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[No. V.] 5 & G W. IV. c. 54.—An Act to render certain No. V.

Marriages valid, and to alter the Law with respect to certain 5 *'

voidable Marriages. [31st August 1835]. t c J' ,

^THEREAS marriages between persona within the prohibited degrees are voidable only by sentence of the ecclesiastical court pronounced during the lifetime of both the parties thereto, and it is unreasonable tait the state and condition of the children of marriages between persons nthin the prohibited degrees of affinity should remain unsettled during «o long a period, and it is fitting that all marriages which may hereafter be celebrated between persons within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity or affinity should be ipso facto void, and not merely voidable: be it therefore enacted, &c. That all marriages which shall have been cele- Marriages bebrated before the passing of this act between persons being within the fore the passing prohibited degrees of affinity shall not hereafter be annulled for that of this act of cause by any sentence of the ecclesiastical court, unless pronounced in a persons within unit which shall be depending at the time of the passing of this act: 'lle prohibited provided that nothing hereinbefore enacted shall affect marriages be- deSrecs not to tveen persons being within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity. 8 annu

II. That all marriages which shall hereafter be celebrated between Marriages of persons within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity or affinity shall persons within be absolutely null and void to all intents and purposes whatsoever. prohibited degrees hereafter to be absolutely void.

III. Provided always, that nothing in this act shall be construed to Not to extend extend to that part of the United Kingdom called Scotland. to Scotland.




[There has been no recent statute on this subject. The provisions of the new Poor Law Act, (4 and 5 W. 4, c. 76,) with respect to Bastards *ill be found under Part VI., Justices of the Peace, Class 28, Poor.]




Applications for writs of prohibitions

[No. I.] 1 W. IV. c.21.—An act to improve the Proceedings in
Prohibitionand on Writs of Mandamus. [30th March 1831.]

"WHEREAS the filing a suggestion of record on application for a writ of prohibition is productive of unnecessary expence, and the allegation of contempt in a declaration in prohibition filed before writ issued is an unnecessary form; and it is expedient to make some better provision for payment of costs in cases of prohibition; be it enacted, &c. That it shall not be necessary to file a suggestion on any application for inaybemadeon a writ of prohibition, but such application may be made on affidavits affidavitonly. only; and in case the party applying shall be directed to declare in proContents of hibition before writ issued, such declaration shall be expressed to be on declaration behalf of such party only, and not, as heretofore, on the behalf of the in case the party and of his Majesty, and shall contain and set forth in a concise party is directed manner so much only of the proceeding in the court below as may be to declare in necessary to shew the ground of the application, without alleging the prohibition. delivery of a writ or any contempt, and shall conclude by praying that Defendant may a writ of prohibition may issue; to which declaration the party defendant demur to de- may demur, or plead such matters, by way of traverse or otherwise, as may be proper to shew that the writ ought not to issue, and conclude by praying that such writ may not issue; and judgment shall be given, that the writ of prohibition do or do not issue, as justice may require; and the party in whose favour judgment shall be given, whether on nonsuit, verdict, demurrer, or otherwise, shall be entitled to the costs attending the application and subsequent proceedings, and have Judgment to recover the same; and in case a verdict shall be given for the party plaintiff in such declaration, it shall be lawful for the jury to assess damages, for which judgment shall also be given, but such assessment shall not be necessary to entitle the plaintiff to costs.

II. That so much of an act passed in the second and third years of the reign of king Edward the sixth, intituled, An Act for Payment of Tithes, as relates to prohibition, shall be and the same is hereby repealed.

III. And whereas the provisions contained in a certain act of parliament passed in the ninth year of the reign of Queen Anne, intituled, An Act for rendering the Proceedings upon Writs of Mandamus and Informations in the nature of a Quo warranto more speedy and effectual,

returns to writs and for the more easy trying and determining the rights of Offices and of mandamus Franchises in Corporations and Boronghs, relating to the writs of mantherein men- damus therein mentioned, have been found useful and convenient, and tioned, and the the same ought to be extended to the proceeding on other such writs: proceedings oe jt therefore enacted, That the several enactments contained in the t l«Tt "il 8a^ 8tatute relating to the return to writs of mandamus, and the proolher writs of codings on such returns, and to the recovery of damages and costs, shall be and the same are hereby extended and made applicable to all other writs of mandamus, and the proceedings thereon, except so far only as the same may be varied or altered by this act.

IV. And whereas writs of mandamus, other than such as relate to the offices and franchises mentioned in or provided for by the said act madein the ninth year of the reign of Queen Anne, are sometimes isued to




So much of 2
& 3 Ed. 6, c.
13, as relates
to prohibition
The enact-
ments of 9
Anne, c. 20,
relating to


For protection of certain officers to

whom writs of mandamus are directed.

officers and other persons, commanding them to admit to offices, or d No. I. or perform other matters, in respect whereof the persons to whom such I W. 4, c. 21.

writs are directed claim no right or interest, or whose functions are -v v i

merely ministerial in relation to such offices or matters; and it may be proper that such officers and persons should in certain cases be protected against the payment of damages or costs to which they may otherwise become liable; be it therefore enacted, That it shall be lawful for the court to which application may be made for any writ of mandamus, (other than such as relate to the said offices and franchises mentioned In or provided for by the said act made in the reign of Queen Anne,) if such court shall see fit so to do, to make rules and orders, calling not only upon the person to whom such writ may be required to issue, but also all and every other person having or claiming any right or interest in or to the matter of such writ, to shew cause against the issuing of such writ and payment of costs of the application, and upon the appearance of such other person in compliance with such rules, or in default of appearance after service thereof, to exercise all such powers and authorities, and make all such rules and orders, applicable to the case, as are or may be given or mentioned by or in any act passed or to be passed during this present session of parliament for giving relief against adverse claims made upon persons having no interest in the subject of such claims: Provided always, that the return to be made to any such writ, and issues joined in fact or in law upon any traverse thereof, or upon any demurrer, shall be-made and joined by and in the name of the person to whom such writ shall be directed; but nevertheless the same shall and may, if the court shall think fit so to direct, be expressed to be made and joined on the behalf of such other person as may be mentioned in such rules; and in that case such other person shall be permitted to frame the return, and to conduct the subsequent proceedings, at his own expence; and in such case, if any judgment shall be given, for or against the party suing such writ, such judgment shall be given against or for the person or persons on whose behalf the return shall be expressed to be made, and who shall have the like remedy for the recovery of costs and enforcing the judgment as the person to whom the writ shall have been directed might and would otherwise have had.

V. That in case the return to any such writ, shall, in pursuance of Proceedings the authority given by this act, be expressed to be made on behalf of not to at,a'e Dy any other person as aforesaid, the further proceedings on such writ shall rera°va' of not abate or be discontinued by the death or resignation of, or removal 0 cer

from office of, the person having made such return, but the same shall and may be continued and carried on in the name of such person; and if a peremptory writ shall be awarded, the same shall and may be directed to any successor in office or right to such person.

VI. And for making some further provision for the payment of costs Costs to be in on applications for mandamus, be it further enacted, That in all cases tnc discretion of application for any writ of mandamus whatsoever, the costs of such °ftne court, application, whether the writ shall be granted or refused, and also the

costs of the writ, if the same shall be issued and obeyed, shall be in the discretion of the court, and the court is hereby authorized to order and direct by whom and to whom the same shall be paid.

[It was held that the above statute did not apply to cases where the proceeding had commenced before the statute came into operation. Bex v. Inhabitants of Wise, 2 Barn, and Adol. 197, and Rex v. Hungerford Market Company, 2 Barn, and Adol. 204, note.

Under the 6th section the costs of a mandamus and of applying for it may be obtained by a distinct motion, after the issuing of the writ, and upon such a motion the court will refer for its guidance to the affidavits filed in support of the application for a mandamus, if it be clear that both applications are made by the same parties. Best v. Kirke, 5 Barn, and Adol. 1089]

No. II. [No. II.] 2 and 3 W. IV. c. 69.—An Act to prevent the 2 & 3 W. 4, Application of Corporate Property to the Purposes of

c. 69. Election of Members to serve in Parliament. 'v' - . [1st August 1832.]

^yHEREAS the property belonging to cities, towns, cinque ports, and boroughs corporate in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland may be wasted and dissipated by the application thereof in or towards the expences attendant upon parliamentary elections, to the great detriment of such municipal corporations; and it is expedient to make provision to prevent such detriment, and also to ensure the freedom of election by restraining the application of corporate property as before-mentioned: be it therefore enacted, &c.: That from and after the passing of this act it shall not be lawful for any municipal corporation as aforesaid, or any court, guild, council, or assembly constituting or composed of the ruling or governing part or class thereof, or any corporate officer, trustee, or other person acting on behalf of such Monies or per- corporation or any part thereof, to pay, transfer, give, bestow, or apply Tdonmnifto' any- 8um or sums °* money, or any parliamentary or other stocks, funds, niVniupai cor- or securities for money, or any personal chattel, belonging to or vested porations not m tne same corporation or any part thereof, or in any individual in to be applied in trust for, or for the benefit of such corporation, in satisfaction, comor towards par-pensation, or discharge of any expences incident to or incurred or liamentary occasioned by the election of a member to serve in the commons house elections: of parliament, or by any person offering himself as a candidate at or previous to a parliamentary election; and that all bonds, covenants, recognizances, or judgments given, executed, or suffered by any such corporation, or any part or class thereof, or by any corporate officer, trustee, or other person in the name or on the behalf of such corpo, „ , , ration, for the purpose of securing the payment of such expences, shall ^ffc'J^ be utterly void

the same voi'l°B ^*nat anv g'1^* transfers, payments, or gratuities, bonds, covenants, recognizances, or judgments, made, paid, given, executed, or suffered by any corporation, part of a corporation, or corporate officer, or trustee, or other person as aforesaid, for the purpose of inducing or influencing _ , any person or persons to labour in parliamentary elections at a future

niado for'tlio °' t'me> or to Pay> satisfy, or incur any such expences as aforesaid at a purpose of in- futurc time, shall be deemed to be payments, transfers, applications, dueuigany per-an(' securities forbidden and declared void by this act, although the son to exert same may be ostensibly and colourably made, paid, given, executed, or himself in elec- suffered for any other cause or consideration.

tions at a future III. That all conveyances, mortgages, leases, or other assurances or time to be con- dispositions of lands, tenements, or hereditaments, belonging to or ■ sidered as with vested in or held in trust for any municipal corporation, made or exem this act. cuted for the purpose of securing, satisfying, or compensating any All dispositions expences, debts, payments, or disbursements, liabilities or engagements, of real property, incurred or to be incurred by the same corporation, or any part or class for the purpose thereof, or any member, officer, or trustee thereof, or by any other perof satisfying or son on behalf of such corporation, contrary to the true intent and securing any meaning of this act, and all estates, charges, and incumbrances thereby expences here- created, shall be utterly void.

by prohibited, iy 'rqiat an votes, orders, or resolutions, acts, bye laws, or other proto be void. ceedings made, passed, or adopted by any municipal corporation, or any All votes and part 0r class thereof, or any member or members thereof, for the purposeother proceed-of directing or authorizing, or pretending to direct or authorize, any this acUobyt° Payment» matter, or thing forbidden by this act, or for the purpose of voy evading the provisions hereby enacted, shall be utterly void.

V. That any corporate officer, trustee, or other person who shall No. II. make or concur in making any payment, transfer, or application of cor- 2 & 3 W. 4, poration money, stocks, funds, or securities, or personal chattel, as c. 69.

aforesaid, contrary to the true intent and meaning of this act, shall be * v'

deemed and taken to have made the same in his own wrong, and that Corporate

be shall be individually liable to repay, satisfy, and make good the officers or

amount or value thereof to the same corporation, notwithstanding any others making

release or pretended indemnity which may be given to him in the name any payment

of the same corporation or any part or class thereof, or by any person contrary to this

or persona on behalf of such corporation. , , , ac.1',0 ma,ke

r good the amount orvalue 60 misapplied.

VI. And in order to frustrate any fraudulent connivance or conceal- Corporators oent, be it enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for any two or empowered to more freemen, burgesses, or corporators of such municipal corporation l>r'ng. actions to commence, bring, and prosecute any action or 6uit at law or in or 9u't9 fm,''le equity, in the name of the same corporation, against any officer, trustee, name .

or other person who may have made such illegal payment, transfer, or corra lonapplication as above mentioned, in the same manner, to all intents and purposes, as if they, their executors and administrators, were jointly and severally appointed the irrevocable attorneys of such corporation Cor that purpose: Provided nevertheless, that before the defendant in such action or suit shall be required to plead or answer, the plaintiffs shall give reasonable security for payment of costs, in case any shall become due from them, by the event of the action or suit, in such manner as the court in which the same shall be brought may direct; such costs to be taxed as between attorney and client

VII. That any member of a municipal corporation who shall autho- Members of rize, direct, or command any payment, transfer, or application hereby corporations forbidden, or who shall assent to or concur or participate in any affirm- offending ative vote, order, or proceeding relating thereto, or shall sign or seal in aga,|lst this act his individual capacity or affix the corporate seal to any deed or instru- 8»"}y ofa ment hereby declared void, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and, being nllsilcmeanurthereof legally convicted in his Majesty's court of King's Bench at Westminster, shall, in addition to such punishment as the court may

award, be for ever disabled to take, hold, or exercise any office in the corporation.

[No. III.] 2&3 W. IV. c. 80.—An Act to authorize the identifying of Lands and other Possessions of certain Ecclesiastical and Collegiate Corporations. [3d August 1832.]

\yHEREAS the archbishops and bishops of the several dioceses, and the deans, and deans and chapters, archdeacons, prebendaries, and canons, and other dignitaries and officers of the several cathedral and collegiate churches and chapels, and the masters or other heads, and fellows and scholars or other societies of the several colleges and halls in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and of the colleges of Winchester and Eton, are proprietors of divers manors, messuages, lands, tenements, tithes, and hereditaments, and in many cases the boundaries or quantities and the identity of lands within such manors, and of such messuages, lands, tenements, and hereditaments, and of lands subject to any such tithes, or some part or parts thereof, are unknown or disputed, and it would be a great benefit, as well to such proprietors respectively, as to their lessees, copyhold or customary tenants, sub-lessees, or under-tenants, their, his, or her heirs, executors, administrators, or assigns, if the said manors, messuages, lands, tenements, tithes, and hereditaments were identified, and the boundaries and quantities thereof ascertained and finally settled: Be it enacted, &c. that Ai-chbislioiis, bishops, deans and chapters, &c. may enter into agreements or deeds erf reference with their lc-scc. io ascertain and settle unknown or disputed boundaries 01 quantiliesof manors, fie. leased.

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