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A

CONCISE DICTIONARY

OF THE

PERSIAN LANGUAGE.

BY

E. H. PALMER, M.A.,

OF THE MIDDLE TEMPLE, BARRISTER-AT-LAW,

LORD ALMONER'S READER AND PROFESSOR OF ARABIC,
AND FELLOW OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

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TRÜBNER & CO., 57 AND 59, LUDGATE HILL.

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Cambridge:

PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A.

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. .

PREFACE.

THIS Dictionary is chiefly intended for the use of travellers and others in Persia, and will be found to contain all the words in use in colloquial Persian. With a view to making it available for beginners in the language, and especially for Candidates for the Indian Civil Service, all the words in the Gulistán and most of those occurring in other prescribed text-books have also been included. The principal works of which I have made use in the compilation are Johnson's Persian Dictionary, Nicolas' Dialogues Persans-Français, and the small Persian-French Vocabulary of Bergè.

ST JOHN'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE,

June 30, 1876.

E. H. PALMER.

PRONUNCIATION.

THE vowels are to be pronounced as in Italian, except | á, which is sounded broad as in the word awe.

Há, a strong pectoral aspirate.

¿ Khá, a guttural, something like the Scotch ch in loch.

Zhé, like the French j in jour.

Tá, a hard palatal t.

'ain, is a guttural vowel.

Ghain, is a guttural sound something between gh and r.
Káf, like ck in stuck pronounced very gutturally.

"Gáf, like the English g, but always hard before all vowels, asgi, ghee not jee. The Persians frequently pronounce it with a slight y sound, like the Cockney mode of pronouncing the g in garden, "gyarden." When it occurs between two vowels it is often sounded like y, as, pronounced éyer.

• Há, at the end of words is frequently silent. Otherwise it is sounded like the English h in hat.

¡ ;ė, although differing widely in Arabic are all pronounced in Persian like the English z in zone.

Similarly are all pronounced s.

ص س

The other consonants are pronounced as in English.

The capital letters before each word refer to the language to which it belongs, A. Arabic, P. Persian, H, Hindustani, G. Greek, T. Turkish.

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