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distinguish the pluperfect tense from the perfect?-How the second future from the future ?-In the potential mode, how do you distinguish the perfect tense from the present? -How the pluperfect from the imperfect ? By what helping verbs in the conjugation, do you distinguish the potential mode from the indicative ?-By what means do you distinguish the subjunctive from both ? -- What are the participles from the verb love?

REVIEW. When particular energy and positiveness are intended, verbs may be conjugated, in the present and imperfect tenses, with the helping verb do; as, I do love, thou dost love, he does love; I did love, thou didst love, he did love, &c.

The imperfect tense and perfect participle of all regular verbs, and of many irregular verbs, are spelled alike. They may be distinguished by this--the imperfect tense always has a nominative, the participle never. Also the word being may commonly be placed before the perfect participle, and make sense, but never before the verb.

When an auxiliary is joined to the participle of the principal verb, the auxiliary goes through all the variations of person and number, while the participle itself continues invariably the same. And when there are two or more auxiliaries joined to the participle, the first of them only is varied according to number and person

LESSON XVI. A PASSIVE VERB is conjugated, by prefixing the auxiliary to be, to the perfect participle, through all its changes of number, person, mode, and tense.

The verb love, in its passive form, is conjugated as follows:

se.

Indicative Mode.

. Present Tense... Singular

Plural 1 I am loved

1 We are loved . 2 Thou art loved

2 Ye or you are loved 3 He is loved

3 They are loved
Inperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I was loved

1 We were loved 2 'Thou wast loved

2 Ye or you were loved 3 He was loved

3 They were loved
Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I have been loved

1 We have been loved - 2 Thou hast been loved

2 Ye or you have been lorod 3 He hath or has been loved 3 They have been loved

Pluperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I had been loved

i We had been loved 2 Thou hadst been loved 2 Ye or you had been loved 3 He had been loved

3 They had been loved
First Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. .. i I shall or will be loved i We shall or will be loved 2 Thou shalt or wilt be loved 2 Ye or you shall or will be

loved 3 He shall or will be loved 3 They shall or will be loved

Second Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I shall have been loved i We shall have been loved 2 Thou wilt have been loved 2 Ye or you will have been loved 3 He will have been loved 3 They will have been loved

Imperative Mode.
Singular.

Plural. 2 Be thou loved, or do thou 2 Be ye or you loved, or do be loved

"ye be loved

Potential Mode.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 I may or can be loved i We may or can be loved 2 Thou mayst or canst be lov- 2 Ye or you may or can be ed

loved 3 He may or can be loved 3 They may or can be loved

Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. il might, could, would, or 1 We might, could, would, or should be loved

should be loved 2 Thou mightst, couldst, wouldst, 2 Ye or you might, could, or shouldst be loved

would, or should be loved 3 He might, could, would, or 3 They might, could, would, should be loved

or should be loved
Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. i I may or can have been lov- 1 We may or can have been ed

loved 2 Thou mayst or canst have 2 Ye or you may or can have been loved

been loved ; He may or can have been 3 They may or can have beon loyed

loved . : Pluperfect Tense. Singular.

Plural. Il might, could, would, or 1 We might, could, would, or

should have been loved should have been loved 2 Thou mightst, couldst, 2 Yo, or you might, could, • wouldst, or shouldst have would, or should have been loved

been loved 3 He might, could, would, or 3 They might, could, would, or should have been loved

should have been loved

Subjunctive Mode.

Present Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I be loved

1 If we be loved 2 If thou be loved

2 If yo or you be lovod $ If he be loved

8 If they be loved
Imperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural... ..! 1 If I were lovod

1 If we were loved 2 If thou wert loved

2 If ye or you were loved 3 If he were loved o g If they were loved

tense,

Perfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I have been loved

1 If we have been loved 2 If thou hast been loved 2 If ye or you have been loved 3 If he hath or has been loved 3 If they have been loved

Pluperfect Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I had been loved

1 If we had been loved 2 If thou hadst been loved 2 If ye or you had been loved 3 If he had been loved

3 If they had been loved
First Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. I II shall or will be loved i If we shall or will be loved 2 If thou shalt or wilt be loved 2 If ye or you shall or will be

loved 3 If he shall or will be loved 3 If they shall or will be loved

Second Future Tense.
Singular.

Plural. 1 If I shall have been loved If we shall have been loved 2 If thou shalt have been loved 2 If ye or you shall have been Ś If he shall have been loved 3 If they shall have been loved

Infinitive Mode. Present Tense, To be loved Perfeet, 'To have been loved

Participles. Present, Being loved. . Perfect or Passive, Loved.

Compound Perfect, Having been loved. Nearly all the verbs in the English language, in both the active and passive forms, are conjugated in the same manner as the verb love.

loved

QUESTIONS. How is a passive verb conjugated ?---You may conjugate the verb love, in its passive form, beginning with the indicative mode, present tense, first person singular.-In what

mode, tense, number, and person, do you find each of the following expressions, from this form of the verb: We were loved; He hus been lovei ; They had been loved ; You will be loved, Be ye loved; I may be loved ; Thou shouldst be loved; He can have been loved ; You might have been loved ; Though I were loved ?--How many tenses are there in the potential mode --How many in the infinitive ?--What is the present passive participle from love ? ---What is the compound perfect ? --How are nearly all the verbs in our language conjugated?

.. REVIEW The passive verb is distinguished from the active, not only by its taking the auxiliary to be, through all its changes of number, person, mode, and tense, but by its particular influence upon its nominative. The nominatives to verbs may be divided into three classes, viz. those which produce the action expressed by the verb; those which receive the action expressed by the verb; and those which neither produce any action, nor receive any, but are the subjects of the verbs, which simply express the eristence of these subjects, or their state of existence. The first class of these nominatives belong to active verbs; the second to passive verbs; and the third to neuter verbs. The following examples will make the subject plain: “John loves his brother; John is loved by his brother.” In the first of these instances, the nominative, John, produces the action expressed by the verb love; i. e. John loves. But in the second, the nominative, John, receives the action expressed by the verb love; i. e. John is loved. And so of every other properly passive verb: The nominative receives or suffers the action, which the verb expresses.

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