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place appointed ;' "I shall be at Paris. We likewise say: 'He touched, arrived at any place. The preposition in is set before countries, cities, and large towns :
He lives in France, in London, or in Birmingham.' But before villages, single houses, and cities which are in distant countries, at is used : as, 'He lives at Hackney ;' He resides at Montpelier.' It is a matter of indifference with respect to the pronoun one another, whether the preposition of be placed between the two parts of it, or before them both. We may say, “They were jealous of one another;' or, “They were jealous one of another :' but perhaps the former is better.
Participles are frequently used as prepositions : as, excepting, respecting, touching, concerning. "'They were all in fault except or excepting him.'
OF RULE XXV.--In most of the phrases intended to be parsed by this rule, a preposition may be supplied ; but not elegantly or conveniently in all of them. The well is twenty feet deep.' "The mountain is three miles high.? "The child is three years old.' 'We have travelled forty miles,' &c. It is thought to be better, in imitation of the Latin, to parse these and similar phrases by a special rule, than to attempt supplying a preposition.
OF Rule XXVI.-It is implied in this rule, that though nouns and pronouns, when connected, must always be in the same case, connected verbs need not always be in the same mode and tense. Hundreds of instances might be adduced, in which such verbs are not in the same mode and tense. The imperative mode, and the infinitive, are not indeed connected with any other; and perhaps not the subjunctive ; but the indicative and the potential modes, are very often connected—and connected too in different tenses ; as, 'He would not come, but sent his brother.' 'I love you, and have provided for your education.' "We want you here, and shall send for you.'.
Questions on the Review. Is part of a sentence ever the object of an active verb?
Does the neuter verb admit of the passive form?-Do neuter verbs in any case take an objective after them? When the definite article precedes the present participle, what ought to follow it? —What is government?-How
can we determine what governs a verb in the infinitive mode?-Are adverbs ever used as substantives?-Mention an instance?-What is the effect or two negatives in English-Are participles ever used as prepositions? -Are connected yerbs always in the same mode and tense?
LESSON XXIV. In parsing a word, the first thing to be ascertained is, the part of speech. This should be done, if possible, by considering the sense and connexion of the word, and by comparing it with those definitions and distinguishing marks, which have been given. The part of speech being determined-if it is an article, let it be told which kind of article and to what noun it belongs--if it is a noun, it should be told whether it is common or proper ; its number, person, gender, and case, should be given; also, to what it is nominative, or by what it is governed, according as its case may be. The personal and relative pronouns should be parsed in the same way, with this addition in regard to the relative, that its antecedent should be pointed out. If the word under consideration is an adjective pronoun, let it be. told what kind of one ; or if an adjective, what its degree of comparison ; and in respect to both, as well as the participle, it should be determined to what noun or pronoun they belong. If the word in question is a verb, it must be ascertained whether it is regular or irregular, active, passive, or neuter; the mode,
tense, number, and person, must be given; and it must be told with what noun or pronoun it agrees, as its nominative. If the word is an adverb, show what it qualifies; or if a preposition, the words between which it shows a relation should be pointed out; or, if a conjunction, the kind should be mentioned, as also the words, or parts of a sentence, which it connects. The rules should all be given, until both the language and the application of them are perfectly familiar; after which they may be omitted.,
In parsing a word, what is first to be ascertained ?-How should this be done ? - What is to be told of the article ?- What of the noun ?--How should the personal and relative pronouns be parsed ?—What is to be told, in respect to the adjective pronoun, the adjective, and participle ?—What must be done in parsing the verb ?-What must be told in parsing the adverb?—What, in parsing the preposition ?-What, in parsing the conjunction ?How long should the Rules be given ?-You may now parse, if you can, the following easy sentences: “ The boy plays. He is wicked. His heart has been hard. You behave yourself properly. Come to me, and read. Oh! what are you doing?”
. SPECIMEN OF SYNTACTICAL PARSING.
Vice degrades us. i Vice is a common noun, of the neuter gender, the third person, in the singular number, and the nominative case to degrades. Degrades is a regular verb active, indicative mode, present tense, third person singular, agreeing with its nominative 'vice,' according to Rule II. which says ;(here repeat the rule.) Us is a personal pronoun, first person plural, in the objective case, and governed by the active verb degrades,' agreeably to Rule XV. which says, &c. .
He who lives virtuously prepares for all events.
He is a personal pronoun of the third person, singular number, maseuline gender, and nominative to prepares. Who is a relative pronoun, which has for its antecedent, "he,' with which it agrees in gender and number and person, according to Rule X. which says, &c.; it is also nominative to the verb lives, according to Rule XI. which says, &c. Lives is a regular verb neuter, indicative mode, present tense, third person singular, agreeing with its nominative, who,' according to Rule II. which says, &c. Virtuously is an adverb qualifying lives. Prepares is a regular verb neuter, indicative mode, present tense, third person singular, agreeing with its nominative, 'he. For is a preposition. All is an adjective pronoun, of the indefinite kind, and belongs to its substantive, events,' according to Rule XIII. which says, &c. Events is a common noun, of the neuter gender, the third person, in the plural number, and the objective case, governed by the preposition for, according to Rule XXIV. which says, &c.
If folly entice thee, reject its allurements. If is a copulative conjunction. Folly is a common noun of the third person, in the singular number, and the nominative case to entice. Entice is a regular verb active, subjunctive mode, present tense, third person singular, agreeing with its nominative ' folly,' according to Rule II. which says, &c. Thee is a personal pronoun, of the second person singular, in the objective case, govern
ed by the active verb 'entice,' agreeably to Rule XV. which says, &c. Reject is a regular active verb, imperative mode, second person singular, and agrees with its nominative case, “thou,' implied. Its is a personal pronoun, third person, singular number, of the neuter gender, and in the possessive case, governed by allurements, according to Rule XIV. which says, &c. Allurements is a common noun, of the neuter gender, the third person, in the plural number, and the objective case, governed by the verb reject, according to Rule XV. which says, &c.
LESSON XXV, . One of the greatest difficulties in parsing arises from the use of the same words in different senses, and consequently as forming different parts of speech. Of the words thus used, the following are among the least obvious : that, as, either, but, for, yet, both.
That is a relative pronoun, when who or which can be substituted for it and make sense: It is a demonstrative adjective pronoun when it is joined with a noun, and used for pointing out any individual person or thing; as, “ that man; that woman.” In all cases except these two, it is a conjunction..
- As, is a relative pronoun when it follows such ; when it has the sense of so, it is an adverb; in all other cases, it is a conjunction.
Either, is a conjunction when it corresponds to cr; as, “ I shall not do either the one, or the other." In other cases, it is a distributive adjective pronoun..
But, when it means the same as except, is a preposition ; when it has the sense of only, it