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Ουκ οίδ' και τι δεί πλείω λέγειν oίμαι γάρ υμάς ουδέν άγνοείν των ειρημένων. εξέρα το ύδωρ,

4 οίομαι Ζ (cf. 8 18).

8 25 (ών μή είναι δίκας), and fur- κλεψύδρα, pointedly calls on the ther evidence to facts or to the attendant to empty the 'waterdefendant's character (άξιον clock. The rhetorical effect όντα, 8 61).

is that the court is reminded ουκ οίδ' ... ειρημένων.] The that the speaker has spared same sentence verbatim is found them a longer speech, and the at the close of Or. 20 (Lept.), defendant gets the credit of 38 (Nausimach.), and 54 (Co- having so good a cause that non); and also at the end of the orator does not find it the 7th and 8th speeches of necessary to avail himself of Isaeus.

the full time at his disposal. εξέρα το ύδωρ.] Pour out the The result of Phormio's plea water. See Midias, $ 129. (Cf. is thus stated by Apollodorus εξεραν τους λίθους in Αr. Ach. 341, (Or. 45) κατά Στεφάνου Α, 8 6, and τάς ψήφους in Vesp. 993.) ούτω διέθηκε τους δικαστές ώστε The only other passage where φωνήν μηδ' ήντινούν έθέλειν the phrase is found is at the ακούειν ημών προσοφλών δε την end of Or. 38, where the whole επωβελίαν και ουδέ λόγου τυχεϊν of this short epilogue recurs. αξιωθείς, ώς ουκ οίδ' εί τις πώ

The speaker having conclu- ποτε άλλος ανθρώπων, απήειν ded his speech within the legal βαρέως, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, και limits of time measured by the χαλεπώς φέρων.

XLV.

ΚΑΤΑ ΣΤΕΦΑΝΟΥ
ΨΕΥΔΟΜΑΡΤΥΡΙΩΝ Α.

ΥΠΟΘΕΣΙΣ. "Οτε 'Απολλόδωρος έκρινε Φορμίωνα της τραπέζης αφορμήν εγκαλών, ο δε την δίκην παρεγράψατο, ο Στέφανος μετ' άλλων τινών εμαρτύρησε Φορμίωνο, ως άρα ο μεν Φορμίων προκαλείτο 'Απολλόδωρον, ει 5 μή φησιν αντίγραφα είναι των διαθηκών των του ΙΙΟΙ

πατρος Πασίωνος, Φορμίωνι παρασχεϊν ανοίξαι τας διαθήκας αυτάς, ας έχει και παρέχεται 'Αμφίας, 'Απολλόδωρος δε ανοίγειν ουκ ήθέλησεν, έστι δε αντί

γραφα τάδε των διαθηκών των Πασίωνος. ταύτην το εμαρτύρησαν την μαρτυρίαν οι περί Στέφανον, του

'Απολλοδώρου λέγοντας κατά του Φορμίωνος ως άρα τας διαθήκας πέπλακε και το όλον πράγμα σκευώ

[Δημοσθένους] κατά Στεφάνου ψευδομαρτυριών α. hanc orationem nobis non videri Demosthenis esse significavimusZ. a om. Ζ. addidit Dind. et Σ. [om. Kerrich ms.] om. Ζ. πατρός Φορμίωνος παρασχεϊν libri. correxit Dind. en

B Σ in quo scriptum πατρός φορμίωνι πασίωνος, παρασχεϊν. [των δικών των του πατρός φορμίωνος, πασίωνος παρασχεϊν, et infra 1. 11 μορφίωνος, . 12 πέπλεκε. Kerrich ms.]

Argument. τραπέζης αφορμήν the will of his father Pasion, he εγκαλών.] See Argument to Οr. shall let Phormio open the will 36, 1. 22 η. On παρεγράψατο.

itself which is in the custody of, see ib. 1. 23 n.

and is produced by Amphias.' 3. Στέφανος εμαρτύρησε κ.τ.λ.] 8. έστι δε αντίγραφα κ.τ.λ.] See infra S 8. The άλλοι τινές The clause is continued from are called "Ένδιος and Σκύθης in ως, that the document produced the document there quoted.

is a copy of Pasion's will.' 4. ει μή φησιν.]. P. made Α. 12. πέπλακε...σκευώρημα.] Οr. & proposal, that if A. denies that 36 8 33, πλάσμα και σκευώρημα the copies put in are copies of όλον, and infra 8 42,

P. S. D. ΙΙ.

b

a

ρημά έστιν. ηττηθείς τοίνυν την δίκην 'Απολλόδωρος

υπέρ της μαρτυρίας ως ψευδούς ούσης το Στεφάνω 15 δικάζεται.

Argumentum habet Esed manu recentiore.

1. Καταψευδομαρτυρηθείς, ώ άνδρες Αθηναίοι, και παθών υπό Φορμίωνος υβριστικά και δεινά, δίκην παρά των αιτίων ήκω ληψόμενος παρ' υμίν. δέομαι δε πάντων υμών και ικετεύω και αντιβολώ πρώτον

$$1–2. Exordium (Trpoolucov). promise of brevity, ús åv olbs Having been defeated by false τε ώ διά βραχυτάτων. testimony in my suit against καταψευδομαρτυρηθείς.] “CrushPhormio, I have come into court ed by' (or having been the to claim a verdict against those victim of) false testimony.' who compassed that outrageous Cf. Οr. 33 8 37, and Ρlat. and atrocious wrong. I ask the Gorg. 472 B. Harpocr. καταjury to give me a friendly and ψευδομαρτυρησάμενος" αντί του favourable hearing; and, if I παρασχών τα ψεύδη (αη ψευδή ?) make good my case, to grant me μαρτυρήσοντας. Δημοσθένης εν τω the redress which is my due. κατά Στεφάνου. The lexicogra

In the former trial, the defen- pher intended doubtless to refer dant Stephanus in particular to Or. 29 $ 6, where the middle gave false evidence against me, participle explained by him is prompted by corrupt motives ; to be found. and I propose to prove this from δέομαι ... ικετεύω ... αντιβολώ.] his own testimony. A brief re- Cf.infra $ 85,0r. 27 (Aphobus A) cital of the relations between $ 68, and 57 (Eubul.) § 1. Such Phormio and myself will help combinations of two or three the jury to form an opinion on nearly synonymous verbs are the villany of Phormio and the very common

in the undisputed falsehood of his witnesses. speeches of Demosthenes (e.g.

The Exordium is not unlike Οr. 36 8 47, άγεις εις μέσον, that of Or. 54, κατα Κόνωνος, δεικνύεις, ελέγχεις ; 6. 52, έλαύwhere, as here, the apoaúl.cov νεις, συκοφαντείς, διώκεις ; ib. 57, (Ar. Rhet. 111. 14) or, as we should δείται και ικετεύει και άξιοι ; Οr. say, the key-note of the whole 548 33, δικάζομαι και μισώ και speech is struck in the opening επεξέρχομαι). The speech υπέρ words: υβρισθείς ώ άνδρες Φορμίωνος alone contains nearly δικασται και παθών υπό Κόνωνος forty such passages ; of the K.7.1.—The appeal ad captan- speeches delivered by Apollodam benevolentiam, πρώτον μεν dorus, the first oration against ευνοϊκώς ακούσαί μου, also occurs Stephanus has more than 30, in Or. 54 g 2, and similarly the while in the rest there is hardly formula είτ' εάν (ήδικήσθαι και anything of the kind, though in παρανενομήσθαι) δοκώ, βοηθήσαι the second speech against Steμου τα δίκαια, and lastly the phanus, 8 28, we have δέομαι

μεν ευνοϊκώς ακούσαί μου μέγα γάρ τοις ήτυχηκόσιν, ώσπερ εγώ, δυνηθήναι περί ών πεπόνθασιν ειπείν και

ευμενώς εχόντων υμών ακροατών τυχεϊν είτ' εαν άδι2 κείσθαι δοκώ, βοηθήσαί μοι τα δίκαια. επιδείξω δ'

υμίν τουτονι Στέφανον και μεμαρτυρηκότα τα ψευδή, και δι' αισχροκερδίαν τούτο πεποιηκότα, και κατήγο- ΙΙ02 ρον

αυτόν αυτού γιγνόμενον τοσαύτη περιφάνεια του πράγματός εστιν. εξ αρχής δ' ώς αν οιός τε ώ διά βραχυτάτων είπείν πειράσομαι τα πεπραγμένα μου προς Φορμίωνα, εξ ών ακούσαντες την τ' εκείνου πονηρίαν και τούτους, ότι τα ψευδή μεμαρτυρήκασι, γνώσεσθε.

com. Z cum libris. addidit Reiskius.
1 Σ, qui sic ubique. Βekk. αισχροκέρδειαν Ζ.
6 τήν τε τούτου Ζ cum libris. την τ' εκείνου Βekker cue

γρ. FΦB.

και ικετεύω. (J. Siggin Jahrb. für μαρτυρείν ψευδώς υel αληθώς' Class. Philol. Suppl. vi. p. 419.) (Beels, Diatribe, p. 79). (inf. 85,

ευμένως.] Almost equivalent τα ψευδή μου κατεμαρτύρησεν, to ευνοϊκώς in the last sentence; 'gave this false evidence against ευμενής, however, is not so tri- me.' Thus often in the Tragevial a word as εύνους. The dians τα δεινά, where Sound formeris frequent in Attic verse, special atrocity is described. But the latter is generally found in here we may render, ' has given prose; the former is most often evidence which was false.' P.] used of the gracious conde- τοσαύτη περιφάνεια κ.τ.λ.] scension of a deity; the latter of “So transparent is the case.” the kindly feelings of ordinary So plain and clear from every human beings. Οr. 4 8 45, το point of view. Or. 29 § 1 (also των θεών ευμενές, illustrates the of false witness), ραδίως εξελέγξας rule, while the exception in the διά την περιφάνειας των πραγμάpresent passage may be paral- των. Isaeus, Or. 78 28, τοσαύτη leled from Herod. VΙΙ. 237, ξείνος περιφάνεια της έμής ποιήσεως δε ξείνω...ευμενέστατον πάντων. εγένετο παρ' αυτούς...επί τοσούτων [Add Εur. Alc. 319, ουδέν μητρός μαρτύρων γέγονεν η ποίησις. Ci. ευμενέστερον, El. 601, έστιν τι μου Hom. Οd. Ι. 426, περισκέπτη κατ' "Αργος ευμενές φίλων; Aesch. ενί χώρω, and ib. V. 476, εν Suppl. 488 and

Dind. P.] περιφαινομένω. 2. τα ψευδή.] Additum articu- εξ ών...γνώσεσθε.] This being lum hoc vel illud testimonium the syntax, ακούσαντες must be peculiariter indicat, contra uap- taken by itself, when you have τυρεϊν ψευδή (cf. 8 41) vel αληθή heard it.' ($ 52) tantummodo significat εκείνω. ςα Φορμίωνος.

3 Εγώ γαρ, ώ άνδρες δικασται, πολλών χρημάτων

υπό του πατρός καταλειφθέντων μοι, και ταυτα Φορμίωνος έχοντος, και έτι προς τούτοις την μητέρα γήμαντος την εμήν αποδημούντος εμού δημοσία τριηρ

SS 3–8. Narrative (diñynoes). be read to the court. (The eviMy father Pasion left behind dence is read.) him at his death a large property onuoolą.] To be taken with which got into the hands of drodnuolytos. Cum publice fin Phormio, who also married causa publica) abessem. The Pasion's widow, my mother fondness of the Greeks for Archippe, during my absence participles is shewn by the ad. from Athens on public service. dition of τριηραρχούντος which On my return, I threatened is subordinate to, and explana. Phormio with legal proceedings tory of, ato nuoûvtos. Or.36 $ 25, in consequence of this marriage, and Madv. Gk. Synt. $ 176, d. but my case did not come on ; This trierarchy of Apolloand afterwards a reconciliation dorus may almost certainly be was brought about. Subsequent- connected with the negociations ly, however, on Phormio's refus- between Athens and the Elder ing to fulfil his engagements and Dionysius towards the close of attempting to rob me of the

his career.

It appears from a banking-stock leased him by my decree discovered near the Profather, I was compelled to pro- pylaea in 1837, and restored by secute him at the earliest oppor- A. Kirchhoff in the Philologus for tunity.

1857 (xii. p.571–8), that AthePhormio thereupon put in a nian ambassadors were sent to special plea in bar of action, Syracuse in the summer of and brought forward false wit- B.C. 369 and in B.C. 368. Cf. nesses to shew that I gave him esp. τού[των δε τους επί Δυσνιa discharge from all further κήτου άρχοντος πρέσβ[εις διακοclaims, and to attest to a lease μίζειν την ομολογί]αν. The trier. which in fact was a fabrication archy may be identified with and to a will that never existed. that of Or. 53 § 5, and probably

The result of his plea, which belongs to the later of these two gave him the advantage of the embassies in B.C. 368, as we first hearing, was that the jury read in Or. 46 § 21, égw uèv would not listen to me at all ; I απεδήμουν τριηραρχών, τετελευwas fined for failing to make τήκει δ' ο πατήρ πάλαι, ότε good my case and left the court ούτος έγημε, where πάλαι, though in high dudgeon at my ill-treat- a vague word, shews at any ment. On reflection, however, I rate that a considerable time feel that the jury, in their igno- elapsed between the death of Tance of the real facts, could not, Pasion in B.c. 370 (Or. 46 § 13), on the evidence, have found any and his widow's marriage with other verdict; but I have a right Phormio. (Im. Hermann, de to be indignant with the false tempore, etc. p. 9; A. Schaefer, witnesses who brought about that Dem. und seine Zeit, III. 2. result,-and with Stephanus in 146; and Lortzing, Apollodorus, particular whose evidence shall p. 3.)

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