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When the air of the chant has been learned in this manner, it may very easily be applied to the words of any psalm whatever. Each verse of the Psalms is divided by a colon (:) into two parts, corresponding to the two parts of the chant; that is, the colon represents the double bar. In the first half of each verse, all the words preceding the figure 2 are pronounced to the reciting note. The remainder of the words are sung to their respective notes, 2, 3, 4. So, again, in the second part of the verse, or that which follows the colon, all the words preceding the figure 2, belong to the reciting note. The remainder of the words are sung according as they are marked to the notes, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Thus :

Praise the Lord, 20 3my 'soul; and all that is within me praise "His "ho "ly "name

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Praise the Lord, O my soul; and all that is praise His | holy | name.

within me

The figures, it will be observed, are always set before the syllables, or words, which are to be sung to the notes represented by them. A figure set before a word, or part of a word of two or three syllables, denotes that all those syllables are to be sung to the note represented by the figure. Thus,

Praise Him, and magni 'fy "Him "for "ever,

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Which the wind scattereth a 'way from the face of the "earth,

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Again when two or more figures are set before a syllable, they shew that the syllable is to be sung to all the notes represented by those figures.

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With respect to the division of the words, the medium course followed in this work may be defended on the authority of the Rev. JOHN JEBB, in his work on the Choral Service of the English Church :

"The transition" he says, "from the reciting note to the melody should be as smooth and gentle as possible; and the best way to secure concord in the Choir, when delivering the final bars, would be to attend to the prosodial value of the syllables, or rather to the accents of the words. As a general rule, the melody, in the first part, ought to be upon the last three syl. lables in the second part, upon the last five; as in this verse :—

Praise him | Sun. and | Moon || praise him | all. ye | stars . and | light.

"But where one of the final words consists of two short syllables, or of a long and a short, but one note should be given to it; as for example :

The Lord is King, be the people never | so. im | patient: || He sitteth between the Cherubims, be the earth | ne.ver | so un quiet.

"Two extreme systems are observed in different Choirs upon

this head.

"The first may be called the syllabic system, which is, to give

the last three or five notes to the last three or five syllables, whatever may be their prosodial value or importance: as,

Ascribe unto the Lord, O ye kindreds of the . peo | ple: || ascribe unto the Lord worship | and. pow | er.

"Now by this system the rhythm of the words, and what is far worse, the parallelism is altogether lost.

"By the other method, which may be called the accented, the division is altogether regulated by accent: that is, the last notes are assigned to the last three or five accented syllables. For example :

O come let us sing. unto the | Lord || let us heartily re | joice in. the strength of our salvation.

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"By this method attention is doubtless paid to the sense, and the Chant is made intelligible. But it may be carried too far; and by crowding so many words into each note, the solemnity of the Chant is impaired, and the harshness of a language already abounding in so many consonants and close vowels, is exaggerated.

"The proper method lies between these extremes. Due attention being paid to the rhythm, regard at the same time should be had to the more deliberate and solemn enunciation of certain syllables, which, from the proneness to abbreviate incident to all languages, we have been taught to slur over, to the great detriment of melody. For example, while it is quite right to give but one long note to the two last syllables of such a word as salvation, or indignation, it may be questioned whether our Choirs do well in making a harsh tribrach, assigned to be one note, of such a word as righteousness, or Israel. In ancient poetry, these would have each claimed a long syllable: nor would such an occasional archaism be ungraceful in modern poetical composition. The same may be said of such a word as enemies. Nor should the lesser words be always slurred over. For example:

Such as be foolish shall not stand | in thy | sight: []

"Here each word, if properly considered, has a substantial gravity of its own.”

In dividing the words, I have thrown more into the melody than the author just quoted would approve; it is, however, in a great measure, a matter of taste, in which no two persons, in going through the Psalter, would be likely always to agree. Nor should the same words always be divided in the same way. Thus, it may be proper to sing such words as Enemies, Israel, Righteousness, sometimes to one note and sometimes to three, according to the nature of the psalm. The words of an animated and cheerful psalm should, of course, be more rapidly enunciated, both in the melody and in the recitative, than those of a plaintive psalm, in which it would be natural to dwell upon and prolong them. Accordingly, there should be corresponding divisions. Unless all expression is to be laid aside in chanting, it is obvious that the same words in different connections should be differently divided.

Again in the point under consideration, we must not lose sight of the nature of the English Chant. It consists both of recitative and melody, and these must not be confounded. In one, we read the words to a single note; in the other, we sing them to an air or melody. Thus, chanting is alternate reading and singing; but if too many words are thrown into the melody it becomes all reading. The flow of the melody is destroyed. It is broken up and becomes harsh from its being scattered among so many particles. Thus, in some of the pointed Psalters, we have such readings as the following :-

In so much that whoso | seeth them. shall | laugh them. to | scorn.

Trusted in the multitude of his riches, and | strengthened. him | self. in his [ wickedness.

And plenteousness. with | in. thy | palaces.

The transition from the recitative to the melody must often be made upon unimportant words; nor to avoid this should we give more syllables than are desirable to the melody. Such unimportant words need not be strongly accented, notwithstanding they begin a bar. Indeed, when the recitative ends with a word or

syllable, to which some force may be given, the first note of the melody may have comparatively little accent. Thus :

He spake, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast. Now, merely in order to avoid beginning a bar with the conjunction and, many would divide the words in the latter phrase, thus :—

He com

manded, and




Here the transition to the melody is hard; nor is the reading so good as that previously given :

He commanded-and it stood fast.

This example will elucidate the principle on which many of the divisions are made, where the melody begins with an unaccented word. The same is often done only for the sake of avoiding an abrupt change from the recitative to the melody. Thus :

rather than


O come let us sing. un | to. the | Lord,

O come let us sing. unto the | Lord,

O come let us sing | unto. the | Lord,

Let us magnify .his. | name. together,

is smoother and more agreeable, though it may be less correct, than

Let us magnify. his | name. to | gether.

A devout or reverential expression sometimes dictates a dwelling upon a word which might otherwise be passed over rapidly. Thus,

rather than

Lead me for Thy | name's sake,

Lead me for Thy | name's sake.

These are some of the principles kept in view in dividing the words. To state them all would require a dissertation on the

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