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QUESTIONS.

What is an adjective?—What variation does the adjective admit?—How many degrees of comparison have adjectives, and what are they f—What does the positive state express 2–What is said of the comparative degree ?—What of the superlative?—In adjectives of one syllable, how is the comparative and the superlative degree formed F-How are they formed, when the positive consists of more than one syllable?—How may you determine whether a word is an adjective?— When is the adjective used as a noun?

ILLUSTRATION.

“The day was fair, and windy, and cold.” Which are the adjectives in this sentence 2 —What is their degree of comparison 2–Of what noun do they express the quality ?

“A greater, wiser, and better man than Washington, we have never seen. He was the bravest commander, the most profound statesman, and the most disinterested citizen, which our country has ever produced.”—How many adjectives are there in these two sentences PWhich are they P-Which of them are comparatives, and which superlatives?

“God loves the virtuous and the good.”— Which are the adjectives in this sentence PHow are these adjectives used 2–What is the comparative and superlative degree, in each of the following adjectives; tall, short, high, low, white, black, good, bad, ugly, lovely, ex

[graphic]

travagant?

REVIEW.

Adjectives expressing the different numbers are catted numeral adjectives. These are either cardinal or ordinal. The cardinal are one, two, three, &c. the ordinal, first, second,.third, he.

If we consider the subject of comparison attentively, we shall perceive that the degrees of it are infinite, or at least indefinite. A mountain is larger than a mite;— by how many degrees? How much bigger is the earth than a grain of sand? By how many degrees was Socrates wiser than Alcibiades? Or by how many is snow whiter' than paper ?—It is plain that to these, and to many similar questions, np definite answers can be returned. It is not possible to accommodate our speech to the numberless gradations which exist; nor would it be convenient, if it were possible.

The termination ish may be accounted in some sort a degree of comparison, by which the signification is diminished below the positive; as black, blackish; salt, saltish.

The word rather is very properly used to express a small^degree or excess of a quality; as "She is rather profuse in her expenses."

Dissyllables are sometimes compared without the help of more and most, &c.; as, happier, happiest; abler, ablest. But words of more than two syllables hardly ever admit of these terminations.

In some words, the superlative is formed by adding most to the end of them; as, nethermost, utmost, undermost, uppermost, foremost.

There are some words in common use of very irregular comparison; as, good, better, best; bad, worse, worst; little, less, least; much or many,.more, most,&c.

Various nouns placed before other nouns assume the nature of adjectives; as, sea fowl, wine vessel, corn field, meadow grpund, fee.

The minuter degrees of comparison, which we nave said are infinite, may be expressed intelligibly, if not accurately, by the help of adverbs; as, " Virtue is greatly preferable to riches;" " Socrates was much wiser than Alcibiades." " Snow is vastly whiter than paper." " The tide is considerably higher to day, than it was yesterday." " God is infinitely greater than all his creatures."

When the words very, exceedingly, &c. arc put before the positive, it has been called the superlative of eminence, "to distinguish it from the other, which is called the superlative of comparison; thus very eloquent is the superlative of eminence; but most eloquent is the superlative of comparison.

Numeral adjectives, and such as denote the figure of bodies, admit of no comparison; as " The two hundredth year, a circular table, a quadrangular court, a conical piece of metal." The same holds true in all attributives denoting definite qualities, of whatever nature; as, present, mortal, right, universal, supreme, 8tc.

Questions on the Review.

What are numeral adjectives ?—How are these divided ?—What is said of the termination ish '!—Are nouns «ver used as adjectives ?—When ?—How are the minuter shades of comparison expressed ?—What has been called the superlative of eminence ?—What adjectives admit of no degrees of comparison?

v/*' LESSON VIII.

A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun, to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same word. There are three kinds of pronouns, the personal, the relative, and the adjective.—The Personal Pronouns are five, viz. /, thou., he, site, k; with their plurals, we, ye or you, they. Personal pronouns admit of number, person, gender, and case. They are of two numbers, the singular, and the plural; and of three persons, in each of these numbers. Gender has respect only to the third person singular of the personal pronouns as, he, she, it. These pronouns have three cases; the nominative, the possessive, and the objective.

The personal pronouns are thus declined:

[table]

Some of the pronouns are often prefixed to the word self, in which case they form what are denominated compound personal pronouns; as, myself, thyself, himself, herself, itself; ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

QUESTIONS.

What is a pronoun ?—How many kinds of pronouns are there ?—How many personal pronouns ?—Of what do personal pronouns admit ?—Of how many numbers and persons are they ?—What is said of the gender of

persona, pronouns ?—How many cases have they ?—Please to decline the personal pronouns, beginning with the first person singular ?—What are compound personal pronouns?

ILLUSTRATION.

"He went to work; she went to meeting; and brother and 1 went to play.'''—Which are the personal pronouns in this sentence ?—In what number, person, and case, is each of them?

"The enemy pursued us; the fire burnt her; and the sword destroyed them.''''—Which are the personal pronouns in this sentence; and what is the number, person, and case of each?

"The purse was once mine; then it loas yours; but now it is his."—You will point out the personal pronouns in this sentence; with the number, person, and case of each.— You will please now to tell me the number, person, and case of each of the following pronouns: they, ye, mine, him, theirs, us, its, his.

; "--'- -J '-:'". r ."y -'*': REVIEW.

The Pronoun not only stands in place of a noun, but represents often a sentence, a part of a sentence, or even a series of propositions; as " She bore his abuse very patiently, which served to increase his rudeness. It produced, at length, contempt and insolence."

Person, in grammar, is that property of a noun or pronoun, which shows us whether it denotes the person speaking, the person sioken to, or the one that is spoken of.

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