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"He is as good as her.' Whether I be present or no.' "Who did this ? Me.' By supplying the words understood in each of these phrases, their impropriety and governing rule will appear: as, ' Better than I can read ;' "As good as she is ;' Present or not present ;' I did it.'
By not attending to this rule, many errors have been committed : a number of which are subjoined, for further caution and direction. "Thou art a much greater loser than me by his death.' She suffers hourly more than me.' "We contributed a third more than the Dutch, who were obliged to the same proportion more than us.' King Charles, and more than him, the duke and the popish faction, were at liberty to form new schemes. The drift of all his sermons was, to prepare the Jews for the reception of a prophet mightier than him, and whose shoes he was not worthy to bear.' It was not the work of so eminent an author, as him to whom it was first imputed.' A stone is heavy, and the sand is weighty ; but a fool's wrath is heavier than them both.” “If the king give us leave, we may perform the office as well as them that do.' In these passages it ought to be, I, we, he, they, respectively.
Then the relative who immediately follows than, it must be in the objective case : as, ‘Alfred, than whom, a greater king never reigned,' &c. “Beelzebub, than whom, Satan excepted, none higher sat,' &c. It is remarkable that in such instances, if the personal pronoun were used, it would be in the nominative case : as,
A greater king never reigned than he,' that is, than hé was.' 'Beelzebub, than he,' &c.; that is, than he sat.' The phrase than whom, is, however, avoided by the best modern writers.
Exercises on Rule IV. In some respects, we have had as many advantages as them ; but in the article of a good library, they have had a greater privilege than us..
The undertaking was much better executed by his brother than he.
They are much greater gainers than me by this expected event.
They know how to write as well as him ; but he is a much better grammarian than them.
Though she is not so learned as him, she is as much beloved and respected.
These people, though they possess more shining qualities, are not so proud as him, nor so vain as her.
Who betrayed her companion ? Not me.
Who revealed the secrets he ought to have concealed ? Not him.
Who related falsehoods to screen hryself, and to bring an odium upon others ? not me; it was her. . There is but one in fault, and that is me.
Whether he will be learned or no, must depend on his application.
Charles XII. of Sweden, than who a more courageous person never lived, appears to have been desti. tute of the tender sensibilities of nature.
Salmasius (a more learned man than him has seldom appeared) was not happy at the close of life.
RULE V. All the parts of a sentence should correspond to each other; and a regular and dependent construction, throughout, should be observed.
The following sentence therefore is inaccurate ; ' He was more beloved, but not so much admired, as his brother.' It should be, 'He was more beloved than his brother, but not so much admired.'
The first example under this rule, presents a most irregular construction, namely, 'He was more beloved as his brother. The words more and so much, are very improperly stated as having the same regimen. In correcting such sentences, it is not necessary to supply the latter ellipsis of the corrected sentence, by saying, but not so much admired as his brother was ;' because the ellipsis cannot lead to any discordant or improper construction, and the supply would often be harsh or inelegant.
As this fifth Rule comprehends all the preceding rules, it may, at the first view, appear to be too general to be useful. But by ranging under it a number of sentences peculiarly constructed, we shall perceive,
that it is calculated to ascertain the true grammatical construction of many modes of expression, which none of the particular rules can sufficiently explain..
This dedication may serve for almost any book, that has, is, or shall be published.' It ought to be, that has been, or shall be published.'. He was guided by interests always different, sometimes contrary to, those of the community ;' different from ;'or, always different from those of the community, and sometimes contrary to them.' "Will it be urged that these books are as old, or even older than tradition ?" The words, -as old,' and older,' cannot have a common regimen ; it should be, as old as tradition, or even older.' It requires few talents to which most men are not born, or at least may not acquire ; 'or which, at least, they may not acquire.' "The court of chancery frequently mitigates and breaks the teeth of the common law. In this construction, the first verb is said to mitigate the teeth of the common law,' which is an evident solecism.
Mitigates the common law, and breaks the teeth of it, would have been grammatical.
They presently grow into good humor, and good language towards the crown ;' grow into good language,' is very improper. There is never wanting a set of evil instruments, who either out of mad zeal, private hatred, or filthy lucre, are always ready,' &c. We say properly, 'A man acts out of mad zeal,' or, Sout of private hatred,' but we cannot say, if we would speak English, he acts out of filthy lucre.' "To double her kindness and caresses of me :' the word kindness' requires to be followed by either to or for, and cannot be construed with the preposition of. Never was man so teased or suffered half the uneasiness, as I have done this evening : the first and third clauses, viz. "Never was man so teased, as I have done this evening,' cannot be joined without an impropriety; and to connect the second and third, the word that must be substituted for as ; ' Or suffered half the uneasiness that I have done ;' or else, "half so much uneasiness as I have suffered.'
The first part of the following sentence abounds with adverbs, and those such as are hardly consistent with one another: 'How much soever the reformation of this
degenerate age is almost utterly to be despaired of, we may yet have a more comfortable prospect of future times. The sentence would be more correct in the following form : “ Though the reformation of this degenerate age is nearly to be despaired of,' &c.
Oh ! shut not up my soul with the sinners, nor my life with the blood-thirsty ; in whose hands is wickedness, and their right hand is full of gifts. As the passage, introduced by the copulative conjunction and, was not intended as a continuation of the principal and independent part of the sentence, but of the dependent part, the relative whose should have been used instead of the possessive their ; viz. and whose right hand is full of
Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.' There seems to be an impropriety in this sentence, in which the same noun serves in a double capacity, performing at the same time the offices both of the nominative and objective cases. Neither hath it entered into the heart of man, to conceive the things,' &c. would have been regular.
We have the power of retaining, altering, and compounding those images which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and vision.' It is very proper to say, "altering and compounding those images which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and vision ;' but we can with no propriety say,
retaining them into all the varieties; and yet, according to the manner in which the words are ranged, this construction is unavoidable : for, retaining, altering, and compounding,' are participles, each of which equally refers to and governs the subsequent noun, those images ; and that noun again is necessarily connected with the following preposition, into. The construction might easily have been rectified, by disjoining the participle retaining from the other two participles, in this way : We have the power of retaining those images which we have once received, and of altering and compounding them into all the varieties of picture and vision; or, perhaps better thus : 'We have the power of retaining, altering, and compounding those images which we have once received, and of forming them into all the varieties of picture and vision.'
• Exercises on Rule V. Several alterations and additions have been made to the work.
The first proposal was essentially different, and inferior to the second.
He is more bold and active, but not so wise and studious as his companion.
Thou hearest the sound of the wind, but thou canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth.
Neither has he, nor any other persons, suspected so. much dissimulation.
The court of France or England, was to be the um.. pire.
In the reign of Henry II. all foreign commodities were plenty in England.
There is no talent so useful towards success in business, or which puts men more out of the reach of accidents, than that quality generally possessed by persons of cool temper, and is in common language called discretion.
The first project was to shorten discourse, by cutting polysyllables into one.
I shall do all I can to persuade others to take the same measures for their cure which I have.. . The greatest masters of critical learning differ among one another.
Micaiah said, 'If thou certainly return in peace, then hath not the Lord spoken by me.
I do not suppose, that we Britons want a genius, more than the rest of our neighbours.
The deaf man, whose ears were opened, and his tongue loosened, doubtless glorified the great physician.
Groves, fields, and meadows, are, at any season of the year, pleasant to look upon; but never so much as in the opening of the spring.
The multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace.
The intentions of some of these philosophers, nay,.of many, might and probably were good.