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«on, Com, co, Col—signify together: as, to conjoin, to join together; to compress, to press together: to cooperate, to work together; to collapse, to fall together.
.contra—against: as, to contradict, to speak against.
PE—signifies/rom, down: as, to depart, to retire from; to deject, to cast down.
X,i-r-asunder: as, dilacerate, to tear asunder.
p,s—reverses the meaning of the word to which it is prefixed: as, to disagree, to dispossess.
Je, Ex—out: as, to eject, to throw out; to exclude, to shut out.
gxxRA—beyond: as, extraordinary, beyond the ordinary course.
In—before an adjective, like un, signifies privation: as, indecent, not decent; before a verb it has its simple meaning: as, to infuse, to pour in; to infixrto fix in.
Inter—between: as, to intervene, to come between; to interpose, to put between.
Intro—into, inwards: as, to introduce, to lead into; to introvert, to turn inwards.
OB—denotes opposition: as, to object, to oppose: to obstruct, to block up; obstacle, something standing in opposition.
Per—through: as, to perambulate, to walk through; to perforate, to bore through.
Post—after: as, post meridian, afternoon; Postscript, written after, that is, after the letter.
trje—before: as, to pre-exist, to exist before; to prefix, to fix before.
Pro—-forth or forwards: as, to protend, to stretch forth; to project, to shoot forwards.
FRiETER—past or beyond: as, preterperfect, pastperfect; preternatural, beyond the course of nature.
Re—again or back: as, reprint, to print again; to retrace, to trace back.
Retro—backwards: retrospective, looking backwards, retrograde, going backwards.
Se—aside, apart: as, to seduce, to draw aside; tosecreie, to put aside.
Sub—under: as, subterranean, lying under the earth, t« subscribe, to subsign, to write under.
Subter—under: as, .subterfluotu, flowing under.
Super—above, or over: as, superscribed, to write above; to supervise, to overlook.
Trans—over, beyond, from one place to another: as, to transport, to carry over; to transgress, to pass beyond; to transplant, to remove from one soil to another.
The Greek prepositions and particles, used in the
composition of English words, are the following: a,
amphi, anti, hyper, &c.
A—signifies privation: as, anonymous, without name.
Amphi—both, or the two: as, amphibious, partaking of both, or of two natures.
Anti—against: as, antimonarchical, against government by a single person; aniiministerial, against the ministry.
Hyper—over and above: as, hypercritical, over, or too critical.
Hypo—under, implying concealment or disguise: as, hypocrite, one dissembling his real character.
Meta—denotes change or transmutation: as, to metamorphose, to change the shape.
Peri—roundabout: as, periphrasis, circumlocution.
Syn, Syai—together: as, synod, a meeting, or coming together; sympathy, fellow-feeling, feeling together.
Some of the prepositions have the appearance and effect of conjunctions: as "After their prison-doors were opened," &c. "Before I die."
In some instances, prepositions are used as adverbs; as, "They had their reward soon after; he died not long before; he dwells above."
III. Of Conjunctions.—The same word is occasionally used both as a conjunction and as an adverb; and sometimes, as a preposition. "I rest, then, upon this argument;" then is here a conjunction: in the following phrase, it is an adverb; "He arrived then, and not before." "I submitted, for it was vain to resist;" in this sentence, for is a conjunction: in the next it is a preposition; "He contended/or victory only." In the first of the following sentences, since is a conjunction; in the second it is a preposition; and in the third, an adverb: " Since we must part, let us do it peaceably." " I have not seen him since that time;" "Our friendship commenced long since."
Relative pronouns, as well as conjunctions, serve to connect sentences: as, " Blessed is the man who feareth the Lord, and keepeth his commandments."
A relative pronoun possesses the force both of a pronoun and a connective. Nay, the union by relatives is rather closer, than that by mere conjunctions. The latter may form two or more sentences into one; but, by the former, several sentences may be incorporated into one and the same clause of a sentence. Thus, " Thou seest a man, and he is called Peter," is a sentence consisting of two distinct clauses, united by the copulative and: but " The man whom thou seest is called Peter," is a sentence of one clause, and not less comprehensive than the other.
Conjunctions very often unite sentences, when they appear to unite only words; as in the following instances: " Duty and interest forbid vicious indulgences;" "Wisdom or folly governs us." Each of these forms of expression contains two sentences, namely; "Duty forbids vicious indulgences; interest forbids vicious indulgences;" " Wisdom governs us, or folly governs us."
Though the conjunction is commonly used to connect sentences together, yet, on some occasions, it merely connects words, not sentences: as, "The king and queen are an amiable pair;" where the affirmation cannot refer to each; it being absurd to say, that the king or the queen only, is an amiable pair. So in the instances, "Two and two are four;" " The fifth and sixth volumes will complete the set of books." Prepositions also, as before observed, connect words; but they do it to show the relation which the connected words have to each other: conjunctions when they unite words only, are designed to show the relations which those words, so united, have to other parts of the sentence.
As there are many conjunctions and connective phras-. es appropriated to the coupling of sentences, that are never employed in joining the members of a sentence; so there are several conjunctions appropriated to the latter use, which are never employed in the former; and some that are equally adapted to both those purposes: as, again, further, besides, Sac. of the first kind; than, lestt unless, that, so that, Sac. of the second; and but, and, for, therefore, Sac. of the last.
IV. Of Interjections.—There are as many interjections, as there are modes of expressing wonder, pity, contempt, disgust, admiration, and salutation. Thus, realty! strange! away! behold! hark! hush! welcome! hail! Sac. may be regarded as interjections. Some interjections are followed by the nominative case independent; as, "O child! what are you doing?" some by the objective case; as, "Jlh me! I die:"—and many have no determinate connexion with what precedes or follows them.
Questions on the Review.
What were adverbs contrived to express?—What are phrases, which do the office of adverbs, called?—Are adverbs ever used for other parts of speech ?—To how many, and what, classes may adverbs be reduced?— Mention some of each class.—What words may be called adverbial conjunctions?—What necessity is there for adverbs of time?
Have prepositions a variety of significations?—How many are given of the preposition for?—Do the prepositions of other languages enter into the composition of English words?—Of what languages?—Are prepositions ever used as other parts of speech?
Are conjunctions ever used as other parts of speech? —What words, besides conjunctions, serve to connect sentences ?—By what cases are the interjections sometimes followed?
REVIEW. On derivation.—Words are derived from one another in various ways, viz.
1. Substantives are derived from verbs.
2. Verbs, are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs.
3. Adjectives are derived from substantives.
4. Substantives are derived from adjectives.
5. Adverbs are derived from adjectives
1. Substantives are derived from verbs: as, from " to love," comes "lover;" from "to visit, visiter;" from "to survive, survivef," Stc.
In the following instances, and in many others, it is difficult to determine, whether the verb was deduced from the noun, or the noun from the verb, viz. "Love, to love; hate, to hate; fear, to fear; sleep, to sleep; walk, to walk; ride, to ride; act, to act;" &c.
2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs: as, from the substantive salt, comes "to salt;" from the adjective warm, "to warm;" and from the adverb forward, "to forward." Sometimes they are formed by lengthening the vowel, or softening the consonant: as, from "grass, to graze." Sometimes by adding en; as, from "length, to lengthen;" especially to adjectives: as, from "short, to shorten;" "bright, to brighten."
3. Adjectives are derived from substantives, in the following manner: Adjectives denoting plenty, are derived from substantives by adding y; as, from " health, healthy; wealth, wealthy; might, mighty," &c.
Adjectives denoting the matter out of which anything is made, are derived from substantives by adding en: as, from "oak, oaken; wood, wooden; wool woollen," &c.
Adjectives denoting abundance, are derived from substantives by adding fid: as, from "joy, joyful; sin, sinful; fruit, fruitful," &c.
Adjectives denoting plenty, but with some kind of diminution, are derived from substantives, by adding some: as, from "light, lightsome; trouble, troublesome; toil, toilsome," &c.
Adjectives denoting'want, are derived from substantives, by adding less: as, from " worth, worthless;" from "care, careless; joy, joyless," &c.
Adjectives denoting likeness, are derived from substantives, by adding ly: as, from "man, manly; earth, earthly; court, courtly," &c.
Some adjectives are derived from other adjectives, or from substantives, by adding ish to them; which termina