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aorists in each voice; indeed, as Veitch has pointed on it is one of the very few verbs that have the seco. aorist active and passive in actual use,' (thought former is very rare, while in Attic prose neither is ev found). Again, as compared with some other ver impura, with a consonant for their characteristic letti it has this advantage; that the stem-vowel remains u changed throughout, and is thus identical in, for i stance, the aorist and present participle alike (TUTand τύπ-τ-ων), whereas in λείπω, φαίνω, τήκω as compar: with έ-λιπ-ον, έ-φάν-ην, εντάκ-ην, the stem-vowels whi appear in the aorist have suffered modification in t present; also the consonantal relations between the d ferent tenses are simpler than in the case of some oth verbs; thus, while ß in e-Bluß-mv becomes a in Bida-1no such alteration is necessary in passing from the -TU of the second aorist to the strengthened form TUTTthe present.

The verb is not without an interest of its own in t] history of grammar; and though it may be rash to co: jecture whether it owed its first selection to the gri humour of some plagosus Orbilius of old times, inter on bringing each tense's meaning home to his pupil memories by the help of his ferule, it may be interestin to note that this particular paradigm is found in th early Greek Grammars which appeared in Italy at th revival of learning, as for instance in the Eroteinata « Chrysoloras, a distinguished scholar, who in the ded cation of a copy in my possession, printed at Venice the Aldine press in 1517) is described as Manuel Chr, soloras, qui primus Iuniorum reportauit in Italiā litero græcas *. The paradigm may also be traced still furthe

* On Chrysoloras, see Mullirger's History of the University Cambridge, pp. 391–396, where the Erotcmata is called “th

vol. II.;

back to the Canons of Theodosius, an Alexandrine grammarian of the age of Constantine the Great, who expounds all the parts, regardless of usage, and at considerable length (viz. on pp. 1008-1044 of Θεοδοσίου γραμματικού εισαγωγικοί κανόνες περί κλίσεως ρημάτων in Bekker's Anecdota Græca, vol. 111.) The Grammar of Theodosius is in its turn founded on that of a more celebrated Greek scholar, Dionysius the Thracian, who taught at Rome in B.C. 80. The τέχνη γραμματική of the latter is a short work, 00cupying only pp. 629—643 in Bekker's Anecdota Græca,

it was a standard text-book for many centuries and is the original basis of all subsequent grammars. I quote a few words from chap. xv, which bear on our present subject : διαθέσεις δέ εισι τρείς, ενέργεια, πάθος, μεσότης ενέργεια μεν οίον τύπτω, πάθος δε οίον τύπτομαι, μεσότης δε ή ποτέ μεν ενέργειαν, ποτέ δε πάθος παριστωσα, οιον πέπoιθα, διέφθορα, εποιησάμην, έγραψάμην *. Shortly after, he proceeds : αριθμοί δε τρείς, ενικός, δυϊκός και πληθυντικός: ενικός μεν οίον τύπτω, δυϊκός δε οιον τύπτετον, πληθυντικός δε οιον τύπτομεν" πρόσωπα δε τρία, πρώτον, δεύτερον, τρίτον πρώτον μεν οίον τύπτω, δεύτερον οίον τύπτεις, τρίτον οίον τύπτει.

But however well this verb may be adapted as a typical form for the beginner, and however interesting it may be as a tradition of the earlier grammarians, it can

Greek Grammar of the first century of the Renaissance.' It served Reuchlin for a model at Orleans, was used by Linacre at Oxford and Erasmus Cambridge, and long continued to hold its ground against formidable rivals,' p. 395. The date of his arrival in Italy was 1396. The Aldine edition above referred to is of course a reprint.

* It is quoted étuyaunu in Graefenhan, Geschichte der Classischen Philologie, II. p. 481, q. V.; but Dionysius appears in the rest of the chapter to confine himself to tenses in actual use and is therefore likely to have avoided ετυψάμην. . P. S. D. ΙΙ.

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not be too clearly understood that very few of the tense are really used by the best Greek authors.

The tense given in the paradigm are all formed regularly on th principles of analogy alone, regardless of the opposit principles of anomaly which prevail in the usage of th Greek writers themselves. In Attic Prose none of th tenses given in the grammars are found except th present and imperfect, active and passive, TÚATW an έτυπτον, τύπτομαι and έτυπτόμην. The future active is no τύψω but τυπτήσω, and the aorists in use are borrowe from other verbs, and are really énátaša and énnyn ČTUŲa is never found in Attic Prose, and the reference + Lysias, fragment 10, 2, given in Veitch's Greek Verbs, ar repeated, apparently without verification, in Liddell ar Scott's Lexicon, supplies us with no real exception. TI passage, when examined, proves to be part of an expositic by the late rhetorician Theon (Progymnasmata 2 p. 16 of a possibly genuine speech of Lysias. The words a έγκυμονα τις έτυψε κατά γαστρος και κρίνεται φόνου, whe Lysias himself would undoubtedly have written éméras as is proved by a passage in Or. 13 § 71, o pacúßov τύπτει τον Φρύνιχον και καταβάλλει πατάξας. The followin passages will further illustrate the prose usage of th defective verb, Lysias, Or. 4 § 15, Tótepovémýyny étrátata; id. Or. 1 SS 25—27, where udtagas kataßaX is followed by the corresponding passive forms ilmy κατέπεσεν, Dem. Οr. 4 8 40, ο πληγείς καν ετέρωσε πατάξι Τhuc. VΙΙΙ. 92, ο Φρύνιχος πληγείς followed by ο πατάς déduyev. Again in Plato's Laws, p. 879 1-E, we ha τίπτοντα And τύπτεις followed by πατάξαι, and soon aft τύπτει τη μάστιγι followed by όσας αν αυτός πατάξη : 80 p. 880 Β, εάν τις τύπτη τον πρεσβύτερον...τη του πληγέν: rdekią, and in p. 882 the last two forms occur twice ovi Cf. Aristot. Eth. V. 4. 4, όταν ο μεν πληγή ο δε πατά ομοία και ει ισχυρος ασθενή πατάξαι ή πληγήναι προκαλέσαιτο, Eth. v. 5. 4, ει αρχήν έχων επάταξεν, ου δεί αντιπληγήναι, και εί άρχοντα επάταξεν, ου πληγήναι μόνον δει αλλά και κολασθήναι. Rhet. Ι. 15, 29, πατάξαι η πληγήναι, de αnima B, 8, p. 419 και 15, το τύπτουν και το τυπτόμενον... αν πληγή, p. 420 α 24, ου δη παν ψοφεί τυπτόμενον και τύπτον, οίον εαν πατάξη βελόνη βελόνην, p. 423 και 16, πληγείσα επάταξεν, Soph. Elench. p. 168 α 6 άν τις τύπτη τούτον και τούτον, άνθρωπον αλλ' ουκ ανθρώπους τυπτήσει, and Meteorologica, p. 368 α 18, τύπτων...τύπτον...τύπτεται, p. 371 6 10, ή μέλλει πατάξεις, κινείται πριν πληγήναι, while three lines below we find και εαν πατάξη.-Among other parts similarly borrowed we have πέπληγα, πέπληγμαι, πεπλήξομαι and πληγήσομαι.--So in Latin, ferio, percussi, etc.

But one of the best studies on this point of usage is the Speech of Demosthenes κατά Κόνωνος, where we find the following forms; in 8 81 τύπτειν, in 8 17 τύπτων, in 3 4 έτυπτον, in ss 32 and 35 τυπτόμενον, with the verbal τυπτητέος in $ 44. Again in 8 31 we have πατάξαι (not τύψαι or πλήξαι), and in 8 33 επλήγην (not έπατάχθην, or ετύπην, much less ετύφθην). Further in 8 25 πατάξαντι stands side by side with τύπτειν; and lastly we have the phrases πληγές ενέτειναν (S 5) and ειληφέναι και δεδωκέναι πληγας ($ 14), which assist in making up for the defective tenses. It is reserved for the late writer who composed the Argument to use the unclassical form τετυπτήσθαι.

For the usage of this verb in Attic Verse, see Veitch's excellent book on Greek Verbs, where it will be noticed that almost the only part used besides those found in Prose is τυπείς; the student should also read the interesting criticisms of Cobet in pp. 330—343 of his Variae lectiones,

WHAT OUVOIKO 10 ALISHIAINN

EXCURSUS (B). On the quantity of čutrvos (Or. 54 § 12). In Soph. Phil. 1378, the phrase čutivos Báois is us with reference to the festering foot of Philoctetes, but 1 position of the words, at the end of an iambic line, lea the quantity undetermined. This may however be asc tained (i) by the accent of the word from which it is rived, viz. muov, which according to the express statem of the grammarian Arcadius should never be writt Tûov; (ii) by the fact that Empedocles makes the fi syllable of rúov short. We may further notice that + adjective and its derivatives occur (as might be expect not unfrequently in Hippocrates and the medical write and that one of these, Galen (lib. xiii. p. 876), quotes full an Elegiac poem in which Andromachus the elder, describing the virtues of his potent antidote, or Anplaki) éxidvôv, has the following couplet, which determines 1 quantity of the word:

και μογερών στέρνων απολύσεται έμπυον έλύν

πινομένη πολλούς μέχρις επήελίους. . Hence we conclude that the lexicons of Liddell and Sco and of Dr Pape (in their latest editions), are unwarran in marking the penultimate as long ;-an oversight wh does not occur in the fourth edition of the former lexic and is doubtless due to a confusion between the quantit of tò tvov, the Latin pus, and o trūós, the Lat. colostra beestings).

EXCURSUS (C). On the meaning of avtoankulos (Or. 54 S 14). The exact meaning of this word is difficult to termine, and the Grammarians content themselves w giving us a wide choice of conflicting explanations. H pocration, for instance, has the following article.

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