Page images
PDF
EPUB

REVIEW.

Th^ whole number of verb.s in the English language, regular and irregular, simple and compounded, is about four thousand, three hundred. The. number of irregular verbs, including defective, is about one hundred and seventy seven.

Irregular verbs are of various sorts; as,

1. Such as have the present and imperfect tenses, and perfect participle the same; as,

Pres. Imper. Part.

Cost Cost Cost

Put Put Put

2. Such as have the imperfect tense and perfect participle the same; as,

Pres. Imper. Part.

Abide Abode Abode

Sell Sold Sold

3. Such as have the present and imperfect tenses, and perfect participle different; as,

Prest- Imper. Part.

Arise. Arose Arisen

Blow Blew Blown

Many verbs become irregular by contraction; as, feed, fed; leave, left—others by the termination en; as, fall, fell, fallen—and others by the termination ght; as, buy, bought; teach, taught.

In the preceding list of irregular verbs, some will be found to be conjugated regularly, as well as Lregularly, in the imperfect tense, or participle, or both; and such are marked with the letter R.

Those verbs are not inserted in the above list, as irregular, which are improperly terminated by t, instead of ed; as learnt, spelt, Etc. These should ever be avoided. Some verbs properly terminate in this way, and these are inserted; as crept, dwelt, slept, &c.

Several irregular terminations, once in good use, are now entirely obsolete; such as holpen, holden, molten, bounden ewang, wrang, slank, &c,

Questions on the Review. How many verbs are there in the English language? How many are irregular?—There are three sorts of irregular verbs; what is the first?—What the second?— What the third?—Are any of the irregular verl.s sometimes conjugated regularly?

LESSON XIX.

An Adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb, an adjective, to another adverb, and sometimes to a preposition, or an article, to express some quality or circumstance respecting it. Some adverbs are compared, alter the manner of adjectives. The adverb may be distinguished from the adjective, as the latter always qualifies a noun or pronoun.

Prepositions serve to connect words one with another, and to show the relation between them.—The following are the principal prepositions in our language: Of, to, for, by, with, in, into, within, without, over, under, through, above, beloio, between, beneath, from, beyond, at, up, down, before, behind, on, upon, among, after, about, against.

The Conjunction is chiefly used in connecting sentences; but sometimes connects only words. Conjunctions are divided into copulative, and disjunctive. The copulative conjunction serves to connect or continue a sentence, by expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, &ic. The following are the principal of this class: And, if, that, both, then, since, for, because, therefore, wherefore.

The disjunctive conjunction serves, not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to express opposition of meaning in different degrees. Of this class, the following are the principal: But, or, nor, as, than, lest, though, unless, either, neither, yet, notwithstanding.

Interjections are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker; such as Oh! Lo! Ah! Alas!

QUESTIONS.

What are adverbs ?—How are some adverbs compared ?—How may the adverb and idjective be distinguished?—What are prepositions ?—What are some of the principal prepositions in our language ?—What is the use of the conjunction?—How are conjunctions divided ?—Of what service is the copulative conjunction ?—What are the principal conjunctions of this class?—Of what service is the disjunctive conjunction ?—Which are the principal, ones of this class ?—What are interjections?

ILLUSTRATION.

"He performed his part wisely and properly.'''—Which are the adverbs in this sentence? —What word do they qualify?

"The piece leas elegantly written, and was well received."—Here are two adverbs. Which are they ?—And what words do they qualify? “The power of speech is a faculty peculiar to man; and was bestowed on him by his beneficent Creator for the greatest and most excellent uses; but alas ! how often do we pervert it to the worst of purposes.”—In this sentence, we have all the different parts of speech.How many articles are there 2–Which are definite ; and which indefinite P−Which are the nouns —Are they common or proper ?— Which are singular; and which plural 2– Which are in the nominative case ; and which in the objective f—There are several adjectives in the sentence —Which are they PWhich of them are in the superlative degree ? —Which are the personal pronouns in this sentence f—In what person, number, and case, is each 2–Here are three verbs:—Which are regular; and which irregular P-Which is neuter; which passive ; and which active P-In what mode, tense, number, and person, is each P-Which are the adverbs F-Which the prepositions —Which the conjunctions — Which the interjection f

[ocr errors][merged small]

I. of the adverb-As some may doubt whether the adverb ever qualifies a preposition, or an article, we subjoin the following examples:

“Far in a wild, unknown to public view,
From youth to age a rev'rend hermit grew.”

“I think it unpardonable ignorance not to be acquainted with the history of our own country, along with the histories of Greece and Rome.” “I have not even a dollar.”

Adverbs are compared as follows;

Pos. Comp. Super.

Soon sooner soonest

Often oftener oftenest

Much- more "most

Well better best

Adverbs ending in ly are compared by more and most, or less and least; as, wisely, more wisely, most wisely. More and most, less and least, so much used in the comparison of adjectives, are themselves adverbs, qualifying the adjectives to which they are joined.

Adverbs seem originally to have been contrived to express compendiously in one word, what must otherwise have required two or more: as, " He acted wisely," for, he acted with wisdom; " prudently," for, with prudence; "He did it here," for, he did it in this place; "exceedingly," for, to a great degree; " often and seldom;" for many, and for a few times; "very," for, in an eminent degree, &c.—Phrases which do the office of adverbs, may properly be termed adverbial phrases. "They labour none at all; They work a great deal."—Here, the phrases in italics may be called adverbial phrases, because they qualify the verbs.

There are many words in the English language, that »re sometimes used as adjectives, and sometimes as adverbs: as, " More men than women were there;" or, "I am more diligent than he." In the former sentence, more is evidently an adjective, and in the latter an adverb. There are others that are sometimes used as substantives; and sometimes as adverbs; as, "Today's lesson is longer than yesterday's:" here to-day and yesterday are substantives, because they are. wordsthat make sense of themselves, and admit besides of a possessive case; but in the phrase, " He came home yesterday, and sets out again to-day," they are adverbs of time; because they answer to the question when. The adverb much is used as all three: as, " Where much is given, much is required;" "Much money has been expended;" "It is much better to go than to stay." In the first of these sentences, much is a substantive; in the second, it is an adjective; and in the third, an adverb. In short, nothing but the sense can determine what they are.

« PreviousContinue »