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The vowels are to be pronounced as in Italian, except 1 á, which is sounded broad as in the word awe.

, a strong pectoral aspirate. ¿ Khá, a guttural, something like the Scotch ch in loch. ; Zhé, like the French j in jour. bo , a hard palatal t. E'ain, is a guttural vowel. È Ghain, is a guttural sound something between gh and r. i Káf, like ck in stuck pronounced very gutturally.

Gáf, like the English g, but always hard before all vowels, as o gi, ghee not jee. The Persians frequently pronounce it with a slight y sound, like the Cockney mode of pronouncing the


in garden, gyarden.” When it occurs between two vowels it is often sounded like y, as -1, pronounced éyer.

. , at the end of words is frequently silent. Otherwise it is sounded like the English h in hat.

jib, although differing widely in Arabic are all pronounced in Persian like the English z in zone.

Similarly s www are all pronounced s.
The other consonants are pronounced as in English.

The capital letters before each word refer to the language to which it belongs, A. Arabic, P. Persian, H. Hindustani, G. Greek, r. Turkish.

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