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ILLUSTRATION..

"She loves me, though I am not fair.'''' "He sits and rules the world in wisdom."—How many verbs are there in these sentences?— Which of them are active, arid which neuter? —Which are regular, and which irregular?

"It shall be done as you have directed me." Here are two verbs; whieh is passive, and which active ?—Which is regular, and which irregular ?—What helping verbs are there in the sentence?

"Having taught the people, he departed, expressing much affection for them."—Which are the participles in this sentence; and of which class is each ?—There is a verb here; is it regular, or irregular; active, passive, or neuter ?—You will please to answer me the same question, respecting each of the following verbs: govern, afflict, send, sleep, stand, am troubled, am disturbed.

REVIEW.

The verb active is also called transitive, because the action passes over to an object, or has an effect upon some other thing; as, " The tutor instructs his pupils; J esteem the num."

The verb neuter is called intransitive, because the effect is confined within the subject, and does not pass over to any object; as, "Isit, he sleeps, they live."

Some neuter verbs express action, but not action which terminates on any object; as, to run, to walk, to fly. They are therefore intransitive, and may easily be distinguished from the proper active verb. Other neuter verbs are more clearly expressive of a middle state between action and passion; as, to stand, to lie, to sleep.

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May and might express the possibility or liberty of doing a thing; can and could, the power; as, " he may read, he can turtle."

Must denotes necessity; as," we must speak the truth."

Will, in the first person, intimates a resolution or promise; in the second and third, it foretells; as, "I will go; we will remember." "They will be sorry; he will return."

Shall, on the contrary, foretells in the first person; and promises, commands, or threatens, in the second and third; as, " I shall go abroad; we shall dine at home." "They shall inherit the land; you shall be punished for your wickedness."—These observations, respecting the import of will and shall, will not apply to interrogative sentences—in which just the reverse most commonly takes place; as, " I shall go. Shall I go'?" &c.

Would primarily denotes inclination of will; and should, obligation; but they both vary their import, and are often used to express simple events.

Were is frequently used for would be, and had for would have—in which case they are properly in the potential mode; as, "Amusements youth require; it were vain, it were cruel to prohibit them."

The participle partakes of the nature of the verb, because it expresses action, as the verb does; and of the nature of the adjective, because it frequently belongs to some noun, and is used as an adjective.

The participle never varies its termination, but is spelled in the same manner, in whatever number or case the noun may be, to which it belongs.

The participle is distinguished from the adjective, as the former expresses the idea of time, and the latter denotes only a quality. The phrases, " loving to give, as well as to receive, " " moving in haste," " heated with liquor," contain participles giving the idea of time; but in the expressions, " a forcing- child," " a moving spectacle," " a heated imagination," the epithets mark simply the qualities referred to, without any regard to time, and are properly adjectives

Participles not only convey the notion of time, but signify action, being, or passion, and may have the same case after them, whether nominative or objective, as their verbs do from which they are derived. Indeed they are, in one sense, but a mere mode or form of the verb.

Participles sometimes perform the office of nouns, and are used as such; as, " He made a good beginning; he has a good understanding; this is excellent writing; the chancellor's being attached to the king secured hi* crown."

Questions on the Review.

Why is the verb active called transitive ?—Why is the verb neuter called intransitive?—Are there not some neuter verbs which express action?—Why then are they not active verbs?—Are any active verbs used in a neuter signification?—Does the neuter verb ever assume a passive form?—Which are the principal defective verbs? —Which of the auxiliaries are used as principal verbs? —How does the participle partake of the nature of the verb ?—How of the nature of the adjective ?—Does the participle vary its termination ?—How is the participle distinguished from the adjective?—Do participles ever perform the office of nouns?—

LESSON XII

To verbs belong number, person, mode, and tense. They have two numbers, the singular, and the plural, in each of which there are three persons.Mode is a particular form of the verb, showing the manner in which the being, action, or passion is represented. There are five modes; the indicative, the imperative, the potential, the subjunctive, and the infinitive.—The indicative mode - simply indicates or declares a thing or asks a question ; as, "He loves; he is loved; is he loved?" The imperalive mode is used for commanding, exhorting, entreating, permitting, &c.; as, "Depart thou; mind ye."The potential mode implies possibility, liberty, power, will, or obligation; as, "It may rain; I can ride."—The subjunctive mode represents an action as under some condition, supposition, or contingency, and is preceded by a conjunction expressing the same; -as, "IfI love ; though he write."—The infinitive mode expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, and without any distinction of number and person; as, " To love; to write". Tense is made to consist of six variations, viz. the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, and the first and second future tenses.—The present tense represents an action or event, as passing at the time in which it is mentioned; as, "/ rule; I am ruled.''7— The imperfect tense represents an action or event, either as past and finished, or as remaining unfinished, at a certain time past; as, "/ loved her; I was writing ichen he came."— The perfect tense not only expresses an event as past, but also conveys an allusion to the present tense; as, li I have finished my letter." —The pluperfect tense represents a thing, not only as past, but as having past prior to some other point of time specified in the sentence; as, u I had finished writing before he arrived." The first future tense represents the action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time; as, "Ishall live; ye will see."—The second future intimates that th«

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