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tion, when added to adjectives, imports diminution, or lessening the quality: as, " White, whitish;" i. e. somewhat white. - When added to substantives, it signifies similitude, or tendency to a character: as, "Child, childish; thief, thievish."
Some adjectives are formed from substantives or verbs, by adding the termination able; and those adjectives signify capacity: as, " Answer, answerable; to change, changeable."
4. Substantives are derived from adjectives, sometimes by adding the termination ness: as, " White, whiteness; swift, swiftness:" sometimes by adding th or t, and making a small change in some of the letters: as, " Long, length; high, height."
5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by adding ly, or changing le into ly; and denote the same quality as the adjectives from which they are derived: as, from "base," comes " basely;" from " slow, slowly;" from " able, ably."
There are so many other ways of deriving words from one another, that it would be extremely difficult, and nearly impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of any language are very" few; the derivatives form much the greater number. A few more instances only can be given here.
Some substantives are derived from other substantives, by adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment, and age.
Substantives ending in hood, or head, are such as signify character or qualities : as, "Manhood, knighthood, falsehood," &c.
Substantives ending in ship, are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition : as, " Lordship, stewardship, partnership," &c. Some substantives ending in ship,' are derived from adjectives: as, "Hard, hardship," &c.
Substantives which end in ery, signify action or habit: as, "Slavery, foolery, prudery," &c. Some substantives of this sort come from adjectives : as, " Brave, bravery," Stc.
Substantives ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote dominion, jurisdiction, or condition: as, "Bailiwick, bishoprick, kingdom, dukedom, freedom," &c.
Substantives which end in ian, are those that signify profession: as, "Physician, musician," &c. Those that end in ment and age, come generally from the French, and commonly signify the act or habit: as, "Commandment, usage."
Some substantives ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjectives, and denote character or habit: as, "Drunk, drunkard; dote, dotard."
Some substantives have the form of diminutives; but these are not many. They are formed by adding the terminations kin, ling, ing, och, el, and the like: as, "Lamb, lambkin ; goose, gosling ; duck, duckling ; hill, hillock ; cock, cockerel," &c.
That part of derivation, which consists in tracing English words to the Greek, Latin, and French languages, must be omitted. Johnson's Large Dictionary will furnish the best information on this head. The learned Home Tooke, in his " Diversions of Purley," has given an ingenious account of the derivation and meaning of many of the adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions, by tracing them to thefr Saxon origin. The following is a list of them:— About—is derived from a, on, and bout, signifying
boundary : On the boundary or confines. Among or Amongst—comes from the passive participle
gemomced, which is from gemengan, to mix. And—is from the imperative an-ad, which is from the
verb, anan-ad, signifying to accumulate, to add
to: as, 'Two and two are four;' that is, ' Two
add two are four.' Sunder—-comes from the participle asundred of the verb
asundrian, to separate: and this verb is from
Sond, sand. Athwart—is derived from the passive participle athwe
oried of the verb athweorian, to wrest. Beyond—comes from be-geond : geond, or goned, is the
passive participle of the verb gangan, to go, to
pass : Be passed, be gone. But—from the imperative hot, of the verb botan, to boot.
to superadd, to supply: as, ' The number three
is not an even number, but an odd; that is, not
an even number, superadd, (it is) an odd number.'
But—from the imperative, be-utan, of the verb heonutan, to be out. It i3 used by way of exception: as, * She regards nobody, but him;' that is, 'nobody be out him.'
IF—comes from gif, the imperative of the verb gifan, to give: as, 'If you live honestly, you will live happily ;' that is, 'give you live honestly.'
Lest—from the participle, lesed, of the verb lesan, to dismiss.
Though—from thqfig, the imperative of the verb thafigan, to allow: as, 'Though she is handsome, she is not vain:' that is, 'Allow, grant, she is handsome.'
Unless—comes from onles, the imperative of the verb onlesun, to dismiss or remove: as, 'Troy will be taken unless the palladium be preserved;' that is, 'Remove the palladium be preserved^ Troy will be taken.'
With—the imperative of withan, to join : as, 'A house with a party-wall;' that is, 'A house join a party-wall.'
Without—comes from wyrth-utan, the imperative of the verb wyrthan^utan, to be out t as, 'A house without a roof;' that is, 'A house be out a roof.'
Tet—is derived from get, the imperative of the verb getan, to get: as, ' Tet a little while;' that is, 'Get a little time.'
Through—comes from Gothic and Teutonic words, which signify door, gate, passage: as, 'They marched through a wilderness ;' that is, 'They marched the passage a wilderness.'
For—is from Saxon and Gothic words, signifying, cause, motive: as, 'He died for his religion;' that is, 'He died, the cause his religion.'
From—is derived from frum, which signifies beginning, origin, source, &c.; as, 'The lamp hangs from the ceiling;' that is, 'Ceiling the place of beginning to hang.'
ro—comes from Saxon and Gothic words, which signify action, effect, termination, to act, &c.: as, 'Figs come from Turkey to England:' that is,
'Figs come—beginning Turkey—Termination
For remarks on the system of Home Tooke, and of
others who have followed him, and copied from him, the
reader is referred to the preface to this work.
Questions on the Review. How are words derived one from another?—From what are substantives derived ?—From what are verbs derived?—Mention some of the ways in which adjectives are derived from nouns.—How are nouns derived from adjectives?—How are adverbs derived fromadjec- . tives?—How do nouns generally terminate which are derived from other nouns ?—To what origin may many of the small English words be traced?
The third part of Grammar is Syntax, which treats of the agreement and construction of words in a sentence.
It consists chiefly of two parts, concord and government.—Concord is the agreement which one word has with another, in gender, number, case, or person.—Government is that power which one part of speech has over another, in directing its mode, tense, or case.
To produce the agreement and right disposition of words in a sentence, we have the following rules, which should be very perfectly committed to memory:
Rule I. Two nouns, signifying the same thing, are put, by apposition, in the same case ; as, "Paul, the Apostle;" "Alexander, the conqueror."
RULE II. The verb must agree with its nominative case, in numb t and person. RULE III. The infin' 'e mode, or part of a sentence, is sometimes the nominative to a verb, and in other respects does the office of a noun; as, “To see the sun is pleasant.” RULE IV. When an address is made to a person, the noun, or pronoun, is in the nominative case independent; as, “Who art thou, O man 3” RULE V. A noun, joined with a partieiple, and standing independent of the rest of the sentence, is in the nominative case absolute; as, “Shame being lost, all virtue is lost.”
Of what does Syntax treat?—Of what parts does it consist f—What is concord P−What is government?—How should the Rules of Syntax be committed to memory P−You will repeat the first five of these Rules in their order.—In the examples under the first Rule, how are the words, Apostle, and conqueror, parsed ?—“We was wiser than they.”—“Thou should love thy neighbour.”—What violations of the second Rule, do you find in these sentences?--In the example under Rule third, how do you parse the verb to see 2—To what does the adjective pleasant belong?—In the example under the next Rule, how do you parse man?— “John, bring me a book.”—In this sentence, how do you parse John 3–In the example under Rule fifth, how do you parse shame?