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to-day?' it is intended to ask, whether it be proper for my horse to run to-day. This distinction, though frequently disregarded, deserves attention: for it is obvious, that ambiguity may arise, from using the latter only of these phraseologies, to express both meanings.
The active participle is frequently introduced without an obvious reference to any noun or pronoun; as, 'Generally speaking, his conduct was very honorable:' 'Granting this to be true, what is to be inferred from, it?' 'It is scarcely possible to act otherwise, cottsidering the frailty of human nature.' In these sentences, there is no noun expressed or implied, to which speaking, granting, and considering, can be referred. The most natural construction seems to be, that a pronoun is to be understood: as, ' We considering the frailty of human nature,' &C.; ' J granting this to be true,' &c.
The word the before the active participle, in the following sentences, and in all others of a similar construction, is improper and should be omitted: ' This style may be more properly called the talking upon paper than writing:' 'The advising, or the attempting, to excite such disturbances, is unlawful:' 'The taking from another what is his, without his knowledge or allowance, is called stealing.' They should be; 'May be called talking upon paper;' 'Advising or attempting to excite disturbances;' ' Taking from another what is his,' &c.
Of Rule XIX.—Government is the influence which one word has over another, in directing its case or mode In determining therefore, in any case, what word governs the infinitive mode, we must determine what word causes it to be in the infinitive. What previous word prevents the verb from having a nominative, and from assuming some other mode besides the infinitive ? When this is ascertained, we may know what governs the verb, in the infinitive.
The infinitive mode has been improperly used in the following sentences : ' I am not like other men, to envy the talents I cannot reach.' It should be, ' xvho envy the talents they cannot reach ;' or, 'I do not, like other men, envy the talents J cannot reach.' 'Grammarians have denied, or at least doubted, them to be genuine;' 'doubted that they were genuine.' 'That all our doings may be ordered by thy governance, to do always what is righteous in thy sight ;' 'that tee may always do,' &c.
The sign to, signifying in order to, was anciently preceded by for : as, ' What went ye out for to see 1' The word for before' the infinitive, is now, in almost every case, obsolete. It is, however, still used, if the subject of the affirmation intervenes between the preposition and the verb ; as, ' for holy persons to be humble, is as hard, as for a prince to submit himself to be guided by tutors.'
Of Rule XX, XXI, XXII.—The infinitive mode absolute seems to supply the place of the conjunction that with the potential mode ; as, ' To confess the truth, I was in fault.' 'That I may confess the truth, I was in fault.'
In all the instances of the application of Rule XXI, the indicative mode may be Teadily substituted ; as,' He went so far as to promise attendance. He went so far that he promised attendance.' , >
Sometimes, when the infinitive mode follows as, it it governed by another verbj#nderstood ; as, ' He desired nothing so much as to see'his friends;' that is, ' as he desired to see his friends.' In this manner, the infinitive mode is governed when it follows than ; as, ' He desired nothing more than to see his friends;' that is, '.than he desired to see his friends.'
The verbs, which in the active form require the infinitive mode without the sign to, when used in the passive, always require the to to be inserted ; as, 'He was seen to go ; he was heard to speak ;* &c.
Or Rule XXIII.—Adverbs, though they have no government of case, tense, &.c. require an appropriate situation in the sentence; viz. for the most part, before adjectives, after verbs active or neuter, and frequently between the auxiliary and the verb: as, ' He made a very sensible discourse ; he spoke unaffectedly and forcibly, and wa» attentively heard by the whole assembly.'
A few instances of erroneous positions of adverbs may serve to illustrate the rule. 'He must not expect to find study agreeable always;' 'akcays agreeable.' 'We always find them ready when we want them ;' 'we find them always ready,' &c. Dissertations on the prophecies which have remarkably been fulfilled f 'which have been remarkably.' 'Instead of looking contemptuously down on the crooked in mind or body, we should look up thankfully to God, who hath made us better:' 'instead of looking down contemptuously, &c. we should thankfully look up,' &.c. 'If thou art blessed naturally with a good memory, continually exercise it;' 'naturally blessed,' &c. ' exercise it continually.'
Sometimes the adverb is placed with propriety before the verb, or at some distance after it ; sometimes between the two auxiliaries; and sometimes after them both: as in the following examples. 'Vice always creeps by degrees, and insensibly twines around us those concealed fetters, by which we are at-last completely bound.' 'He encouraged the English barons to carry their opposition farther.' 'They compelled him to declare that he would abjure the realm for ever;' instead of, 'to carry further their opposition;' and 'to abjure for ever the realm.' 'He has generally been reckoned an honest man:' 'The boohjmay always be had at such a place j' in preference to 'has been generally :' and may 'be always.' 'These rules will be clearly understood, after they have been diligently studied,' are preferable to, ' These rules will clearly be understood, after they have diligently been studied.'
When adverbs are emphatical, they may introduce a sentence, and be separated from the word to which they belong : as, ' How completely this most amiable of human virtues, had taken possession of his soul!' This position of the adverb is most frequent in interrogative and exclamatory phrases.
From the preceding remarks and examples, it appears that no exact and determinate rule can be given for the placing of adverbs, on all occasions. The general rule may be of considerable use : but the easy flow and perspicuity of the phrase, are the things which ought to be chiefly regarded.
The adverb there is often used as an expletive, or as a word that adds nothing to the sense: in which case it precedes the verb and nominative noun: as, 'There is a person at the door;' 'There are some thieves in the house :' which would be as well, or better, expresses by saying, 'A person is at the door j' 'Some thieve* are in the house.' Sometimes, it is made use of to give a small degree of emphasis to the sentence : as, ' Then was a man sent from God, whose name was John.' When it is applied in its strict sense, it principally follows the verb and the nominative case ; as, 'The man stands there.'
The adverb never generally precedes the verb; as, 'I never was there;' 'He never comes at a proper time,' When an auxiliary is used, it is placed.indifferently, either before or after the adverb: as, < He was never seen (or never was seen) to laugh from that time.' Never seems to be improperly used in the following passages. 'Ask me never so much dowry and gift.' 'If I make my hands never so clean.' ' Charm he never so wisely.' The word ' ever 7 would be more suitable to the sense.—~Ever is sometimes improperly used for never : as, ' I seldom or ever see him now.' It should be, ' I seldom or never;' the speaker intending to say, 'that rarely, or rather at no time, does he see him now;' not ' rarely,' or, ' at any time.'
In imitation of the French idiom, the adverb of place where, is often used instead of the pronoun relative and a preposition. 'They framed a protestation, where, they repeated all their former claims,' i. »e. 'in tehich they repeated.' 'The king was still determined to run forwards, in the same course where he was already, by his precipitate career, too fatally advanced;' i.e. lin which he was.' But it would be better to avoid this mode of expression.
The adverbs hence, thence, and whence, imply a preposition ; for they signify, 'from this place, from that place, from what place.' It seems, therefore, strictly speaking, to be improper to join a preposition with them, because it is superfluous: as, 'This is the leviathan, from whenee the wits of our age are said to borrow their weapons;' 'an ancient author prophecies from hence.' But the origin of these words is little attended to, and the preposition from is so often used in construction with them, that the omission of it, in many cases, would seem stiff", and be disagreeable.
The adverbs here, there, where, are often improperly applied to verbs signifying motion, instead of the adverbs hither, thither, whither: as, 'He came here hastily;' 'They rode there with speed.' They should be, 'He came hither :' ' They rode thither,' &c.
We have some examples of adverbs being used for substantives : ' In 1687, he erected it into a community of regulars, since when, it has begun to increase in those countries as a religious order ;' i. e. 'since which time.'' 'A little while and I shall not see you ;' i. e. 'a short time? 'It is worth their while;' i. e. 'it deserves their time and pains.' But this mode of expression rather suits familiar than grave style. The same may be said of the phrase, 'To do a thing anyhow ;' i. e. 'in any manner;' or, 'somehow;' i. e. 'in some manner.' 'Somehow, worthy as these people are, they are under the influence of prejudice.'
ft,j3uch expressions as the following, though not destitute of authority, are very inelegant, and do not suit the idiom of our language; 'The then ministry,' for, 'the ministers of that time;' 'The above discourse,' for, 'the preceding discourse.'
Two negatives, in English, destroy one another, or »ro equivalent to an affirmative: as, ' Nor did they not perceive him;' that is, 'they, did perceive him.' 'His language, though inelegant, is not ungrammatical;' that is, ' it is grammatical.'
It is better to express an affirmation, by a regularaffirmative, than by two separate negatives, as in the former sentence : but when one of the negatives is joined to another word, as in the latter sentence, the two negatives form a pleasing and delicate variety of expression.
Some writers have improperly employed two negatives instead of one : as in the following instances: '1 never did repent of doing good, nor shall not now;' 'nor shall I now.' 'Never no imitator grew up to this author:' never did any,' &c. 'I cannot by no means allow him what his argument must prove;' 'I cannot by any means,' &c. or, ' I can by no means.' 'Nor let no comforter approach me ;' ' Nor let any comforter,' &c. ' Nor is danger ever apprehended in such a government, no