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Who and which have sometimes the words ever and soerer annexed to them; as, whoever, whichever; whosoerer, whichsoever.
The relative pronoun, when used interrogatively relates to a word or phrase which is not antecedent but subsequent to the relative; as “ who is this ? John.” Here John is the noun to which the relative or interrogative who refers.
Whether was formerly made use of to signify interrogation: as, “ Whether of these shall I choose?” but it is now seldom used, the interrogative which being substituted for it. Some grammarians think that the use of it should be revived, as, like either and neither it points to the dual number, and would contribute to render our expressions concise and definite.
Some writers have classed the interrogatives as a separate kind of pronouns: but they are too nearly related to the relative pronouns, both in nature and form, to render such a division proper. They do not, in fact, lose the character of relatives, when they become interrogatives. The only difference is, that without an interrogation, the relatives have reference to a subject which is antecedent, definite, and known; with an interrogation, to a subject which is subsequent, indefinite and unknown, and which it is expected that the answer should express and ascertain.
His may be either a possessive adjective pronoun, or . a personal pronoun in the possessive case. If the fornier, it is usually placed before the noun to which it bu longs; as “his hat, his book;" but if the latter, it follow , the noun by which it is governed; as “this hat is his.
The words own and self are used in conjunction wit) possessive adjective pronouns. Own is joined to pos sessives in both the singular and plural number, and renders the expression emphatical; as, “ I live in my own house. She has her own friends."-Self, joined to possessive adjective pronouns, converts them into compound personal pronouns; as, “I went after him myself. You yourselves know I did."
Possessive adjective pronouns admit of no variation, whatever may be the number or case of the nouns to which they belong.
Each relates to two or more persons or things, and signifies either of the two, or every one of any number, taken separately.
Every relates to several persons or things, and signifies each one of them all, taken separately.
Either relates to two persons or things, taken separately, and signifies the one, or the other.
Neither imports the same as not either.'
When this and that are used in a way of comparison, correspondence, or contrast, this refers to the nearest person or thing, and that to the most distant; as, “ This man is more intelligent than that.” Or this indicates the latter of two things mentioned, and that the former; as, " Both wealth and poverty are temptations; that tends to excite pride, this discontent."
Of the indefinite adjective pronouns, one and other have a possessive case, which they form in the same way as nouns; as, one, one's; other, other's.
Another is composed of an and other, and is used accordingly.
None, though composed of not and one, is now used in both flumbers. It is always used as a noun; as, “None of them remain alive. You ask for bread, but there is
Questions on the Review. Why is that used as a relative ?-Do relative and personal pronouns agree, to the same extent, with their antecedents ?--To what does the relative pronoun relate, when used interrogatively?-When is his a possessive adjective pronoun?-When is it a personal pronoun in the possessive case?-When self is added to possessive adjective pronouns, what do they become?-Do possessive adjective pronouns admit of any variation?Which of the indefinite adjective pronouns form the possessive case like nouns? How is none used?-
« Jesus saith unto Peter, Simon, lovest thou me more than these?”—Which are the nouns in this sentence ?--Are they proper, or common ?-In what person, number, gender, and case, is each ?-What personal pronouns are there ?—What is the person, number, and case, . of each?- Is there an adjective pronoun in the sentence ?_ To which class does it belong ?
« The man and the woman passed by, with a little dog."—Which are the articles in this sentence ?—Which are the nouns ?-Are they common or proper ?-What is the person, number, gender, and case, of each ?- Is there an adjective in the sentence ?— To what noun does it belong ?
6 Yesterday was the coldest, darkest, and most dreary day, I ever saw.”_Which are the adjectives in this sentence? What is their degree of comparison ?- To what noun do they belong ?- Is there a personal pronoun in the sentence ?- What is its person, number, and case ?
“ I am he who did this thing. It is what I wished to do. It is my work. Such a thing was never done before. There are ten pronouns in these sentences; which are they?Which of them are personal ?- Which relative ?-Which adjective ?--What is the person, number, gender, and case, of each of the personal pronouns? Is there a compound
number, cenfectiveR_W-Which rei
relative in the sentences ? - To which class do the adjective pronouns respectively belong ?Which are the nouns ?—What is the number, person, and case, of each ?
66 Who is this that cometh ? He is whiter and fairer than all the children of men." What kind of pronoun is. who ?- There is a relative pronoun in the sentences; which is it? -Which are the adjective pronouns; and of what kind ?- There is a personal pronoun; what is its person, number, gender, and case ? -What adjectives are there in the sentences ? -What is their degree of comparison ?-To what do they belong ? There are two nouns ; what is their person, number, and case ?
A general Application of the preceding Reviews. “ He is an hardhearted man. The figure is called an hyperbole."-Why is an used before an h not silent, in these sentences ?
“ He is a useful man. We have such a usage." Why is a used before a vowel in these sentences What kind of nouns are the following; army, people, com gregation, &c. ?
« She is a good instructer, but her mother was a great sloven."-What improprieties in this sentence?
“ The cherubs were ten cubits high. Thou shalt make two cherubims of gold.”-What improprieties in these sentences?
“ He is the foremost mar among them.”-In what degree of comparison is foremost?
He keeps a day school and a singing school." What part of speech is day?
This is the squarest table of the four."-What impropriety in this sentence?
"He himself is gone. They must themselves suffer." -In what case are the pronouns himself and thenselves?
« Whose book is this? Charles's.”—To what does the interrogative whose refer?
“ I have not either of the many things for which you ask.” -What impropriety in this sentence?
LESSON XI. A VERB is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer; as, “ I am, I rule, I am ruled.” -Verbs are of three kinds, active, passive, and neuter. They are also divided into regular, irregular, and defective.—A verb active or transitive expresses action, and necessarily implies an agent, and an object acted upon ; as, to love ; "I love my brother.”—A verb passive expresses the suffering or receiving of an action, and necessarily implies an object acted upon, and an agent hy whom it is acted upon; as, to be loved; “My brother is loved by me.”—A verb neuter or intransitive, does not express action which terminates on any object, or passion, but commonly being, or a state of being; as, “ I am ; I sleep; I sit.”— The verb active may be distinguished from the neuter, by placing the noun thing after it. If the expression makes good sense, the verb is active; as, to love a thing; to hate a thing; to do a thing, &c.-The neuter verb, to be, is an exception to this remark.-The passive verb may always be known, by its having the verb be, or some one derived from it, joined with the perfect participle of an active verb; as, “I am ruled;" “It was done.” Hence,