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tive mode is used for commanding, exhorting, entreating, permitting, &c.; as, “ Depart thou ; mind ye.”—The potential mode implies possibility, liberty, power, will, or obligation; as, 6. It may rain; I can ride.”—The subjunctive mode represents an action as under some condition, supposition, or contingency, and is preceded by a conjunction expressing the same; as, “ If I love ; though he write.”—The infinitive mode expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, and without any distinction of number and person; as, “ To love; to write."
TENSE is made to consist of six variations, viz, the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, and the first and second future tenses. The present tense represents an action or event, as passing at the time in which it is mentioned; as, “I rule; I am ruled.”The imperfect tense represents an action or event, either as past and finished, or as remaining unfinished, at a certain time past; as, “I loved her; I was writing when he came."The perfect tense not only expresses an event as past, but also conveys an allusion to the present tense; as, “I have finished my letter."
–The pluperfect tense represents a thing, not only as past, but as having past prior to some other point of time specified in the sentence; as, “ I had finished writing before he arrived." -The first future tense represents the action as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time; as, “I shall live; ye will see." - The second future intimates that the
action will be fully accomplished, at or before the time of another future action or event; as, “I shall have dined at one o'clock."
QUESTIONS. What belong to verbs ?-How many numbers and persons have they ?-What is mode? -How many modes have verbs, and what are they? - What is said of the indicative mode ? -For what is the imperative mode used ?-What does the potential mode imply?
-How does the subjunctive mode represent an action ? - What is said of the infinitive mode ?-How many variations of tense are there, and what are they ?-How does the present tense represent an action ?-How does the imperfect?--How the perfect ?--How does the pluperfect? -How does the first future ? - What is said of the second future ?
REVIEW. Mode may be defined to consist in the changes which the verb undergoes, to signify the various intentions of the mind, and the various modifications and circumstances of action.
Though the imperative mode derives its name from its intimation of command, it is used on occasions of a very opposite nature, even in the humblest supplications; as, « Give us this day, our daily bread.”
It has been questioned whether the potential mode differs materially from the indicative. But as the indicative mode simply indicates or declares a thing, it is manifest that the potential, which modifies the declaration, and introduces an idea quite distinct from it, must be sufficiently different, to warrant a corresponding distinction of mode.
The subjunctive mode may be signified by any conjunction expressing a condition, doubt, supposition, &c. such as, if, though, alihough, whether, lest, unless, &c. .
The subjunctive mode is always attended by another voihi, expressed or understood, and consequently is never used in a strictly simple sentence. "
As the indicalive mode is changed into the subjunctive, by prefixing a conjunction expressing a condition, doubt, supposition, &c. so the potential mode may in like manner be turned into the subjunctive; as, “If I could learn; though he should increase in wealth.”
The infinitive mode is distinguished from all others, by its admitting no nominative before it. A verb, in any mode, except the infinitive, is called a finite verb, because it is limited, by its nominative, in regard to its number and person. A simple sentence is one which contains but one nominative, and one finite verb. It may contain another verb in the infinitive mode, and still be a simple sentence; as, “I wish to speak,” &c.
The present tense, preceded by the words when, before, after, as soon as, &c, is sometimes used to point out the relative time of a future action; as, “ When he arrives, he will hear the news.” Or “He will hear the news before he arrives, or as soon as he arrives, or soon after he arrives.”
We sometimes use this tense, in speaking of persons long since dead; as, “ Seneca reasons well; Job speaks feel. ingly.” In animated historical narration, the present is often substituted for the imperfect tense; as, “ He enters the field of conflict; he fights and conquers."
In this tense, we usually express continued action; as, “He rides out frequently; he goes into the country every summer; I am building me a house."
The imperfect and perfect tenses both denote a thing that is past; but the perfect denotes it in such a manner that there is still actually reinaining some part of the time to slide away, wherein we declare the thing has been done; whereas the imperfect denotes the thing or action past in such a manner, that nothing remains of that time in which it was done. Thus, speaking of the present century, we say, “ Philosophers have made great discov. eries in the present century;" but, speaking of the last
century, we say, “ Philosophers made great discoveries in the last century." "He has been much afflicted this year; he was much afflicted last year.” “He has been here to-day; he was here yesterday.”
in general, the perfect tense may be used, wherever the action is connected with the present tense, by the actual existence either of the author or of the work, though it may have been performed many centuries ago; but if neither the author nor the work remains, it cannot properly be used. Thus we may say, “Cicero has written beautiful orations,” because his orations remain; but we cannot so properly say, “Cicero' has written poems," because his poetry is lost. We may properly say, “con querors have been cruel,” because conquerors still exist; but we cannot say, “ Alexander has been cruel,” because Alexander no longer lives.
The perfect tense, like the present, if preceded by the words, when, after, as soon as, &c. is often used to denote the relative time of a future action; as, “I will attend to his business when I have finished my letter," or " as soon as I have finished my letter."
It ought to be observed, in addition to the remarks here made on the tenses, that some of the modes often carry with them somewhat of a future tense or meaning. This is perhaps always the case with the imperative mode. Love thou, do this-referring necessarily to an action, not done, or doing, but to be done. This is also the case with the infinitive mode, present tense. “I am to be there; she chooses to come to-morrow.” The same also may be said of the subjunctive mode, “If he come, he will see me.”
We may farther observe, that the auxiliaries should and would, in the imperfect tense, are used to express a present and future meaning, as well as a past. "It is my desire that he should come to-morrow.”—It follows from these remarks that the real time of the verb is not always to be determined by the form of it, so much as by the nature and drift of the sentence.
In employing the different tenses, the two following things ought to be chiefly regarded, viz. the relation which the several tenses have to one another, in respect of time, and the notice which they give of an action's being completed or not completed.
Questions on the Review.. How may mode be defined ?-Does the imperative mode always give a command ?-What are the conjunctions which denote the subjunctive mode? --Is the subjunctive mode ever used in a simple sentence?-Can the potential mode be changed into the subjunctive?--How is the infinitive mode distinguished from all others? What is called a finite verb?-How are the imperfect and perfect tenses distinguished ?-Do any of the modes ever carry with them a future meaning ?-In employing the different tenses, what is chiefly to be regarded?
LESSON XIII. The conjugation of a verb is the regular combination and arrangement of its several numbers, persons, modes, and tenses.
The auxiliary and active verb to have, is conjugated in the following manner:
1 We have
2 Ye or you havo
1 We had 2 Thon hadst
2 Ye or you had 8 He, &c. had
3 They had
1.We have had 2 Thou hast had
2 Ye or you have had 3 Ho bas bund
3 Tbey have had .