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It has been rendered illustrious by the learned labors of Buffon, Cuvier, and a host of other distinguished men. Besides the grand galleries of Anatomy and Botany, there is a magnificent gallery of Mineralogy and Geology, all of them situated in a beautiful garden devoted to the Horticultural, Botanical, and Zoological part of the establishment. There are lectures delivered gratis upon Chemistry by Frémy, Electricity Becquerel, Geology by Cordier, Mineralogy by Dufrénoy, and on other subjects by men equally celebrated, such as D'Orbigny and St. Hilare. And for the purpose of giving a more thorough and complete sort of instruction than can ever be conveyed by ordinary lectures, the Cours Partiques d'Histoire Naturelle' have been established, or 'Repetitions de Minéralogie, de Geologie, de Botanique, et de Zoologie, avec manipulations et nombreux exercises à l'aide d'instruments et d'echantillons,' with charges for the whole of the four courses, $25; for one set of lectures, $6; for more than one, $5 each. Or should the student wish for more special instruction still than this, he can obtain it on any branch of Natural Science for 5fr. or $1 per lesson from any of the Assistants at the Jardin des Plantes, accompanied with the free use and examination of instruments and specimens, and what perhaps is of more advantage, a thorough initiation under their eye, into all the curiosities and treasures of these vast, beautiful, and costly collections, in many respects, probably the most complete that can be found. It will be seen, therefore, by the student, that in Paris he can have the command of all possible advantages for the prosecution of scientific studies, most of them gratis, and the rest at a moderate price."
LOVE, HOPE, AND PATIENCE.
"O'er wayward childhood would'st thou hold firm rule,
Love, Hope, and Patience, these must be thy graces,
And in thine own heart let them first keep school.
For as old Atlas on his broad neck places
And the soft murmur of the mother dove,
Woos back the fleeting spirit, and half supplies;
Thus Love repays to Hope what Hope first gave to love.
When overtasked at length
Both Love and Hope beneath the load give way.
S. T. COLERIDGE.
BY GIDEON F. THAYER,
Late Principal of Chauncy-Hall School, Boston.
BEFORE attempting to illustrate the principles laid down in my May letter, and show their application to the business of the schoolroom, I will devote one letter mainly to the subject of manners; a subject scarcely inferior in importance to that of morals themselves. Morals form the basis of human character; but manners are its decorations, and aids to its developments. Morals are the staple of human laws, the grand regulators (or should be) of human governments; manners are their gildings, which tend to soften their asperities, and win a more ready acquiescence in their observance. Morals are the solid bullion, forming the foundation of the currency of a community; manners, the small notes or coins, ever ready for use, and without which the business intercourse of mankind must cease, or retrograde to the condition of things that existed in the world's infancy. In fine, morals are the sun behind a cloud, which, though giving light to the world, lacks the genial force of its shining face; manners are the agencies that displace the cloud, and reveal the glorious orb in all its original power.
We hence perceive an intimate connection between the two. Neither is complete in itself. One is the complement of the other. They should not be separated. Morals divorced from manners, would be cold and repulsive; united to them, they become attractive and pleasing. While manners, unassociated with morals, degenerate into hypocrisy furnishing an illustration of the "whited sepulchre" of the New Testament.
Let it be understood, then, that in speaking of manners, civility, courtesy, or politeness, for I shall use them synonymously,—I allude to them as having a right foundation, and as belonging to moral duty. They give a charm to social intercourse, which nothing else can supply. This is a fact universally admitted; and yet one that seems to be less practised upon, in each succeeding year of our nation's history.
It was once a sufficient guaranty for gentlemanly manners, that the individual had been reared by respectable parents. This is now by no means a conclusive inference. Family training, in many instances,
disuse; and chance. or the The respect always due to
perhaps in a majority,-has fallen into will of the young, has taken its place. parents, to seniors in age, to superiors in station, in wisdom, and virtue, has so nearly died out in this country, as to have undermined the very foundation of that for which I am pleading. For, if from those whose claims are of a paramount nature, the ordinary civilities of refined life are withheld, it is in vain to expect they will be extended to the stranger, encountered in the marts of business, the walks of pleasure, or the rounds of general intercourse.
An apostle, in writing to a young friend, says, in speaking of children, "let them learn to show piety at home,"-meaning duty to parents, or those in superior relation. Here, then, at home, is where the sentiment is to take root, be nurtured, and made to grow. influence will then go forth with the young, controlling their behavior towards others, and checking that rudeness which has become a reproach to our country among the more civilized nations of the earth.
Since, then, this duty has come to be so much neglected by those on whom it naturally devolves, the teacher is to exercise double diligence in its inculcation. And, although it may be very discouraging, espe cially at the outset of your teaching, to think that you work singlehanded, let me entreat you to take courage; to assure you that, in most cases, your efforts will be appreciated and seconded at the homes of the pupils. It is not that fathers and mothers do not wish to have their children grow up, adorned with the graces, as well as imbued with the good morals, properly belonging to a Christian community: they are very glad to have this boon bestowed upon them; but the pursuit of business-the accumulation of wealth-engrosses the father's attention, absorbs his time, and leaves him no leisure for the home instruction of his children. The mother may do what she can, but without her husband's coöperation, her best endeavors are often neutralized. When, however, she finds the work begun at school, she is eager in assisting the teacher to carry out his plans. Ascertaining what they are, she strives to enforce them when the children are in her presence, and each aids the other in the good work.
But how are the details in this training to be carried into practice? To answer this, involves numerous particulars. To teach penmanship well, a man must write well himself; to make good readers, he must read well; to make good mathematicians, he must understand well the subject. "As is the teacher, so is the school." The aim and effort of the man, who would impress the stamp of the Christian gentleman upon the manners, habits, and character, of each one of his pupils, must be to deserve that appellation himself! In proportion
as he merits this, will he succeed in multiplying the copies of so desirable a work.
Let us now ascertain the elements of genuine politeness. The counterfeit we should eschew as we would a spurious bank-note. It can have no connection with morals; and it is politeness, as coadjutor with morals, which it is our purpose to encourage and promote.
Politeness, or good manners, then, we consider as the offspring of benevolence, love, or kindness of heart. Its aim is to make others happy; to smooth down the rough edges and sharp points to be met in our collisions with society, and thus to prevent that friction from human intercourse which is inevitable without the exercise of this meliorating grace. From the uncouth bearing of many individuals, it may be deemed impossible, in their cases, to add or develop this grace; and it is admitted that the task will not be a light one. But there is a germ of the "raw material" in every human soul; and the business of the educator is to unfold, to form, and direct it. This will be difficult or easy, according to the temperament of the respective subjects; but, be assured, it is invariably attainable, although not in equal degrees. Every one may be taught, by proper attention and needful skill, to write well; but no human power can make elegant penmen of all. Some have an innate incapacity for the perfection of the art. So it is with forming the manners. Still, this should furnish no excuse for omitting the attempt. The effort is all the more necessary. When Lowell Mason, nearly thirty years ago, introduced instruction in vocal music into the school with which I was then connected, in trying the voices of the pupils, he discovered that some possessed very limited vocal power-capable of sounding no more than three notes of the scale; but he did not turn them aside, saying, -as had been the practice with his predecessors in teaching the art, —that "they had no voice, and could never make singers; " no; he said, wisely, that they needed instruction and training so much the more, that their natural deficiencies might be, to some extent, counteracted; and the result proved the soundness of his judgment. In six months they had nearly doubled their power, and could sound, some five, some six notes.
Some persons are, apparently, born ladies or gentlemen, and require little or no direction from others. Some, with an intuitive faculty of imitation, take on the most agreeable and finished manners, from being surrounded by suitable examples. Others, of an easy and goodnatured temperament, float on under its influence, securing the good will of their associates, quite unconsciously and without effort.
But a large majority of children, at the school-going age, are (to borrow Addison's idea) like the marble in the quarry, and need the hand of the polisher to develop their latent capabilities.
Impressed, then, with these truths, I would say to you, my young brother, let the Courtesy of the Heart distinguish your whole deportment-when instructing a class, as well as when in private conversation with their parents or others; at home and abroad; in your own study, and at the public exhibition. Have not one code of manners for the fireside or the school-room, and another for company; excepting in the degrees of deference which different ages and stations demand. These are recognized and claimed by the hand-book of our divine religion. Never lose your self-respect, your good language, your temper, nor your philanthropy. To do either of these would undo the beneficial effect of a long course of verbal instruction.
Many young men, at college and elsewhere, away from the restraining and refining influence of the gentler sex, acquire ungainly habits, which they afterwards continue to practise, perhaps unconsciously, even when they have become teachers,—such as throwing the chair back and causing it to rest on its two hind legs; putting the feet, raised breast-high, on the desk or form in the school-room; cutting and scraping the nails in company, &c., very much to the scandal of the profession, and highly derogatory to the delinquents. I need not say how ill-bred, how disgusting such habits are.
Few persons, of ordinary reflection, need be in doubt on any point of good or ill breeding. When a common instinct or sense of propriety fails to settle the point in your mind, the example of the individual among your acquaintance, of acknowledged taste and refinement, may be relied on as a safe guide.
Although conventional usage fixes a certain standard of civility for its own observance in almost every country, there are certain laws of courtesy, that are universal among civilized nations: one of which is, to avoid doing whatever may offend the taste, delicacy, or feelings, of the company in which we are. Another, to do what will contribute to the happiness, pleasure, or innocent enjoyment of one's associates. A third, to waive, for another's comfort, any little gratification to ourselves. He who is not prepared to adopt, for his own guidance, these fundamental rules of genuine politeness, will fail to rise to any considerable eminence among the truly polite, and must present to others but a poor model for their imitation.
There is a prestige in the very bearing of a man of genuine goodbreeding, which every one feels on entering his presence. I remem