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διά του χωρίου, την αιμασιαν περιωκοδόμησε ταύ. 12 και ως ταύτ' αληθή λέγω, παρέξομαι μεν και μάρτυ

υμίν τους ειδότας, πολύ δε, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, μαρτύρων ισχυρότερα τεκμήρια. Καλλικλής μεν φησι την χαράδραν άποικοδομήσαντα βλάπτειν αυτόν· εγώ δ' αποδείξω χωρίον ον τούτ' άλλ'

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3 αυτον Ζ.


of words is discussed. He apparently understands επινέμειν in this passage to refer to a 'common trespass ;' but this is sufficiently expressed by βαδιζόντων διά του χωρίου, and it is therefore better to give πινεμόντων that special application to the encroachment of cattle' ' which it constantly bears.

αιμασιάν.] Never used in the sense of a 'hedge,' but always of a 'wall of dry stones.' In Odyss. XVIII. 359 and XXIV. 224-230, αιμασίας λέγειν is explained in a scholium, olkoδομών έκ συλλεκτών λίθων, and Hesychius paraphrases the word το εκ πολλών λίθων λογάδων αθροισμα. Thus in Theocr I. 45, a boy watching a vineyard is described as sitting εφ' αιμασιαϊσι, and in v. 93 we have roses growing in beds beside the garden-wall, ρόδα των άνδηρα παρ' αιμασιαΐσι πεφύκει. Cf. Plat. legg. 881 Α, περιβόλους αιμασιώδεις τινάς, τειχών ερύματα.

In Bekker's Anecdota Graeca p. 356, we have the definition, το εκ χαλίκων ωκοδομημένον τειχίον, where the next few words, κυρίως δε τους ήκανθωμένους λέγεται φραγμούς, shew that such walls were sometimes topped with thorns (Odyss. xiv. 10, αυλήν...δείματο...ρυτoίσιν λάεσ. σιν και εθρίγκωσεν άχέρδη, cf.

XXIV. 230), just as in Eng rough stone-walls are frequi finished off with furze and ( prickly shrubs.

SS 12–15. The plaintif tin is I have damaged his e by obstructing the water-co: In reply, I shall prove that he calls a water-course is no thing, but really part of our ground, for it has fruit growing in it which were plı before my father built th closure, and it contains a bi place made before we acq the property.

All this is in evidence, 9 men, as also the fact tha wall was built while the 1 tiff's father was still alive without any protest on thi of my opponents or the r my neighbours.

12. την χαράδραν.] emp as is shewn by its prom position and by the next tence.

βλάπτειν έμε αυτόν ;] order of words, (1) the i tive, (2) the subject, (3) t. ject, is exactly parallel to in Οr. 54 8 31 μή πατάξα νωνα 'Αρίστωνα.

χωρίον......αλλ' ου χαρά 'private ground and no · course.' Isocr. ad Den των σπουδαίων αλλά και φαύλων είναι μιμητάς.

13 χαράδραν. ει μεν ούν μη συνεχωρείτο ημέτερον ίδιον

είναι, τάχ' άν τούτο ήδικούμεν, εί τι των δημοσίων ωκοδομούμεννυν δ' ούτε τούτο αμφισβητούσιν, έστι τ' εν τω χωρίω δένδρα πεφυτευμένα, άμπελοι και συκαι. καίτοι τις εν χαράδρα ταύτ' αν φυτεύειν

αξιώσειεν, ουδείς γε. τίς δε πάλιν τους αυτού 14 προγόνους θάπτειν; ουδε τούτ' οίμαι. ταύτα τοίνυν

αμφότερ', ώ άνδρες δικασται, συμβέβηκεν και γαρ τα δένδρα πεφύτευται πρότερον ή τον πατέρα περιουκοδομήσαι την αιμασιάν, και τα μνήματα παλαιά και πριν ημάς κτήσασθαι το χωρίον γεγενημένα εστίν. καίτοι τούτων υπαρχόντων τίς αν έτι λόγος ισχυρότεpos, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, γένοιτο; τα γαρ έργα φανερώς εξελέγχει. καί μοι λαβέ πάσας νυνι τας μαρτυρίας, και λέγε.

13. ει μή συνεχωρείτο ίδιον είναι, τάχ' άν ήδικούμεν, ει τι των δημοσίων ωκοδομούμεν.] In this conditional sentence, we have one apodosis ήδικούμεν άν, corresponding to a double protasis. The second protasis εί– ώκοδοMo lluev reiterates the first with a slight change of idea. The supposition stated at the beginning of the sentence is thus re-stated with some slight redundancy at the end, and reaches the hearer in two parts, which enter his mind separately and there unite. So in Plat. Phaedo 67 Ε, ει φοβούντο και αγανακτοιεν, ου πολλή αν αλογία είη,...εί μή άσμενοι εκείσε ίοιεν. The idiom may be illustrated by the effect upon the brain of the double images of external objects entering the eyes separately and subsequently uniting. Numerous varieties of construc. tion, of which the present is a single instance, are grouped

under the general heading of Binary Structure' in Riddell's Digest of Platonic idioms, $ 204.

ημέτερον ίδιον.] See note on 8 8, ad fin.

πεφυτευμένα.] planted' and not growing wild, like the έρινεός or συκή αγρία.

τίς...θάπτειν.] The telling question, 'who would think of burying his ancestors in a water-course ?' (a question seriously put, unless perhaps we ought to take it as one of the touches of humour charac. teristic of this speech), is of course not meant to apply to all the tombs subsequently men. tioned (14), as some of them were there even before the land came ir to the speaker's possession.

14. και γάρ...και.] for not only ...but.' A frequent idiom, though one but little observed. P.]

τούτων υπαρχόντων.] Cf. 8 9 init.



ΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΑΙ. 'Ακούετε, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, των μαρτυρι αρ' υμίν δοκούσι διαρρήδην μαρτυρείν και το χωρ είναι δένδρων μεστόν και μνήματέχειν τινά και τα άπερ και τους άλλους χωρίοις συμβέβηκεν; και πά. ότι περιωκοδομήθη το χωρίον ζώντος μέν έτι του τ. των πατρός, ουκ αμφισβητούντων δ' ούτε τούτων ο

άλλου των γειτόνων ουδενός; 16 "Αξιον δ', ώ άνδρες δικασται, και περί των άλλ ών είρηκε Καλλικλής ακούσαι. και σκέψασθεη πρώτ k Bekk. (Berlin).

χωρίον Zet Bekker st. cum FΣΦB 1 Βekk.

του τούτου Ζ cum FΦΒ. των τούτου Σ. m Bekk.

σκέψασθαι Ζ cum ΣΦ. 15. αρ.] We should expect and a water-course would αρ' ουχ, which, like nonne, dis- quite unnecessary. Next, no tinctly implies an affirmative surely would think of allow answer. But åpa is not unfre- water passing down the highu quently used alone, to denote a to flow into his own land; simple interrogation, the con- the contrary, he would of cou text shewing whether a nega- dam it off, if it ever made tive or, as here, an affirmative road. reply is expected. Xen. Cyr. Now the plaintiff wants me IV. 6. 4, άρα βέβληκα δις εφεξής; let the water flow into my o (L. and 8.).

land, and to turn it off into : μνήματα...τινά.] Not μνήματα road again after it has pasi παλαιά as before. The de- his property:

Why then, i scription is made as general as owner next below my neighbi possible to shew that the piece opposite will complain. In sho of ground in question had all if I take the water from off ; the essential characteristics of road, I cannot let it out ago private property.-τάλλ' άπερ. either into the road or into 1 The speaker does not specify neighbour's properties. And what is included in this et other course is open to me, foi cetera, but the depositions pro- presume the plaintiff won't co bably went into further detail. pel me to drink it up. 88 16-18. The plaintiff


σκέψασθε.] The oth speaks of the stoppage of a water- reading σκέψασθαι (closely co

Now, firstly, I don't nected by και with ακούσαι) suppose that in the whole of perhaps less preferable, but Attica there is such a thing as accepted by the Zurich'edito, a watercourse by the side of a partly on the authority of ti public road. The water would Paris Mς Σ. naturally flow down the road



μεν εί τις υμών εόρακενά ή ακήκος πώποτε παρ' οδόν χαράδραν ούσαν. οίμαι γαρ εν πάση τη χώρα μηδεμίαν είναι. του γάρ ένεκα, και διά της οδού της δημοσίας

έμελλε βαδιείσθαι φερόμενον, τούτω διά των ιδίων 17 χωρίων χαράδραν εποίησε τις; έπειτα τίς αν υμών είτ'

εώρακες Ζ. oίμαι εποίησε τις ;] The hundred paces further on, the speaker, after asking whether road was lost in a wide and any of his audience has ever deep ravine, hollowed by the seen or even heard of a water- rains of two or three thousand course running by the side of winters. I supposed with some a public way, takes upon him- show of justice that the ravine self to declare that he does not must be the road, for I had believe there is anything of the noticed in my previous excurkind in the whole Attica. sions that the Greeks dispense The startling character of this with making a road wherever assertion, which could hardly the water has been kind enough have been untrue, is only to take that duty on itself. In equalled by the delightful this country, where man but frankness with which he as- slightly thwarts the laws of nasigns the reason; "what could ture, the torrents are royal roads; induce any one,' he asks, 'to the rivers turnpike-roads; the make a channel through his rivulets cross-country roads. private grounds for water, Storms do the office of highway which, if let alone, would be engineers and the rain is an insure to flow down along the spector who keeps up without public road?' The passage is any control the means of comsingularly suggestive on the munication, great and small.” state of the mountain roads of (p. 45=p.42 Eng. transl. 1862.) Attica; the public road, so [We must remember that called, would in numbers of road-making, as we have it, is a cases be little better than the modern art, and that the want path of a mountain-torrent, of roads is still the cause of which might be used in dry backward civilisation and comweather for purposes of transit, merce in many countries. The but in very wet seasons would hollow orsunken lanes, common revert to the possession of the in many parts of England, are waters. In the days of De- caused by the excavating power mosthenes many of the moun- of water running along tracks. tain roads were, we presume,

The Romans raised their roads not much better than those of (viam munire) apparently to modern Attica, as described in avoid this. As an illustrative Edmond About's lively book on passage, we may quote Iliad Greek brigandage, Le Roi des ΧΧΙΙΙ. 420, ρωχμος έην γαίης, η Montagnes :

χειμέριον αλεν ύδωρ εξέρρηξεν "I crossed at & leap the οδοίο, βάθυνε δε χώρον άπαντα. Ρ.] Eleusinian Cephisus . One Badlegoa..] The Classic fu

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εν αγρώ νή Δίείτ' εν άστει το διά της οδού ρ ύδωρ εις το χωρίον ή την οικίαν δέξαιτ' άν αυτι αλλ' ουκ αυτό τουναντίον, κάν βιάσηται ποτε, άι φράττειν άπαντες και παροικοδομείν ειώθαμεν;

τοίνυν άξιοι με έκ της οδού το ύδωρ εισδεξάμει είς το έμαυτού χωρίον, όταν το τούτου παραλλά χωρίον, πάλιν εις την οδόν εξαγαγείν. ουκούν πά) και μετά τούτόν μοι γεωργών των γειτόνων εγκαλ

το γαρ υπέρ τούτου δίκαιον δήλον ότι κάκείνοις υπό 18 ξει πάσι λέγειν. αλλά μην εί γε εις την οδόν οκνής

το ύδωρ εξάγειν, ή που σφόδρα θαρρών εις το 1


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ture of Basisw (retained even
by Plutarch and Lucian); the
other forms, βαδίσω and βαδιώ,
are characteristic of the worst
Greek, extrema barbaries (Co-
bet, υar. lect. 329).

αυτό τουναντίον.] on the very
contrary,' so also in Or. 22 (An.
drot.) 87.-äv toúvavtlov was the
vulgar text until corrected by
Reiske, on the authority of two
Mss and the margin of ? ; but
the correction is so certain that
authority is hardly wanted.

αποφράττειν και παροικοδομείν] dam and wall it off.' The formēr implies an abrupt cutting off of the water by a transverse dam athwart the stream; the latter probably expresses a wall built parallel to the stream to narrow its course.

ούτος τοίνυν- εγκαλεί.] This man, Callicles, expects me, to take the water from the road (whe it has no xapádpa) into my farm, and when it has passed his, again to carry it out of my farm into the road. But, in that case, the farmer who occupies next to him would complain;' i.e. he would say that I ought to carry it beyond

his farm also, lest it shoi come in from the road. It clear that the defendant's far on one side of the road (§ 1 extended considerably beyo that of the plaintiff Callicles the other. For he says that bound to carry it beyond o farm, he was bound to carry beyond a second or a third, 1 fore he allowed it to re-eni the public road. P.]

εξαγαγείν.] “draw off," out. Xen. Oec. 20 8 12, ύδωρ εξάγεται τάφροις.

εγκαλεί.] Not present, b future. The context is decisi and the margin of the Paris has εγκαλέσει, pointing to t same conclusion, thought note seems due to a copy. who did not recognise in éykai the regular Attic future. Or. 23 (Aristocr.) § 123, we ha εγκαλέσουσιν; so also in Or. 8 133. The simple verb και hardly ever (Cobet says, nevt has any other future than και (υαr. lect. 28, 29).

18. ή που.] Surely, I shou scarely be bold enough to tu: it on to my neighbour's land -'I should be a very bold me

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