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has superior advantages, particularly on the score of arrangement—and is, on the whole, better adapted for the use of schools.
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Much is said in some parts of our country on the propriety of discarding Murray's system entirely, and of adopting what are regarded as more philosophical views. But after considerable reflection on the subject, the writer is satisfied that nothing would be gained, but much lost, by such a procedure. Indeed he is satisfied that what are thought by some to be more philosophical views are not so in reality. We accord due praise to the celebrated Home Tooke for tracing the derivation of many of our small words; but the more interesting question, after all, is, not what were these words originally?—but what are they now? If, and, and but may have been originally verbs in the imperative mode; but this does not prove that they are such now. They are osed, at present, as connective particles, and the name *onjunctum is very fitly applied to them. A or an may be derived from one; and the may come from that or these; but these particles are now used in connexions where the adjective pronouns cannot be substituted for them with any tolerable sense or propriety, and consequently •hould be regarded as distinct parts of speech.
The writer has no difficulty with those who have means and leisure, and are disposed to amuse themselves with investigating the roots of English words; but they, who urge the results of such investigations to •verturn the established principles of our language, allowing but two or three parts of speech; making oo distinction between active, neuter, and passive verbs; admitting only three modes and tenses; with other innovàtions equally unfounded and ridiculous; and whe would bring all this into common schools, under the imposing title of scientific and philosophical grammar;-such persons, he honestly thinks, might be better em
ployed. It is obviously a much more useful exercise,
to take the principles of our language, as taught by the
best masters, and approved by standard English writers, and endeavour to simplify them, arrange them in che most natural order, and make them plain to the capacities of learners, than to raise new theories, however specious, and however captivating to the lovers ef novelty, *...**** , , ...--- - *** - ...
English Grammar is the art of speaking and writing the English language with propriety. ...
It is divided into four parts, viz. OrthogRaphy, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody.
Orthography teaches tire nature and power of letters, and the just method of spelling words.
A letter is the first principle, or least part of a word.
The letters of the English language, called the English Alphabet, are twenty-six in number.
Theee letters are the representatives of certain articulate sounds, formed by the organs of speech, and are divided into vowels and consonants.
A vowel is an^articulate sound, that can be perfectly uttered by itself; as, a, e, o, which are formed without the help of any other sound.
A consonant is an articulate sound, which cannot be perfectly uttered without the help of a vowel; as, b, d,f, I, which require vowels to express them fully.
The vowels are, a, e, i, o, it, and sometimes »e, and y.
W and y, are consonants when they begin a word or syllable; but in every other situation they are vowels
Consonants are divided into mutes and semi-vowels
The mutes cannot be sounded at ali, without the aid of a vowel. They are I, p, t, d, kt and e, and g-, hard.
The semi-vowels have an imperfect sound of themselves. They are /, I, m, n, r, v, s, z, x, and c, and g, soft.
Four of the semi-vowels, I, m, n, r, are called liquids, from their readily uniting with other consonants, and flowing, as it were, into their sounds.
A diphthong is the union of two vowels, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice; as, ea in beat, ou in sound.
A triphthong is the union of three vowels, pronounced in like manner; as, eau in beau, tew in view.
A proper diphthong is that in which both the vowels are sounded; as, oi in voice, on in ounce.
An improper diphthong has but one of the vowels sounded; as, ea in eagle, oa in boat.
What is English Grammar ?—Into how many parts is it divided ?—What does Orthography teach ?—
Questions on the Review. What is a letter?—How are the letters divided?— What is a vowel?—What is a consonant?—When ar« in and y consonants?—How are the consonants divided?—Which are the mutes?—Which of the semi-vowels are called liquids?—What is a diphthong?—What is a triphthong?—What is the difference between a proper and an improper diphthong?—Is there a diphthong or triphthong in the word heaven'!—Is it proper or improper?—How many vowels in the word wonder!—Is ther« a diphthong or triphthong in the word youth'?—Is it proper or improper ?—
A Syllable is a sound, either simple or compounded, pronounced by a single impulse of the voice, and constituting a word, or part of a word: as, o, an, ant.
Spelling is the art of rightly dividing words into theii syllables, or of expressing a word by its proper letters.
The following are the general rules for the division of words into syllables.
'1. A single consonant between two vowels must be joined to the latter syllable: as, de-light, bri-dal, resource; except the letter x: as, ex-ist, ex-amine; and except likewise words compounded: as, up-on, un-cven, dis-ease.
2. Two consonants proper to begin a word must not be separated: as, fa-ble, sti-fle. But when they come between two vowels, and are such as cannot begin a word, they must be divided: as, ut-most, un-der, in-sect, er-ror, cof-fin.
3. When three consonants meet in the middle of a word, if they can begin a word, and the preceding vowel is pronounced long, they are not to be separated: as, de-throne, de-stroy. But when the vowel of the preceding syllable is pronounced short, one *>f the consonants always belongs to that syllable: as, dis-tract, disprove, dis-train.
4. When three or four consonants, which are not proper to begin a syllable, meet between two vowels, such of them as can begin a syllable belong to the latter, the rest to the former syllable: as, ab-stain, com-plete, em-broil, trans-gress, dap-ple, con-strain, hand-some, parch-ment.
5. Two vowels, not being a diphthong, must be divided into separate syllables: as, cru-el, de-ni-al, so-ci-e
6. Compounded words must be traced into the simple words of which they are composed: as, ice-house, glowworm, over-power, never-the-less.
7. Grammatical, and other particular terminations, are generally separated: as, teach-est, teach-eth, teaching, teach-er, contend-est, great-er, wretch-ed, goodness, free-dom, false-hood.
Words are articulate sounds, used by common consent, as signs of our ideas.
A word of one syllable is termed a monosyllable; a word of two syllables a dissyllable; a word of three syllables a trisyllable; and a word of four or more syllables a polysyllable. i _ ,, .