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A sentence is an assemblage of words, ranged in proper order, and concurring to make complete sense.
Sentences are of two kinds, simple and compound.
A simple sentence has in it but one subject, and one finite verb: as, 'Life is short.'" ,
A compound sentence consists of two or more simple sentences, connected together: as, 'Life is short, and art is long.' 'Idleness produces want, vice, and misery.'
As sentences themselves are divided into simple and compound, so the members of sentences may be divided likewise into simple and compound members: for whole sentences, whether simple or compounded, may become members of other sentences, by means of some additional connexion; as in the following example: 'The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib; but Israel doth not know; my people do not consider.' This sentence consists of two compounded members, each of which is subdivided into two simple members, which ar» properly called clauses.
There are three sorts of simple sentences; the explicative, or explaining; the interrogative, or asking; the imperative, or commanding.
An explicative sentence is, when a thing is said to be •r not to be, to do or not to dof to suffer or not to suffer, in a direct manner: as, ' I am; thou-writest; Thomas is loved.' If the sentence be negative, the adverb not is placed after the auxiliary, or after the verb itself when it has no auxiliary: as, 'I did not touch him;' or, 'I touched him not.'
In an interrogative sentence, or when a question is asked, the nominative case follows the principal verb, or the auxiliary: as, 'Was it he?' 'Did Alexander conquer 4he Persians?'
In an imperative sentence, when a thing is commanded to be, to do, to suffer, or not, the nominative case likewise follows the verb or the auxiliary: as, ' Go, thou traitor!' 'Do thou go:' 'Haste ye away:' unless the verb let be used; as, ' Let us be gone.'
A phrase is two or more words rightly put together, making sometimes part of a sentence, and sometimes a whole sentence.
The principal parts of a simple sentence are, the subject, the attribute, and the object.
The subject is the thing chiefly spoken of; the attribute is the thing or action affirmed or denied of it; and the object is the thing affected by such action.
The nominative denotes the subject, and usually goes before the verb or attribute; and the word or phrase, denoting the object, follows the verb: as, 'A wise man governs his passions.' Here, a wise man is the subject; governs, the attribute, or thing affirmed; and his passions, the object.
Op Rule I. Nouns are not unfrequently set in apposition to sentences, or parts of sentences; as ' If a man had a complete idea of infinite, he could add two infinites together, or could make one infinite infinitely greater than another; absurdities too gross to be confuted.' Here the absurdities are the whole preceding propositions.
Of Rule II.—Every verb, except in the infinitive mode, ought to have a nominative, either expressed or understood; as, 'Awake, arise,' that is 'Awake ye, arise ye,' &c.
Every nominative case, except the case absolute, and the nominative independent, should belong to some verb, either expressed or understood; as 'Who wrote this? James ;' that is, ' James wrote it.'
When a verb comes between two nouns, either of which may be understood as the subject of the affirmation, it may agree with either of them ; but some regard must be had to that which is more naturally the subject of it, as also to that which stands next to the verb: as, 'Hi« meat was locusts and wild honey;' 'A great cause of the low state of industry were the restraints put upon it ;' ' The wages of sin is death.'
In such instances as those which follow, either of the clauses may be considered as the nominative to the verb. 'To show how the understanding proceeds herein, t* the design of the following discourse.' This sentence may be inverted without changing a single word: 'The design of the following discourse is, to show how the understanding proceeds herein.' 'To fear no eye, and to euspect no tongue, is the great prerogative of innocence.' This sentence may be inverted : but, according to the English idiom, the pronoun it would, in that case, precede the verb : as, 'It is the prerogative of innocence, to fear no eye, and to suspect no tongue.'
The nominative case is commonly placed before the verb ; but sometimes it is put after the verb, if it is a simple tense; and between the auxiliary, and the verb or participle, if a compound tense : as,
1st, When a question is asked, a command given, or a wish expressed: as, 'Oonfidest thou in me?' 'Read thou;' 'Mayst thou be happy!' 'Long live the King!'
2d, When a supposition is made, without the conjunction if: as, 'Were, it not for this;' 'Had I been there.' \
3d, When a verb neuter is used: as, 'On a sudden appeared the king.' 'Above it stood the seraphim.'
4th, When the verb is preceded by the adverbs, here, there, then, thence, thus, &c.: as, 'Here am I;' 'Theie was he slain;' 'Then cometh. the end;' 'Thence ariseth his grief;' 'Hence proceeds his anger;' 'Thus was the affair settled.'
5th, When a sentence depends on neither or nor, so as to be coupled with another sentence as, ' Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.'
6th, When an emphatical adjective introduces a sentence: as, ' Happy is the man whose heart does not reproach him.'
Of Rule III.—When several phrases, connected by a copulative conjunction, expressed or understood, are made nominatives to a verb, the verb must be plural ; as, 'To be temperate in eating and drinking, to use exercise in the open air, and to keep the mind free from tumultuous emotions, are the best preservatives of health.'
The infinitive mode does the office of a substantive in the objective case; as, ' Boys love to p/oy,' that is, they love play.
Op Rule IV.—When an address is made to a person, the noun is independent of any verb. The nominative independent is, of course, always in the second person.
Of Rule V.—Good writers have in some few instances, though incorrectly, put the case absolute in the objective ; as,
Or won, to what may work his utter loss,
Questions on the Review.
sentence? What an interrogative sentence? What.
an imperative sentence ?—What is a phrase ?—What ar« the three principal parts of a simple sentence?—In what cases does the nominative come after the verb ?—
Rule VI. 1 wo or more nouns singular, con nected by one or more copulative conjunctions, have verbs and pronouns agreeing with them in the plural number; as, " Socrates and Plato were wise." But,
Rule VII. If the conjunctions connecting them be disjunctive, the agreeing words must be in the singular number; as, "John, or James, or Joseph intends to accompany me."
Rule VIII. A noun of multitude may have a verb or pronoun agreeing with it, either of the singular or plural number; as, "My people do not consider."
Rule IX. Neuter and Passive verbs may have the same case after them as before them, when both nouns refer to the same thing; as, "John is a good child.''' "We persuaded him to become a Christian."
Rule X. The relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent, in gender, number, and person; as, " Thou, who lovest wisdom,"
Rule XI. The relative is the nominative case to the verb, when no nominative comes between it and the verb; but when a nominative intervenes, the relative is governed by some word in its own member of the sentence.
Rule XII. The article refers to a noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, to limit its signification.
Rule XIII. Every adjective, adjective pronoun, and participle, will belong to some noun either expressed or understood; as, " He is a good man." "Few are happy."
Rule XIV. One noun governs another signifying a different thing, in the possessive case.
You may begin with repeating all the Rules in the Lesson.—In the example under Rule sixth, why is were plural ?—In the example under Rule seventh, why is intends singular?
"Patience and diligence, like faith, removes mountains."—" Our happiness or misery aire placed in our own hands."—In the first of these sentences, is there any violation of Rule sixth ?—In the second, is there any violation of Rule seventh ?—In the example under Rule eighth, why is the verb plural, when the nominative is singular ?—In the first example under Rule ninth, in what case is child ?— In what case is Christian, in the second example ?—In the example under rule tenth, in what number and person is ivho ?—By what