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the preposition in these sentences?—Which is the adverb?—Which the conjunction?—When is for a conjunction ; and when a preposition?— "I did the loork for him: For what less than this could I do?"—Which for is here the conjunction; and which the preposition ?—When is yet a conjunction; and when an adverb?—" Though I loved him, yet he forsook me." "Your work is not yet done."—Which yet is the conjunction; and which the adverb, in these sentences ?—When is both a conjunction; and when an adjective ?—" Both men are guilty." "He is loved, both on his mother's account, and his own."—In these sentences, which both is the adjective; and which the conjunction?
The student, having made himself acquainted with the preceding Lessons, may commence parsing easy sentences.
The different parts of speech are used so promiscuously, that they cannot with certainty be determined but by particular attention to the connexion and the sense. The same word is used sometimes as one part of speech, and sometimes as another. 'The cold is extreme. The earth is covered with green.' Here cold and green, which are properly adjectives, are used as nouns.—' A summer day ; a winter school; a morning prayer.' Here summer, winter, and morning, which are properly nouns, are used as adjectives.—' I love my Maker.' 'God is love.' Here love is used both as a noun and a verb.—' The summer is warm ; fires warm the earth.' Here warm is used both as a verb and an adjective.—' Yesterday . is past and gone ; to-morroio may never come.' 'I was at Worces-v ter yesterday; I shall go to Boston to-morrcno., In the former of these sentences, yesterday and to-morrow are
nouns; in the latter, they are adverbs.—' I love yon much. Much good has been done. He has accomplished much in behalf of others.' In these sentences, much is used, first as an adverb; next as an adjective; and last as a noun.—' I went after him, after I had seen his father; and soon after I found him.' After is here, firsta preposition, then a connective, and then an adverb.—There are various other words, too numerous to be particularized, which, used in different connexions, constitute different parts of speech. The object of these remarks is to show, not that distinctions in parts of speech are of no consequence, but that the only infallible criterion by which to judge of them, is their signification, and the connexion and manner in which they are used.
Questions on the Review. Are adjectives ever used as nouns ?—Are nouns ever used as adjectives ?—Mention some instances.—Mention an instance in which the same word is a noun and a verb.—A verb and an adjective.—Mention instances in which the same words are nouns and adverbs.—What is the only infallible criterion, by which to ascertain the different parts of speech?
EXERCISES IN PARSING.
In your whole behaviour, be humble and obliging.
Virtue is the universal charm.
True politeness has its seat in the heart.
We should endeavour to please, rather than to shine and dazzle.
Opportunities occur daily for strengthening in ourselves the habits of virtue.
Compassion prompts us to relieve the wanti of others.
A good mind is unwilling to give pain to either man or beast.
Peevishness .and passion often produce, from trifles, the most serious mischiefs.
Discontent often nourishes passions, equally malignant in the cottage and in the palace.
A great proportion of human evils is created by ourselves.
A passion for revenge, has always been considered as the mark of a little and mean mind.
If greatness flatters our vanity, it multiplies our dangers.
To our own failings we are commonly blind.
The friendships of young persons are often founded on capricious likings.
In your youthful amusements let no unfairness be found.
Engrave on your minds this sacred.rule:
"Do unto others, as you wish that they should do unto you."
Truth and candor possess a powerful charm . they bespeak universal favor.
After the first departure from sincerity, it is seldom in our power to stop: one artifice generally leads on to another.
Temper the vivacity of youth with a proper mixture of serious thought.
The spirit of true religion is social, kind, and cheerful.
Let no compliance with the intemperate mirth of others, ever betray you into profane sallies.
In preparing for another world, we must not neglect the duties of this life.
The manner in which we employ our present time, may decide our future happiness or misery.
Happiness does not grow up of its own acoord: it is the fruit of long cultivation, and the acquisition of labor and care.
A plain understanding is often joined with great worth.
The brightest parts are sometimes found without virtue or honor.
How feeble are the attractions of the fairest form, when nothing within corresponds to them.
Piety and virtue are particularly graceful and becoming in youth.
Can we, untouched by gratitude, view that profusion of good, which the Divine Hand pours around us?
There is nothing in human life more amiable and respectable, than the character of a truly humble and benevolent man.
What feelings are more uneasy and painful, than the workings of sour and angry passions?
No man can be active in disquieting others, who does not, at the same time, disquiet himself.
A life of pleasure and dissipation is an enemy to health, fortune, and character.
To correct the spirit of discontent, let us consider how little we deserve, and how much we enjoy.
As far as happiness is to be found on earth, we must look for it, not in the world, or the things of the world; but within ourselves, in our temper, and in our heart.
Though bad men attempt to turn virtue into ridicule, they honor it at the bottom of their hearts.
Of what small moment to our real happiness, are many of those injuries which draw forth our resentment!
In the moments of eager contention, every thing is magnified and distorted in its appearance.
Multitudes in the most obscure stations, are not less eager in their petty broils, nor less tormented by their passions, than if princely honors were the prize for which they contended.
The smooth stream, the serene atmosphere, the mild zephyr, are the proper emblems of a gentle temper, and a peaceful life. Among the sons of strife all is loud and tempestuous.
EXERCISE3 IN FALSE SYNTAX.
The following Exercises, taken chiefly from the collection by Mr.. Murray, are arranged according to the rules of this Grammar, Perhaps the best mode of correcting them will be to take them as lessons in parsing.
Exercises under Rule I.
They slew Varus, he that was mentioned before.
I saw John and his sister, they who came to your house.
We must respect the good and the wise, they who endeavoured to enlighten us, and make us better.