word prevents the verb from having a nominative, and from assuming some other mode besides the infinitive ? When this is ascertained, we may know what governs the verb, in the infinitive.
The infinitive mode has been improperly used in the following sentences : 'I am not like other men, to envy the talents I cannot reach.' It should be, 'who envy the talents they cannot reach ;' or, "I do not, like other men, envy the talents I cannot reach.' 'Grammarians have denied, or at least doubted, them to be genuine ;' doubted that they were genuine.' That all our doings
may be ordered by thy governance, to do always what is righteous in thy sight ;' that we may always do,' &c.
The sign to, signifying in order to, was anciently preceded by for: as, 'What went ye out for to see ?? The word for before the infinitive, is now, in almost every case, obsolete. It is, however, still used, if the subject of the affirmation intervenes between the preposition and the verb ; as, for holy persons to be humble, is as hard, as for a prince to submit himself to be guided by tutors.'
OF RULE XX, XXI, XXII.-The infinitive mode absolute seems to supply the place of the conjunction that with the potential mode; as, To confess the truth, I was in fault. (That I may confess the truth, I was in fault.
In all the instances of the application of Rule XXI, the indicative mode may be readily substituted; as, 'He went so far as to promise attendance. He went so far that he promised attendance.'
Sometimes, when the infinitive mode follows as, it is governed by another verbinderstood ; as, He desired nothing so much as to see his friends ;' that is, as he desired to see his friends. In this manner, the infinitive mode is governed when it follows than ; as, He desired nothing more than to see his friends ;' that is, than he desired to see his friends.'
The verbs, which in the active form require the infinitive mode without the sign to, when used in the passive, always require the to to be inserted; as, He was seen to go; he was heard to speak ; &c.
Of Rule XXIII.---Adverbs, though they have no government of case, tense, &c. require an appropriate situation in the sentence; viz. for the most part, before adjectives, after verbs active'or neuter, and frequently between the auxiliary and the verb : as, 'He made a very sensin ble discourse ; he spoke unaffectedly and forcibly, and was atlentirely heard by the whole assembly. . . . :
A few instances of erroneous positions of adverbs may serve to illustrate the rule. He must not expect to find study agreeable always ;' always agreeable."
We always find them ready when we want them ;'we find them always ready,' &c. Dissertations on the
prophecies which have remarkably been fulfilled ;'
which have been remarkably.' 'Instead of looking contemptuously down on the crooked in mind or body, we should look up thankfully to God, who hath made us better :' instead of looking down contemptuously, &c, we should thankfully look up,' &c. 'If thou art blessed naturally with a good memory, continually exercise it ;' naturally blessed,' &c. ' exercise it continually.'
Sometimes the adverb is placed with propriety before the verb, or at some distance after it ; sometimes between the two auxiliaries; and sometimes after them both : as in the following examples. Vice always creeps by degrees, and insensibly twines around us those concealed fetters, by which we are at last completely bound.' He encouraged the English barons to carry their opposition farther. They compelled him to declare that he would abjure the realm for ever ;' instead of, 'to carry further their opposition ;' and 'to abjure for ever the realm. He has generally been reckoned an honest man :' The book may always be had at such a place; in preference to 'has been generally : and may be always. These rules will be clearly understood, after they have been diligently studied,' are preferable to, 'These rules will clearly be understood, after they have diligently been studied. .
When adverbs are emphatical, they may introduce a sentence, and be separated from the word to which they belong : as, 'How completely this most amiable of human virtues, had taken possession of his soul !? This position of the adverb is most frequent in interrogative and exclamatory phrases.
From the preceding remarks and examples, it appears that no exact and determinate rule can be given for the placing of adverbs, on all occasions. The general rule may be of considerable use : but the easy flow and perspicuity of the phrase, are the things which ought to be chiefly regarded.
The adverb there is often used as an expletive, or as a word that adds nothing to the sense : in which case it precedes the verb and nominative noun : as, There is a person at the door ;' "There are some thieves in the
house :' which would be as well, or better, expresse by saying, 'A person is at the door ;). Some thiever are in the house. Sometimes, it is made use of to give a small degree of emphasis to the sentence : as, " Theri was a man sent from God, whose name was John.' When it is applied in its strict sense, it principally follows the verb and the nominative case ; as, "The man stands there."
The adverb never generally precedes the verb; as, I never was there ;' He never comes at a proper time.' When an auxiliary is used, it is placed indifferently, either before or after the adverb : as, He was never seen (or never was seen) to laugh from that time.' Never seems to be improperly used in the following passages. “Ask me never so much dowry and gift.'
If I make my hands never so clean." (Charm he never so wisely.' The word ' ever' would be more suitable to the sense.-Ever is sometimes improperly used for never : as, 'I seldom or ever see him now. It should be, 'I seldom or never ;' the speaker intending to say,
that rarely, or rather at no time, does he see him now;' not' rarely, or,' at any time. .
In imitation of the French idiom, the adverb of place where, is often used instead of the pronoun relative and a preposition. They framed a protestation, where, they repeated all their former claims,'ide. - in which they repeated.' "The king was still determined to run forwards, in the same course where he was already, by his precipitate career, too fatally adyanced ;' i. e. "in which he was. But it would be better to avoid this mode of expression. · The adverbs hence, thence, and whence, imply a preposition ; for they signify, from this place, from that place, from what place. It seems, therefore, strictly speaking, to be improper to join a preposition with them, because it is superfluous : as, " This is the leviathan, from whenee the wits of our age are said to borrow their weapons ;' an ancient author prophecies from hence.' But the origin of these words is little attended to, and the preposition from is so often used in construction with them, that the omission of it, in many cases, would scem stiff, and be disagreeable.