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A section, marked thus s, is the division of a discourse, or chapter, into less parts or portions.
A paragraph I denotes the beginning of a new subject, or a sentence not connected with the foregoing. This character is chiefly used in the Old and New Testaments.
A Quotation“". Two inverted commas are generally placed at the beginning of a phrase or a passage, which is quoted or transcribed from the speaker or author in his own words; and two apostrophes at the conclusion : as,
“ The proper study of mankind is man.” Crotchets or Brackets [ reserve to enclose a word or sentence, which is to be explained in a note, or the explanation itself, or a word or sentence which is intended to supply some deficiency, or to rectify some mistake.
An Index or hand C points out a remarkable passage, or something that requires particular attention.
A Brace is used in poetry at the end of a triplet or three lines which have the same rhyme.
Braces are also used to connect a number of words with one common term, and are introduced to prevent a repetition in writing or printing.
An Asterisk, or little star,* directs the reader to some note in the margin, or at the bottom of the page. Two or three asterisks generally denote the omission of some letters in a word, or of some bold or indelicate expression, or some defect in the manuscript:
An Ellipsis is also used, when some letters in a word, or some words in a verse, are omitted : as, “The k-g,' for 'the king.'
An Obelisk, which is marked thus f and Parallels thus ll, together with the letters of the Alphabet, and figures, are used as references to the margin, or bottom of the page.
DIRECTIONS FOR THE USE OF CAPITAL LETTERS. It was formerly the custom to begin every noun with a capital : but as this practice was troublesome, and gave the writing or printing a crowded and confused appearance, it has been discontinued. It is, however, very proper to begin with a capital,
1. The first word of every book, chapter, letter, note, or any other piece of writing:
2. The first word after a period; and, if the two sentences are totally independent, after a note of interrogation or exclamation.
But if a number of interrogative or exclamatory seniences are thrown into one general group; or if the construction of the latter sentences depends on the former, all of them, except the first, may begin with a small letter : as, 'How long, ye simple ones, will ye love simplicity? and the scorners delight in their scorning ? and fools hate knowledge ?' 'Alas! how different ! yet how like the same !'
3. The appellations of the Deity : as, 'God, Jehovah, the Almighty, the Supreme Being, the Lord, Providence, the Messiah, the Holy Spirit'
4. Proper names of persons, places, streets, mountains, rivers, ships : as, "George, York, the Strand, the Alps, the Thames, the Seahorse.'
5. Adjectives derived from the proper names of places : as, 'Grecian, Roman, English, French, and Italian.'
6. The first word of a quotation, introduced after a colon, or when it is in a direct form : as, “ Always remember this ancient maxim : Know thyself.'" "Our great lawgiver says, "Take up thy cross daily, and follow me." But when a quotation is brought in obliquely af
ter a comma, a capital is unnecessary : as, “Solomon observes, that pride goes before destruction.'»
The first word of an example may also very properly begin with a capital : as, «Temptation proves our virtue.'
7. Every substantive and principal word in the titles of books : as, Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language ;' Thomson's Seasons ;' Rollin's Ancient
8. The first word of every line in poetry.
9. The pronoun I, and the interjection 0, are written in capitals : as, 'I write :' Hear, 0 earth!'
Other words, besides the preceding, may begin with capitals, when they are remarkably emphatical, or the principal subject of the composition.
Lyman Thurston & Co.
Lesson I. Orthography