Page images

Colonel Hamley to whom the authorship is commonly attributed, a Mr. upon the attention of English statesmen when the old "cultivatingPullene, and one or two more. The publishers, though saying nothing groups” of England, with their community of lands, began to fall to pieces, definite, seem rather to encourage the notion that the article was not and the modern unequal division of landed property to take their place. written by Colonel Hamley. This, perhaps, is because that gentleman This process of dissolution is still continuing in Great Britain, making holds an office under Government, and Mr. Gladstone's economical cabinet, more unequal the holding of land, and accordingly adding to the many already at daggers drawn with the whole military class, which is natur- difficulties of England's great problem-pauperism. During the last ally delighted to see this attack on its enemy, may be thought of as not one hundred and fifty years, as Prof. Fawcett shows, nearly 7,500,000 acres particularly well pleased over a work which gives popular expression have been taken by Acts of Parliament from the common lands, both the opinion that the Liberal policy as regards national armaments is dan- arable and grazing, of Great Britain—that is, from the use and enjoyment gerously or meanly inadequate. The Germans, as may be supposed, get, of the poor-and added mainly to larger estates. Early even in the feuconsiderable pleasure from the spectacle of the fast-anchored isle thus dal ages, when the "village community” had partly given place to the “ frighted from its propriety," and some one of them has written an article, “manor," population in certain districts of England began to press upon not the most brilliant in the world in point of wit, but expressing such space, and combined with the breaking up of “commons,” the ignorance a contemptuous acceptance of the situation described by the Dorking of the laboring class, and the difficulty of communication, to create local volunteer as is not calculated to soothe the Heligoland excitement problems of pauperism. Throughout the early English history, we find

-We see, by the bye, that the author of “Dame Europa's School," various Acts of Parliament dealing with this question, especially endeaanother specimen of the literature of the panic, but one far inferior to the voring to prevent indiscriminate almsgiving, and to distinguish between Blackwood article, has come out with a novel, being moved to do so by voluntary and involuntary poverty. Still, owing to increasing inequality the success of his satire. “ Tom Pippid's Wedding” is the title of it, and of property, to the effect of foreign wars, and to unwise legislation, pauper. according to all accounts it is extraordinary stuff. The Athenæum quotes ism steadily increased throughout the kingdom. among other passages this: “One has heard drunkards blaspheme, and

The special legislation against this evil, the "Poor Law” of England, madmen rave, but for downright, cool profanity, for simple prostitution

dates from the reign of Elizabeth. Under this act, for the first time, every of all that men and angels reverence, give me a couple of evangelical needy person had a legal right to claim relief. To afford funds for this ministers talking Scripture during a six-mile drive." The silliness and

public assistance, rates were laid upon real estate. The able-bodied were vulgarity of other passages, however, more than equal the intolerance

compelled to work, or the cost of maintaining them was thrown upon if that be the name of it—of this. A set of words is wanting for the ex

their near relations, if they were able to bear it. Work houses were estabpression of the movements of minds and hearts of a certain size. Intoler

lished, and overseers of the poor appointed, who were responsible for the ance which argues a certain amount of deliberation and thoughtfulness, administering of relief. This act has been substantially imitated by the and a certain genuine warmth of feeling in itself respectable, is hardly

most recent legislation of the United Kingdom, and was undoubtedly wise the term to apply to the state of mind expressed in these words.

in its provisions. For a hundred and fifty years, it worked comparatively _“The eminent barrister and historian,” as his daughter in her bio- well ; vagrancy and mendicancy diminished under it, and the great evil graphy of him calls Mr. John Adolphus, will hardly be known to many seemed possible to be controlled. Gradually, however, a history of blun. of our readers either as a historian or a barrister, although he was in good ders and mistakes in the treatment of this perplexing matter began, from practice as a criminal lawyer, and although, some half-century ago, his which England has never yet recovered. very high Tory history of England under George the Third and his

That dangerous form of public charity, "outdoor relief,” crept in ; the memoirs of the French Revolution were in favor among people of old

work house test was dropped ; allowances were given by the overseers of fashioned principles. But although his books are forgotten, and the

to make up for deficient wages. “Settlement laws" were eminence which his daughter's affection takes for real was but very facti.

passed, whieh restrained poor workingmen from migrating from a parish tious, her filial piety will probably secure for him in literature the niche

where the labor market was overstocked to one where there was a demand. which he failed of securing for himself. Her biography of him is an

Even illegitimacy was encouraged, by a larger allowance being granted interesting and very readable book, full of gossip about the London of the

by the parish to a poor woman for an illegitimate than a legitimate child. beginning of this century, its theatres, literary cliques, taverns, ordinaries,

Under this vicious system, a pauper became better cared for than a hardspouting clubs

, coffee-rooms, and all the strange fashions and habits of working laborer, and that most wretched human condition, where people “the town.” Among a thousand similar other things that the writer tells

live by the cunning, deceit, and dependence of beggary—a state often us is this dubious piece of philology about a slang term which still holds

more fatal to character than courses of absolute crime-became a profesits own in England, and has some currency in this country. “The fashion of

sion, and was transmitted sometimes for several generations. In 1832, the house," says Adolphus, speaking of a tavern called the Queen's Head, in

Prof. Fawcett states, the evil had reached a gigantic condition. Rates Duke's Court," was to order spirits in a pewter half-quartern measure, which

increased so as to threaten the absorption of the whole rent of the land. In the drinker mixed with water according to his taste. It was frequently the

one estate near Cambridge, 500 acres rented for about £1 per acre, while fashion to say, 'Now I'll have another quartern, and go.' In process of time

the annual poor-rates amounted to £250, the owner also testifying that his the order was cut down to the last word, 'Waiter, bring me a go;' and

loss every year, from being obliged to employ pauper labor, was £100 from that house, and from that mode of expression, the word extended probably over the whole kingdom as synonymous with half a quartern

The discouraging effect upon honest labor of this public support of an of spirits.” If Mr. Adolphus's memory does not play him false, he was con

army of able-bodied paupers can hardly be imagined. Thus, as Mr. Faw. nected with one of our customs which has always seemed to most people

cett well puts it, a laboring man, by dint of much economy, self-control, to require explanation, and which he thus explains. When a boy at

and hard labor, saves sufficient to purchase a small annuity, and to proschool, he used to spend his holidays with a great-uncle, residing in Sack

cure, when he is old and broken-down, an income of five shillings a week. ville Street, of whom he stood in great awe, and in whose house he had

Another spends all his savings at the ale-house, and leads a lazy, dissolute but doleful days of it, his only solace in his dreariness being a print-shop life, leaving his family in misery. At precisely the same age, all he has at the corner of the street, and the kindness of a lady of high fashion

to do is to apply to the parish for relief, and, without any unpleasant puband great beauty ” who lived near, and occasionally gave him sweet

licity or obligation to reside in the workhouse, he receives the same meats and kisses. On the day on which he wore his first chimney-pot hat,

income-five shillings a week. Even during the years when they were he paid a visit to this leader of fashion, and she in joke put the boy's hat

able to labor, it often happened that the pauper received more than the on her own head, and liking the look of herself in the new head-dress, she

industrious laborer could earn. As Prof. Fawcett remarks (from whose resolved to wear it into the Park, whither she was about to ride. This

clear sketch this résumé is taken), “ England was brought nearer to ruin she did at once, and from then till now, in spite of attempts at innovation, by the old Poor Law than she ever was by a hostile army.” The ghastly the fashion has sustained its ground.

and corrupting effects of this blundering legislation are still visible

throughout England. PAUPERISM IN ENGLAND.**

There was one mistake, however, made by the British statesmen in MR. MAINE, in his recent remarkable work on “ Village Communi. treating this evil which it seems to us Mr. Fawcett does not sufficiently ties,” has made the ingenious observation that pauperism was first pressed estimate-we mean their neglect of any general scheme for popular edu

cation. During those game centuries when this evil was reaching such ** Pauperism : Its Causes and Remedies. By Prof. Henry Fawcett." New York: Macmillan & Co. 1871. 12mo, 270 pp.

tremendous proportions in England, two other communities, Holland and

the poo


[ocr errors]


New England, had instituted a system of popular education which has checked by proper views of the workingman's duty in this matter seems done more to check pauperism in their limits than any other one cause. to us as wild as the favorite theorem of the female reformers-tbat men Had England begun with education before alms in assisting the laboring and women can work together in public life, and forget the relations of classes, her future would have been very different.*

Mr. Fawcett's least satisfactory chapter is on what is generally held as The new Poor Law of England dates from 1834. Under it the "work

the most "advanced” of the recent methods of dealing with pauper chilhouse test" was revived, and the assistance by "allowances" abolished. The laws of settlement” were made easier for the laborer, so that he dren—the "placing-out system.” The great objection to it, in the mind of could go where his labor was in demand ; illegitimacy was checked by this English economist, is that this charity offers a reward to pauperism, as making the father responsible for the support of the child; and the whole the pauper's child is thus treated better than the self-supporting working. administration of pauperism improved by freeing it of many abuses.

man's, and so the laborer is induced to increase his family, because he is Under this legislation, the increase of paupers was undoubtedly checked, sure of their being well cared for. Here, again, the philosopher of the and the cost of pauperism diminished throughout the kingdom, from an study has lost sight of the nature of the laboring man in real life. No average of eight shillings per caput of the whole population, to five or six consideration as to the future support of his family ever affects a working. shillings. The whole mode of relief was reformed by a more general

man in such matters. Furthermore, if anything would make him deapplication through the authorities of the workhouse test; that is, by re- voutly desire never to be the father of a family, it would be the prospect quiring every alleged pauper to live and work in the almshouse. Still, of his children being "placed out." In this city, the only thing often even with this reformed legislation, this terrible disease and national evil which prevents the lowest poor from sending their children to the alms. of Great Britain reached such a point as to inspire all thoughtful English

house, is the fear that they will be placed out or sent West, pot through men with anxiety and alarm. Though the increase of national wealth is dread of any abuse to them, but from the blind force of the paternal in. estimated at $50,000,000 per annum, the increase of poverty seems to keep stinct. Mr. Fawcett, too, forgets, under his scientific prepossessions, that pace with it. Every winter in London, it is estimated, there are 170,000

the pauper's children, though, economically considered, they ought not to paupers within the limits, and the pauper children of the kingdom are have been born, are not responsible for the fact; and society is responsible said to number the vast multitnde of half a million. The relation, too, of

for giving them a fair chance in the world. Moreover, society, in Mr. Faw. outdoor and indoor pauperism is not satisfactory. Throughout England,

cett's own view, can do nothing more economical than in "placing out” only one-eighth of the paupers are inmates of the workhouse, while in these children. The great expense and danger to society are in “ breeds" Ireland the reverse is the fact, the indoor paupers being to the outdoor of paupers and vagrants. The almshouse tends to make pauperism as five to one-a much more sound, economic condition.

inherited. In fact, we may say, in summary, that Prof. Fawcett's history of the con. The emigration plan breaks up the line of descent, and converts the dition of England in this matter is exceedingly discouraging. We think, little pauper into a self-supporting producer. Besides, the annual cost of perhaps unreasonably so, he takes the “hard,” economic, and despairing placing out or boarding out a pauper child is far less than his support in view of the question, while the remedies which he proposes are some of

an almshouse. The experience of a very extended private charity in this them as hopeless as the disease. We have a little query here in our own city—the Children's Aid Society-is instructive in this regard, as this mind as to his statistics. The English custom is to class all as "paupers” association have placed out some 25,000 poor and vagrant children in who receive any assistance, however small, from the public authorities. towns in the West at an average expense of only $15 per caput, the chil. But manifestly a hard-working, industrious, independent laborer, who fell dren growing up to a very large degree honest, self-supporting, and indusinto a temporary misfortune and was helped out of it by a small assist- trious persons, some even having acquired large properties. ance from the overseers of the poor, should not be ranked with the de- Mr. Fawcett's other remedies for this great disease of England are graded class of “paupers.” So that when we hear of 170,000 paupers in

more wisely considered. His remarks on education, emigration, co-operaLondon, we need to know how far those were dependent on the public tion, the improvement in land-tenure, and against the enclosure of common before we make up our minds as to the extent of the evil.

lands, are deserving of careful study. In this city, for instance, there are some 22,000 persons aided each winter, to a very small extent, by the Commissioners of Charities. They are The Fall of England; The Battle of Dorking. Reminiscences of a notoriously not "paupers," and support themselves the rest of the year, Volunteer. By a Contributor to Blackwood. (New York: G. P. Putnam bringing up, many of them, honest and industrious families. So when we & Sons. 1871.)— There are few odder phenomena in modern politics than hear from Mr. Fawcett of the terrible increase of pauperism in Australia the feelings of the English people with regard to their national defences. and the United States, and of “110,000 persons receiving outdoor relief in They have deliberately, for over two centuries, chosen to rely on their Philadelphia," and of “9,000 being inmates of the almshouse" in a single fleet for protection against invasion, and have found their confidence in season, we know that his constitutional tendency, or his contact with this the advantages of this means of protection fully justified by experience. gloomy subject, has thrown a cloud over all his views, and obscured even With the exception of the civil war of 1640, and the little raid of the his examination of statistics. We have not the Almshouse Reports of Pretender in 1745, they bave enjoyed for four hundred years complete Philadelphia at hand, but such statistics as the above are utterly incredible. freedom from hostile military operations on their soil, the beneficial influ. So far from pauperism increasing in our cities, the Report of the New ence of which on trade and industry, and on the growth and firm estaYork Commissioners of Charities for 1871 shows that, while the number of blishment of legal habits among the people, it is almost impossible to inmates of the almshouses of this city on January 1, 1850, was 1,313, or 1 in overestimate; and, indeed, nobody can form anything like an adequate 423 of the population of the city, on January 1, 1870, it was only 1,114, or idea of its value who does not consider what frightful evils the Continental 1 in 808. The number assisted by outdoor relief seems to remain about nations have during the same period suffered from the movements of conthe same, year by year, being 23,034 in 1865, and 22,782 in 1870. The tending forces. It is, of course, impossible to say with certainty what expense of the relief of the outdoor poor averaged ten cents per caput of cause has most contributed to any political results, but it seems safe to our population in 1865, and was eight cents in 1870. That for hospitals for ascribe a very large proportion of the growth of English constitutional the poor was eighty-seven cents per caput in 1865, and eighty-seven cents freedom to the absence of the military general, as a person of special in 1870. And yet it must be remembered that New York is the centre of weight or influence, from English politics. The growth, too, of that the foreign pauperism of the country, about twelve per cent, of our city almost unique character, the Anglo-Saxon judge, who has played so impaupers only being pative-born.

portant a part both in English and American political progress, is due to The main remedy for this vast evil which presents itself to Mr. Faw. the total want of familiarity both of the governors and governed with the cett's mind seems to us utterly futile—that is, the diffusion through the arbitrary processes of military rule. Moreover, the smallness and insiglaboring classes of a sense of their duty to check population. Mr. Mill's nificance of the English army has undoubtedly had much to do with the admirers must have often felt that his chapters on this subject—“the vol. subordination of the military to the civil power which is so marked and, untary checks" of population-are the least satisfactory of his well-known to Continental Europeans, so striking a feature of English society. And treatise. Mr. Fawcett follows in his footsteps. Their positions are un- yet, small as the army has been, it has sufficed not only for the Assailable, economically, but they are such as a laboring class can never preservation of order at home, but for operations of sufficient magbe induced to recognize; and the notion that pauperism can ever be nitude and brilliancy in Continental wars to acquire for the conn

The fleet, too, has In London, $25,000,000 per annum are spent on organized charities, while, till the try a military reputation of the first order. present year, no general scheme of popnlar education was ever inaugurated.

not only proved a sufficient protection against invasion, but for


[ocr errors]

more than a century gave Great Britain all but complete mari. theses. For he puts all the blame upon Bismarck alone; represents King time supremacy. Nevertheless, the national mind has been haunted, William and Germany as having been drawn into the war by the “ diaboliprobably ever since the Norman Conquest, with the fear that an invader cal” manæuvres of that man of "blood and iron;" "excepts the Crown might in some way give the fleet the slip, and that if he did he would | Prince of Prussia from all the strictures expressed or implied " in his surely succeed in subjugating the country. "Invasion panics

pages ; admits that the French, before the war, betrayed as much longing quently form a regularly reeurring incident of all periods of peace. Few for the Rhine as the Germans for Alsace and Lorraine, and that the EmEnglishmen are, in fact, ever entirely free from the dread of invasion ex- peror Napoleon and his ministers were “reckless and criminal” in opening cept when English armies are invading some other country. Nothing ever the contest. His impeachment of Prussia, however-tbat is, as its develcomes of these panics, because the fear is never strong enough to over- opment shows it, of Bismarck—is broad enough. He “has endeavored to come the dislike of compulsory military service which an enlargement of establish,” among other minor points, the following: the effective military force would make necessary, or to overwhelm the "That the Hohenzollern candidature was a legitimate grievance to traditional suspicion of large standing armies. Consequently, after a few France.” months' talk, the matter drops out of the public mind, till some imposing * Tbat the French Government

really desired a pacific soludisplay of force on the part of some Continental power brings it back tion of the question." again. All panics, except the last one, were inspired by France. It was That Count Bismarck got up the Hohenzollern intrigue with his always a French army which was to land at Dover and take London, eyes wide open to all the consequences that have followed.” wbich city was sure to be given up to pillage-its wealth furnishing a “That Prussia never withdrew, directly or indirectly, the candidature temptation such as no French general was supposed to be able to resist. of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern, and that the eventual retirement of Indeed, one of the saddest evidences of French decline is to be found in the Prince took place in such a way as to leave the grievance of France the fact that Frenchmen no longer figure in the imaginary invasions of precisely where it was at the commencement of the quarrel.” England conjured up by the British imagination. The Germans have That, nevertheless, France still sought a pacific solution.” succeeded to this as to so many other places of honor long held by their “That Count Bismarck . . . precipitated the war by the gratuitous unhappy enemy, and it is a curious compliment to their discipline, and invention and publication of a fictitious affront offered by the King of systematic method of spoiling their foes, that they are not expected to Prussia to the French Ambassador at Ems." pillage London, but to levy heavy contributions on it.

"That Count Bismarck requires French territory, not as a security The last panic has been created by the spectacle of German prowess in against French aggressiveness, but as a means of keeping up the military France, and, as usual, has called forth a good deal of writing, and system of Prussia and keeping down German liberalism." amongst other things the brochure before us, a jeu d'esprit which first ap- To prove all this, "Scrutator” quotes sundry diplomatic notes, depeared in Blackwood, and has been since issued in a separate form, and spatches, and articles, none of which, if we remember right, contains anyenjoyed a great success. Its main object, apart from the general one thing new to the journal-reading public. It is in their juxta position and of creating alarm about the state of the military defences of the country, the dexterous drawing of inferences that he displays his skill in defending is to show the uselessness of the volunteers, who go ont every Easter assertions which, in their entirety, hardly deserve a serious refutation. Monday, and manœuvre in helpless ignorance and inefficiency on open Strictly speaking, he convinces the reader of none of his points; and all spaces near London, under the command of elected officers, who know no he makes plausible is that Bismarck was not at all unpleasantly surprised more of soldiering than the men. The writer, an old man, describes in the by the eagerness with which Napoleon grasped the pretext of the Hohenyear 1925 a battle in which he as a volunteer took part, fifty years previ. zollern candidature for plunging France, unprepared as she was, into a ously, in wbich the volunteer force was totally defeated, and the regular

war which the Prussian statesman-and, in fact, the whole world-had army sacrificed in the vain attempt to stay the march of a German army foreseen, or by the mad fury with which sincere and bired chauvinism anof invasion, which had effected a landing owing to the destruction of the

gwered to the Duc de Gramont's warlike announcements; that, knowing iron-clad fleet by a newly invented torpedo, and to the absence of a large that war must come, he used all the means in his hand-means fair and portion of the regular force defending Canada against the United States, unfair-to put France in the wrong before the world, and to inflame the and Ireland against the Fenians. The author is evidently either a soldier German mind, north and south of the Main ; and perhaps also that, after or a man very familiar with military operations, and he uses his know. seeing with what enthusiasm Germany, the whole of Germany, was ledge sufficiently to make a picture of extraordinary vividness, and yet ready to take up the gauntlet flung into her face by her infatuated neighwithout ever laying aside the dimness of vision with which a civilian bor, he was not inclined to let slip the opportunity of fighting the battle, volunteer might be supposed to watch the operations of a campaign. which had to be fought one day, at a moment ill-selected by the foe, and Nothing, too, can be more skilful, in a literary way, than the incidental of uniting the two sections of Germany by victories won in a common portrayal, in the course of the narrative, of the disorganization and want

defence. of preparation of the volunteers, and of the misery and humiliation wrought by foreign conquest. The tale has consequently been devoured,

The Psalms. The Common Version revised for the American Bible not less for its opportuneness as regards the state of the public mind,

Union, with an Introduction and Occasional Notes. By Thomas J. Conant. than for its artistic merit, which is, indeed, so high that only one man,

(New York : American Bible Union ; London : Trübner & Co.)—Long before Colonel Hamley—the author of "Lady Lee's Widowhood"-has been

the revision of the English Bible was seriously undertaken in England, guessed at as likely to combine the needful military experience with

the American Bible Union had entered upon the same project, and had the needful literary dexterity.

published several books of both the Old and the New Testaments. These revisions, being the work of individual translators, are of different degrees

of merit, and lack that general consent of scholars which is counted upon Who is Responsible for the War? By Scrutator. With an Appendix to give favor to the work of the English revisers. Moreover, though containing Four Letters reprinted (by permission) from the Times. (Lon.scholars of other communions have been employed upon the work, the fact don : Rivingtons. 1871.) The pseudonymous author of this little volume that it was begun in the interest of the Baptists must always prejudice it began the arguing of the question which forms its title in the columns of somewhat in the view of the church universal. Nevertheless, the Bible the London Times in October and November last. It was done in a contro- Union has made some improved readings, which might be adopted with versy with Professor Max Müller, which was ably and rather politely con- advantage by the English Commission sitting in the Jerusalem Chamber ducted on both parts. At that time, the question was still of considerable of Westminster Abbey. Dr. Conant is a good Hebraist, and his part of the practical interest and importance, as the victor was but claiming a part of revision is performed with conscientious thoroughness, yet with a wise the territory of the vanquished, chiefly on the ground of the latter having regard for the hold of the standard version upon the popular mind. He begun an unprovoked struggle. When the writer, having enlarged his ar. bas not attempted an independent translation of the Psalms, but a revision guments, published it in book-form, the war was over, and the preliminaries of the common English version with a more exact conformity to the Heof peace about being concluded, but he seems still to have flattered bimself brew. This principle is correct; for, in preparing anew the Bible for the that his appeal to the English public in favor of France might yet, through people, regard must be had to the purity and integrity of the English mediating voices, exercise some influence upon the final settlement. Now tongue as well as to the more advanced state of sacred philology. The that the victor bas safely carried off the spoils he demanded, the argu- scholars meeting in the Jerusalem Chamber may know Hebrew and Greek ment can bave but a historical interest, and even that is somewbat nar- better than King James's translators, but it may well be questioned whether rowed down by the way "Scrutator” endeavors to prove his paradoxical' they know English better ; and a revision of the English version, adhering as closely as possible to the present text, is, perhaps, more to be desired than is, upon the whole, our favorite, being of the homely sort, and Aunt a new translation from the original Scriptures. Sometimes the change of a

Rebecca more refined. And yet the bomeliness of the former is only of single word makes the sense more clear, and adds to the strength of the the speech and manner. There is no lack of true delicacy in the spirit of

this excellent woman. " But why give us these sentiments in so homely Foglish. Thus, in Ps. xviii. 15, Dr. Conant reads, " The foundations of the world were made bare," where the common version has "discovered.” So in a form, then ?" it may be asked. Why must a beautiful thought be Ps. ii. 5, “ Will confound them in his hot displeasure ” is an improvement degraded by vulgarity of style and constant violations of pure English ?” upon "vex them in his sore displeasure.” Again, in Ps. xlv. 1, “My heart It would be answer enough, perhaps, to say that, as a portraiture of New is overflowing with a goodly theme” is more precise than “My heart is England life, these little touches of coarseness must not be omitted. But inditing a good matter"; and a new sense is given to v. 8 by the render- we maintain, further, that there is, indirectly, a valuable purpose to be ing, “ Myrrh and aloes, cassia, are all thy garments ; from palaces of ivory, answered by it, inasmuch as it reminds the “educated" classes of what strivged instruments cheer thee.” Such examples of the improvement of they are so apt to forget—that defects of education are compatible not the sense, without detriment to the English, might be multiplied from the only with sterling worth, but also with the truest delicacy and refinement revision of Dr. Conant. But the substitution of bowed for cast in the pa

of feeling. thetic cry, “Why art thou cast down, O my soul ?” (Ps. xlii. and xliii.), adds

We have said that there there is a good deal of religion in this story, nothing either to the meaning or to the sentiment; and in Ps. xviii.: 7, though it cannot be classed as a religious novel. Very little theology is the graphic description, " Then the earth shook and trembled; the founda- introduced, and it would be difficult to assign that little to any one church tions also of the hills moved and were shaken,” is not improved by Dr. or sect. But it certainly is of the healthy kind. It encourages no morbid Conant's reading, “ Then the earth shook and quaked; and the foundations excitement. It spins no wiredrawn subtleties. It refers continually to of the mountains trembled, and were shaken;" while the emphatic repeti- life, and believes, with Swedenborg, whom the book sometimes quotes, tion in v. 10, “He rode upon a cherub and did fly ; yea, he did fly upon

that "the life of religion is to do good." the wings of the wind,” is quite impaired by the phrase, “and soared along

Of defects in the book, we cannot say that we have discovered many on wings of the wind.” In some instances, as in Ps. xix. 3, Dr. Conant worth noting. There is sometimes a little carelessness of grammar which has adopted what appears to us the less accurate and facile of the various might easily have been avoided. There are characters whom we would readings of the Hebrew text. Upon the whole, his revision is to be re- gladly have heard more of that are dropped 100 soon by the way. And, garded as tentative rather than complete, a help toward an improved ver.

finally, Philip, who was meant to be the hero, decidedly falls off in interest sion, not that version itself. The poetic form and the explanatory notes

in the latter half of the volume. add to the value of his scholarly work for the use of the general reader.

The Annual Register: A Review of Public Events at Home and Abroad From Fourteen to Fourscore. By Mrs. S. W. Jewett. (New York:

for the Year 1870. New Series. (London: Rivingtons. 1871.)—This is Ilurd & Houghton. 1871.)-In the short introduction ” to this

in the English and Foreign History of the year, and a “ Retrospect of

a , of teresting story, the author informs us that she wrote it "to please Literature, Art, and Science ;” and the second a “Chronicle of Remarkherself." And this assertion is well sustained throughout the book, in the character which she has chosen to personate. It might easily

able Occurrences," an " Obituary of Eminent Persons," sketches of “Re

markable Trials,” and “Public Documents and State Papers," besides pass for the veritable transcript of an old lady's journal and remini. scences, written out " with no view to publication,” but to gratify a

some lists of minor interest. The whole second part, with the exception

of the obituaries of Alexandre Dumas and Montalembert, and a few docu. favorite grandchild. We do not mean by this to imply that it is not also

ments and “occurrences,” is exclusively devoted to English subjects. Nor likely to please others, but simply that it is not written in the interests of

does the literary" Retrospect" review any production of the foreign press. and theory, or party, or sect--that it is not didactic--that it cannot pro

The "History” is far from being equally partial — France, as might be experly be classed among the "religious" novels, though there is a good deal of religion in it-that it can hardly be called even a "love story." if pected, occupying a very prominent place in its foreign division. A sethat means following the checquered fortunes of two persons through

parate chapter treats of Germany and Austro-Hungary; another of Rome, many fears and joys, doubts and hopes, to the inevitable conclusion. It is Italy, Spain, and Portugal; and another, very briefly, of a number of other rather a collection of several love-passages, with quite the usual amount

countries in Europe, Asia, and America. Africa, however, is passed over of cross-purposes, united, however, by the author's personality, to

unnoticed, Asia is represented only by China--the topic being the Tien-tsin whose own story the main interest of course belongs. “If there

massacre--and the death of President Lopez of Paraguay is the only event is a moral to my story,” the author says, “it is better that my book which devotes no less than 145 pages to chronicling events and accidents

recorded of South America. This sparingness is the more surprising in a life should teach it than my words." The reader, therefore, need not fear being preached to, though there are many passages Maidenhead," a "burglary at the American Minister's," the “ accouchement

of merely passing interest, such as “ the theft of Colonel Hickie's child at wbich he may skip as prosy, if he is hunting only for incidents. It

of the Princess Mary of Teck,” the “ destruction of the Old Star and Garter belongs rather to the “quiet” class of novels than the exciting, Hotel, Richmond,” murders, collisions, explosions, gales, disasters at sea, yet it never degenerates into dulness. The mere scenery of the narrative is of the slightest kind, and somewhat too vague, perhaps ; but this is far things. The whole of the compilation, however, is readable, and some of

banquets, riots, executions, colliery accidents, and similar sensational from being the case with the sketches of character, which really form the true and permanent value of the book, and are positive additions to our

its more important parts are very well done. Such is, among other bisspiritual portrait-gallery. Prominent among these are “ Aunt Rebecca,” beginning of the war. The narrative of the military events is clear, com

torical portions, the account of the situation in France before and at the and “Aunt Content "—the two most interesting persons in the book, prehensive, and attractive ; but here and there not quite accurate in its unless the narrator herself be an exception. Both of these have had their details. It is not correct that McMahon's army,“ on the Thursday mornlifelong trials, arising in each instance from disappointed love. But in the one case the lover's death brought the disappointment, and in the

ing before the battle of Wissemburg," numbered only " 40,000 men," nor other bis marriage. There is also a similarity in the two cases, in that

that at Wörth it "contested the ground desperately for fifteen hours;" and both have sisters for rivals ; but with the difference that the sister of Aunt

still less correct that of its numbers, “scarce 5,000 remained on Saturday Rebecca is a successful rival, and the sister of Aunt Content a disappointed figures regarding the forces in besieged Paris are rather loosely and con

night to retrace their steps, broken and dispirited, towards Châlons." The one. Yet the former could be called successful only in a very literal and worldly sense. She is aware that her husband has given her but "a

tradictorily given (p. 179 and p. 211). The loss of the French " at Che.

villy and Chilleurs," before Orleans, December 4-"no less than 14,000 divided Leart," the unmarried sister being still the most deeply loved. prisoners "—is greatly exaggerated. Other inaccuracies of the same kind And in ber treatment of this very diflicult relation, the author seems to us to have shown rare delicacy and truth of sentiment. The reader will find

are probably typographical errors. Nearly 300,000" (p. 179), as the numliere no justification of " elective affinities,” or anything of the sort, in

ber of the troops “ of Bazaine

shut up within the fortifications opposition to the true sanctity of marriage.

of Metz,” is probably a misprint for nearly 200,000. “ 180,000 men," re. The contrast between the two sisters—that is, between the mother and stands for 180,000, or possibly for 150,000 : “ 10,000 prisoners," stated as the

ferring to the army with which McMahon marched from Châlons to Sedan, aunt of our heroine—is admirably rendered, and not less so is the differ- loss of General Von der Tano in the battle of Coulmiers, stands either for ence between the two "Aunts” already spoken of-Aunt Content, who | 1,000 or 2,000, the number claimed by the victorious French commander.

[ocr errors]

Frossard, with the 7th Corps ” (p. 158), is an obvious misprint for Frossard As an introduction to her “Musings,” Miss Yonge has put together her with the 2d Corps. “At Ognon” (p. 218), is a mistake for on the Ognon, own recollections of Keble with those of several friends, thus giving, in Von Werder having defeated the French on the river, and not at a place an easy, inartificial way, a picture of the everyday life of Hursley vicarof that name. The revision of the foreign names is, in general, somewhat age and an insight into the character and habits of the Christian poet. defective. We find “Pinard” for Picard (p. 135), “L'Amirault” and There was little in the outside life of such a man to attract the notice of “L'Admiraut” for Ladmirault, or L’Admirault; “ Hassner” for Hasner, the world ; but it is pleasant to observe his kindness to the poor, his gen“Borez” for Baez. The writer on Austro-Hungary" speaks of " Czechs tle fidelity in his work, his devout zeal for his church-though in the and Gallicians, Poles, Slovenes" [sic], etc., with evidently very little know. latter Miss Yonge sometimes causes Keble to appear less lovable in the ledge of Slavic affairs. The“ English History” is very exhaustive. Some reflection of her own intenser churchism. Her “Musings,” too, someof the literary pieces betray a decidedly able hand.

times rob & poem of its charm by translating it into the rugged baldness of a doctrine which it had deftly covered with the web of verse. A pas

sionate admirer, & grateful protégé, a very devotee at the shrine of Keble, The Historical Reader, embracing Selections from Standard Writers

she gives an excess of attention to minor incidents and secondary qualities. of Ancient and Modern History, interspersed with illustrative Passages These “Musings,” however, are not without value in interpreting some of from British and American Poets ; with Explanatory Observations, Notes,

the obscurer poems by the incidents or frames of feeling which gave them etc.: to which are added a Vocabulary of Difficult Words and Biographi- birth ; and they will take their place in Christian literature among the cal and Geographical Indexes. By John J. Anderson, A.M. (New York:

elegiac tributes of piety to genius, of love to goodness, and of faith and Clark & Maynard. 1871.)—This is a rather long title, but its length is

hope to the ideal life. justified by the contents of the volume, every part of which is carefully compiled or elaborated. " As its name indicates, it is intended to be used, not as a book of lessons to be committed to memory and recited, but as a

The Daughter of an Egyptian King. Translated from the German of Reading Book, to be used independently, or to accompany any of the

George Ebers. By Henry Reed. (Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott & Co.

1871.)—The historical novel which hovers about the dubious border ordinary school manuals of history, and to be read in connection with the study of them.” The selections—which are chronologically arranged

between fact and fiction is always in danger of being too fictitious for the

confidence of fact, or too matter-of-fact for the illusion of fiction. And within the three divisions of “ American History,” “English, Scottish, and French History,” and “Miscellaneous ... History” of other nations, ancient

when its avowed purpose is the restoration of the manners and customs of and modern-are well adapted to make the youthful reader familiar not

a remote antiquity, it is likely to be too dry for a story or too fanciful for only with the details of a multitude of important events and with the

a picture of actual life. The legend of Nitetis, which Herodotus has pre

served under three distinct forms in his " Thalia,” is wrought by Dr. Ebers characters of many historical personages, but also with the best produc

into a highly dramatic story, through the skilful combination of various tions of English and American historical literature, and a number of

versions. The daughter of Amasis of Egypt having been demanded by writers belonging to other fields and nations. Both as to names and con

Cambyses in marriage, he palmed off as his own Nitetis, the daughter of tents, the extracts are well selected, but chiefly as regards the former.

his predecessor, whose throne he had usurped. The fair princess won the Not only such English or American historians proper are represented as

heart of the stern and fitful Persian, but just as he was about to consumClarendon, Burnet, Hume, Robertson, Ferguson, Gibbon, Mitford, Lingard,

mate the marriage his jealousy was excited against his brother, and in a Milman, Macaulay, Grote, Merivale, Freeman, Froude, Irving, Bancroft,

rage he sentenced Nitetis to be dragged through the streets of Babylon Prescott, Hildreth, and Motley, but also Milton, Berkeley, Chatham,

and buried alive. Before the sentence was executed, Cambyses became Goldsmith, Burke, Scott, Southey, Bulwer, De Quincey, Thackeray,

aware of his mistake—but too late, for Nitetis had already swallowed a Dickens, Everett, Story, Greeley; as well as several writers of antiquity

deadly cosmetic. After her death the king learned of the trick that had Herodotus, Xenophon, Plato, Josephus, Tacitus; and some French

been played upon him, and turned his grief to revenge upon the faithless Rollin, Thiers, Lamartinu, Michelet. German literature has, however, Egyptian king. But the story is only a screen upon which to paint the only one representative-Niebuhr, and Italian literature none.

The com

manners and customs of the Egyptians and the Persians. Dr. Ebers is a piler's introductory or explanatory notes and biographical notices are to

learned Egyptologist, Director of the Museum at Jena, and author of the point, brief and well-worded, though not entirely free from mistakes,

Aegypten und die Bücher Mose's ” (reviewed in Vol. VII. of the Nation, some of which may, however, be but typographical errors. James Feni

No. 175). He has successfully reproduced the Egypt of the Persian invamore Cooper died in 1851, not, as given, “in 1859;" the battle of Arbela

sion ; his work is remarkably free from anachronisms, and will be valuwas not fought in “330,” but in 331 ; Halicarnassus was not a city of

able for consultation ; but the story drags with the weight of the speeches ; Ionia," but a Dorian city of Caria ; Thierg was not " a member of the Pro

for the doctor has made every character as learned and technical as himvisional Government that succeeded the Revolution of 1848.” Nor do we

self. agree with Mr. Anderson when he states that the “ Consulate and Empire” of the writer just named is “considered one of the greatest historical

Publishers will confer a favor by always marking the price of their books on the works of modern times ;" when he ranks the “History of Turkey” among

"the most noted” of Lamartine's works; or when he calls Froude's style
"strong and brilliant.” In the notice of Niebuhr, there is no mention of


Publishers.-Prices. his death. Nor ought the "History of the United Netherlands" to go

Anderson (J. J.), The Historical Reader.

(Clark & Maynard) $1 80 unmentioned under “Motley,” or the “ History of the Jews" under “ Mil- Boyd (M.) Reminiscences of Fifty Years.

.(D. Appleton & Co.)

Collins (M.), Marquis and Merchant, swd. man," while many less important titles are given in other notices. The Dickens (C.), Pickwick Papers.. pronunciation of French names is often rather strangely marked, as the

Dindorf (w.), Sophocles.

(Harper & Bros.) Downing (C.), Selected Fruits.

(John Wiley & Son) following specimens may show : Do-mawl(D'Aumale), “sharong de Droz (G.), Around a Spring, swd

(Holt & Williams) mar” (Champ de Mars), “ vareduhng" (Verdun), “sang ahn-trahn" (St.

Dunn (H.), The Study of the Bible.

(G. P. Putnam & Sons) 1 50

Eberhardt (M.), Die Rechtstellung des Weibes innerhalb der Ehe, swd.. Antoine). These defects are, however, very slight compared to the merits

(Meininger & Schick) Folsom (N. S.), The Four Gospels, 2d ed.

(A. Williams & Co.) and usefulness of the “Reader.”

Forsyth (W.), Novels and Novelists of the 18th Century. (D. Appleton & Co.)
Garrett (Ruth and Edward), The Quiet Miss Godolphin, and A Chance Child, 1 vol.

(J. B. Lippincott & Co.) Gilbert (Rev. D.), The Love of Jesus...

(John Murphy & Co.) Musings over the Christian Year and Lyra Innocentium. By Char- Glenn (Jessie), Poems..

(Bannan & Ramsey) Hawthorne (Nathaniel), Twice Told Tales.

(Jas. R. Osgood & Co.) lotte Mary Yonge. A Concordance to the Christian Year. (New York:

Mosses from an Old Manse. Pott & Amery.)— To make an index or a concordance is in itself so thank

Helps (A.), Life of Hernando Cortes..

.(G. P. Putnam & Sons) 2 00 Heuson (W. S.), Modern Astronomy.

(Newark) less an office, so utterly unselfish and unprofitable a labor for the doer, Howe (Fisher), The True Site

of Calvary.

(A. D. F. Randolph & Co.) 1 00

Hutchings (J. M.), Scenes of Wonder and Curiosity in California.(A. Roman & Co.) 3 00 but so serviceable to the reading public, that one who takes the pains Jelliffe (W. M.), Good Selections in Prose and Poetry. (J. W. Schermerhorn & Co.) should have the praise, and not be permitted to veil himself behind an

Kingsley (Chas.), At Last : A Christmas in the West Indies.....(Macmillan & Co.) 2 00
Lebon (H.), The Holy Communion....

(John Murphy & Co.) 1 00 anonymous publication. All admirers of Keble will be grateful for the Leighton (R. F. A. M.), Greek Lessons..

(Ginn Bros.) "Concordance to the Christian Year;" but none more so than the hard

Lear (Edward), Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany, and Alphabets..

(Jas. R. Osgood & Co.) pressed clergyman, who, at the last moment, thinks to embellish his ser

Lever (C.), Davenport Dunn, swd.

(T. B. Peterson & Bros.) Lodeman (A.), German Conversation Tables, bds.

.(Holt & Williams) mon with an apt poetic phrasing of his text or theme. The work is Marryat (Florence), Her Lord and Master, swd.

(Harper & Bros.)

Martin (Prof. B.N.), Choice Specimens of American Literature....(Sheldon & Co.) very thoroughly and satisfactorily done.

Meredith (Owen) Lucile and Other Poems, swd.

.(Jas. R. Osgood & Co.)




75 40 50


« PreviousContinue »