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But in the instances which follow, future time is not referred to ; and therefore a different construction takes place : 'If thou livest virtuously, thou art happy ;' Unless he means what he says, he is doubly faithless ;' If he allows the excellence of virtue, he does not regard her precepts ;' If thou believest with all thy heart, thou mayst,' &c. Acts viii. 37.
There are many sentences, introduced by conjunctions, in which neither contingency nor futurity is denoted : as, ' Though he excels her in knowledge, she far exceeds him in virtue ;' « Though he is poor, he is contented ;? and then the verbs are in the indicative mode : were therefore, in the following sentence, is erroneous.
Though he were divinely inspired, and spoke therefore as the oracles of God, with supreme authority ; though he were endued with supernatural powers, and could, therefore, have confirmed the truth of what he uttered, by miracles : yet, in compliance with the way in which human nature and reasonable creatures are usually wrought upon, he reasoned.? That our Saviour was diyinely inspired, and endued with supernatural powers, are positions that are here taken for granted, as not admitting the least doubt ; therefore the indicative mode,
Though he was divinely inspired ; though he was enduud with supernatural powers ;' would have been better.
Lest and that, annexed to a command preceding, necessarily require the following verb to be in the subjunctive mode ; as, Loye not sleep, lest thou come to poverty ;' 'Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee;' Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob.'
If with but following it, when futurity is denoted, requires the subjunctive mode : as, “If he do but touch the hills, they shall smoke ; . If he be but discreet, he will succeed.' But the indicative ought to be used, on this occasion, when future time is not signified : as, I, in this expression he does but jest, no offence should be taken ;? If she is but sincere, I am happy. The same distinction applies to the following forms of expression : * If he do submit, it will be from necessity ;' If thou do not reward this service, he will be discouraged ;? If thou dost heartily forgive him, endeavour to forget the offence.?
In the following instances, the conjunction that, expressed or understood, seems to be improperly accompanied with the subjunctive mode. So much she dreaded his tyranny, that the fate of her friend she dare not lament." "He reasoned so artfully that his friends would listen, and think [that] he were not wrong.'
The same conjunction followed both by the indicative and subjunctive modes, in the same sentence, and in the same circumstances, seems to be a great impropriety ; as in these instances. If there be but one body of leg. islators, it is no better than a tyranny; if there are only two, there will want a casting voice. If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them is gone astray,' &c.
On the form of the auxiliaries in the compound tenses of the subjunctive mode, it seems proper to make a few observations. Some writers express themselves in the perfect tense as follows : If thou have determined, we must submit :' 'Unless we have consented, the writing will be void :' but we believe that few authors of critical sagacity write in this manner. The proper form seems to be, "If thou hast determined ; unless he has consented,' &c. conformably to what we generally meet with in the Bible : I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me.' Isaiah xlv. 4. What is the hope of the hypocrite, though he hath gained,' &c, Job xxvii, 8. See also Acts xxviii. 4.
In the pluperfect and future tenses, we sometimes meet with such expressions as these : 'If thou had applied thyself diligently, thou wouldst have reaped the advantage ; unless thou shall speak the whole truth, we cannot determine ;' If thou will undertake the business there is little doubt of success. This mode of expressing the auxiliaries, does not appear to be warranted by the general practice of correct writers. They should be, hadst, shalt, and wilt : and we find them used in this form, in the sacred Scriptures.
If thou hadst known,' &c. Luke xix. 47. 'If thou hadst been here,' &c. John xi. 21. If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.' Malt. viii. 2. See also, 2 Sam. ii. 27. Matt. xvii. 4.
The second person singular of the imperfect tense in the subjunctive mode, is also very frequently used
without the personal termination : as, 'If thou loved him truly, thou wouldst obey him ;' ^ Though thou did conform, thou hast gained nothing by it.' This, however, appears to be improper. Our present version of the Scriptures, which is again referred to, as a good grammatical authority in points of this nature, decides against it. If thou knewest the gift,' &c. John iv. 10. "If thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory ?' &c. 1 Cor. iv. 7, See also Dan. v. 22.
It may not be superfluous also to observe, that the auxiliaries of the potential mode, when applied to the subjunctive, retain the termination of the second person singular. We properly say, 'If thou mayst or canst go;' 'Though thou mightst live ;' Unless thou couldst read;'
If thou wouldst learn ;' and not, “If thou may or can go ;' &c. It is sufficient, on this point, to adduce the authorities of Johnson and Lowth : If thou shouldst go ;' Johnson. If thou mayst, mightst, or couldst love ;' Lowth. Some authors think, that when that expresses the motive or end, these auxiliaries should not be varied : as, I advise thee, that thou may beware ;' He checked thee, that thou should not presume :' but there does not appear to be any ground for this exception. If the expression of condition, doubt, contingency,' &c. does not prevent a change in the form of these auxiliaries, why should they not yary, when a motive or end is expressed ? The translators of the Scriptures do not appear to have made the distinction contended for. • Thou buildest the wall, that thou mayst be their king.' Neh. vi. 6. "There is forgiveness with thee, that thou mayst be feared.' Psalm cxxxv. 4.
Some conjunctions have their corresponding conjunctions belonging to them, so that, in the subsequent member of the sentence, the latter answers to the former : as, 1. THOUGH-YET, NEVERTHELESS : as, Though he
was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor.' 2. WHETHER-OR : as, 'Whether he will go or not, I
cannot tell." 3. EITHER—OR: as, “I will either send it, or bring it
4. NEITHER-NOR : as, “Neither thou nor I am able
to compass it.' 5. ASMAS : expressing a comparison of equality : as,
She is as amiable as her sister.' 6. As-S0 : expressing a comparison of equality :' As
the stars, so shall thy seed be.' 7. AS—50 : expressing a comparison of quality : as,
As the one dieth, so dieth the other." 8, so—As : with the verb expressing a comparison of
quality : as, ' To see thy glory, so as I have seen
thee in the sanctuary.' 9. So-As: with a negative and an adjective express
ing a comparison of quantity : as, Pompey
was not so great a man as Cæsar.' 10. so—THAT : expressing a consequence : as, 'He
was so fatigued, that he could scarcely move.' The conjunctions or and nor may often be used, with nearly equal propriety. "The king, whose character was not sufficiently vigorous nor decisive, assented to the measure.' In this sentence, or would perhaps have been better : but, in general, nor seems to repeat the negation in the former part of the sentence, and therefore gives more emphasis to the expression.
I Conjunctions are often improperly used, both singly and in pairs. The following are examples of this impropriety. "The relations are so uncertain, as that they require a great deal of examination :' it should be,
that they require,' &c. 'There was no man so sanguine, who did not apprehend some ill consequences :' it ought to be, 'So sanguine as not to apprehend,' &c. ; or, no man, how sanguine soever, who did not,' &c.
To trust in him, is no more but to acknowledge his power. “This is no other but the gate of paradise.' In both these instances, but should be than. We should sufficiently weigh the objects of our hope ; whether they are such as we may reasonably expect from them what they propose,' &c. It ought to he, that we may reasonably, &c. ?The duke had not behaved with that loyalty as he ought to have done;' with which he ought.' 'In the order as they lie in his preface :'it should be, 'in order as they lie ;' or, in the order in which they lie,'
There is a peculiar neatness in a sentence beginning with the conjunctive from a verb. "Were there no difference, there would be no choice.'
A double conjunctive, in two correspondent clauses of a sentence, is sometimes made use of; as, 'Had he done this, he had escaped :: Had the limitations on the prerogative been, in his time, quite fixed and certain, his integrity had made him regard as sacred, the boundaries of the constitution. The sentence in the common form would have read thus : If the limitations on the prerogative had been, &c. his integrity would have made him regard,' &c.
In regard that is solemn and antiquated; because would do much better in the following sentence. It cannot be otherwise, in regard that the French prosody differs from that of every other language.'
The word except is far preferable to other than. It admitted of no effectual cure other than amputation.' Except is also to be preferred to all but. "They were happy all but the stranger.'
In the two following phrases, the conjunction as is improperly omitted ; Which nobody presumes, or is so sanguine io hope. I must, however, be so just to own,'
The conjunction that is often properly omitted, and understood : as, 'I beg you would come to 'me ;' See thou do it not ;' instead of that you would,' that thou do. But in the following and many similar phrases this conjunction would be much better inserted : 'Yet it is reason the memory of their virtues remain to posterity.' It should be, yet it is just that the memory,
Exercises on Rule II. If he acquires riches, they will corrupt his mind, and be useless to others.
Though he urges me yet more earnestly, I shall not comply, unless he advances more forcible reasons.
I shall walk in the fields to-day, unless it rains.
As the governess was present, the children behaved properly.
She disapproves the measure, because it were very improper.