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Awfully, for badly, wickedly ; as, '"Her child behaved arafaty.'

Balance, for remainder; as, 'I have paid my part, and you must pay the balance.'

Be, for am, are, &c. as, "Be you going?' 'I be'

Breachy, for unruly. 'The oxen are breachy."1

Calculate, for intend. 'I calculate to go.'

Chirk, for comfortable ; as, ' She was sick yesterday, but is chirk to-day.'

Chore, for char, or small job

Chunk, Chunky, Chunked. Low, unauthorized words.

Clever, for honest ; as, 'He is not very intelligent, but very clever.'

Cleverly, for in good health ; as, ' How do you do?' Cleverly, I thank you.'

Composuist, for writer, composer.

To Conduct, in the sense of a neuter verb.

To Convene,'for to be convenient; as, ' The house does not convene us.'

Crock, Crocked, for black, blacked; smut, smutted.

Curiqus, for excellent ; as, ' This is curious cider.'

Drouth, for drought.

Expect, in the sense of believe, think, presume ; as, 'I expect there was a meeting;' 'I expect he went yesterday.' We expect things to come, not things past. - To Fall, for to fell ; as, ' You fall this tree, and I will fail that.'

Froughy, for rancid, fetid, &c.

Guardeen, for guardian.

Guess, for suppose, believe, think. We should never guess about things which we well know.

Had Rather, for should or would rather ; as, 'I had rather go.\ Had go is a singular combination.

Have Got, to express necessity ; as, ' I have got to do it,' for ' I must do it.'

Heft, for weight. 'What's the heft 1'

Heft, for lift ; as, 'Do heft this stone.'

Het, for heated. 'The iron was well het.

Housen, for houses;" as, 'How many housen are there in Worcester?'

Ing, a very common termination, pronounced In ; aa, Cunnin. comin, mornin, workin, &c.

[graphic]

Jag, for load. 'We got in four jags yesterday.'

Jest, for just. 'This is jest what I expected.'

Kedge, for comfortable. 'I have been very ill, but am kedge now.'

Lay, for lie ; as, 'I will lay down and rest me for an hour.'

Lengthy, for long. We might as properly say strengthy for strong.

Mad, for angry. Mad means disordered in mind, deranged.

Mighty, for very. 'The child has been mighty good.' 'It's mighty cold.'

Musical, for humorous, noisy ; as, 'John is a musical fellow.' %

Nary One, for neither.

Never So Much, for ever so much.

Nicely, for in good health ; as,' How does your mother?' 'JVtcely, I thank you.'

No, for not. 'You may believe me, or no.'

Noways, for nowise.

Otherways, for otherwise.

Had Ought, Hadn't Ought, Don't Ought, &c. for ought and ought not.

Peek, for peep ; and Peeking for peeping.

Perk, for brisk, lively. 'The child is very pert to-day.'

Poorly, for ill. 'I feel very poorly, I assure you.'

To Progress, for to make progress, to advance.

To Reckon, for suppose, believe, think. 'I reckon I shall be there.'

Sat, for set ; as,' He sat out on his journey yesterday.'

Sauce, for vegetables.

See, for saw. 'I see you do it.' 'I see you when you went out.'

Sich, for such.

Sight, for great number, or quantity. 'What a sight of men!'

Singular Number, for the plural. 'The stick is twenty foot long.' 'The pig weighs forty pound.7 'He owes two million of dollars.'

Span, for pair ; as, 'A span of horses.' Spell, for term, duration, &c . as, 'A bad spell of weather.' 's That 'are, for that ; as, ' What book is that 'are?' This 'ere, for this ; as, ' This 'ere is mine.' Them, for those ; as, ' See them pigeons.' 'Give me them books.'

Ugly, for ill tempered. Ugly is the opposite of handsome. A woman may be very ugly, and still very amiable. From Whence, for whence. The from, in this connexion, in superfluous.

Wilt, for wither. 'The flower willed and died.'

PROSODY.

- Prosody, the last part of Grammar, teaches the true pronunciation of words: comprising Accent, Quantity, Emphasis, Pause, and Tone; and the laws of VersificaTion.

Accent is the laying of a peculiar stress of the voice, on a certain letter or syllable in a word, that it may be better heard than the rest, or distinguished from them: as, in the word presume, the stress of the voice must be on the letter «, and second syllable, sume, which take the accent.

Every word in our language, of more than one syllable, has one of them distinguished from the rest in this manner : and some writers assert, that every monosyllable of two or more letters, has one of its letters thui distinguished.

. Accent is either principal or secondary. The principal accent is that which necessarily distinguishes one syllable in a word from the rest. The secondary accent is that stress, which we may occasionally place upon another syllable, besides that which has the principal accent, in order to pronounce every part of the word more distinctly, forcibly, and harmoniously.

Accent seems to be regulated, in a great measure, by etymology. In words from the Saxon, the accent it generally on the root: in words from the learned languages, it is generally on the termination ; and if t« these we add the different accent we lay on some words, to distinguish them from others, we seem to have the three great principles of accentuation; namely, the radical, the terminational, and the distinctive. The radical: as, ' Love, lovely, loveliness ;' the terminational: "as, 'Harmony, harmonious;' the distinctive : as, ' Convert, to convert.'

The Quantity of a syllable, is that time which is occupied in pronouncing it. It is considered as Long or

SHORT.

A vowel or syllable,. is long, when the accent is on the vowel ; which occasions it to be slowly joined in pronunciation with the following letters: as, 'Fall, bale, mood, house, feature.'

A syllable is short, when the accent is on the conso^ nant; which occasions the vowel to be quickly joined to the succeeding letter ; as, ' ant, bonnet, hunger.'

A long syllable generally requires double the time of a short one in pronouncing it: thus, 'Mate,' and ' Note' should be pronounced as slowly again as ' Mat' and 'Not.'

By Emphasis is meant a stronger and fuller sound of voice, by which we distinguish some word or words on which we design to lay particular stress, and to show how they affect the rest of the sentence. Sometimes the emphatic words must be distinguished by a particular tone of voice, as well as by a greater stress.

On the right management of the emphasis depends the life of pronunciation. If no emphasis be placed on any words, not only will discourse be rendered heavy and lifeless, but the meaning often left ambiguous.

If the emphasis be placed wrong, we shall pervert and confound the meaning wholly.

To give a common instance: such a simple question as this, 'Do you ride to town to-day ?' is capable of no fewer than four different acceptations, according as the •mphasis is differently placed on the words.

If it be pronounced thus: 'Do you ride to town to ^ay?' the answer may naturally be, 'No, we send a »»rvant in our stead.'

If thus : ' Do you ride to town to-day?'- answer, 'No, we intend to walk.'

'Do you ride to town to-day?' 'No, we ride into the country.'

'Do you ride to town to-day V 'No, but we shall to-morrow.'

In like manner, in solemn discourse, the whole force and beauty of an expression often depend on the em« phatic word; and we may present to the hearers quite different views of the sentiment, by placing the emphasis differently. In the following words of our Saviour, observe in what different lights the thought is placed, according as the words are pronounced.

'Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss ? * 'Betrayest thou,' makes the reproach turn on the infamy of treachery. 'Betrayest thou,' makes it rest upon Judas's connexion with his master. 'Betrayest thou the Son of won,' rests it upon our Saviour's personal character and eminence. 'Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss ?' turns it upon his prostituting the signal of peace and friendship, to the purpose of destruction. Emphasis is said by some to consist of two kinds, the simple, and the complex emphasis. Simple, when it serves to point out only the plain meaning of any proposition: complex, when, besides the meaning, it marks also some affection or emotion of the mind; or gives a meaning to words, which they would not have in their usual acceptation. In the former case, emphasis is scarcely more than a stronger accent, with little or no change of tone ;. when it is complex, besides force, there is always superadded a manifest change of tone.

Emphasis, besides its other offices, is the great regulator of quantity. Though the quantity of our syllables is fixed, in words separately pronounced, yet it is mutable, when these words are ranged in sentences ;•thc long being changed into short, the short into long, according to the importance of the words with regard to meaning : and as it is by emphasis only, that the meaning can be pointed out, emphasis must be the regulator of the quantity.

Emphasis changes, not only the quantity of words and syllables, but also, in particular cases, the seal of the ae

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