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them are now engaged in teaching in various capacities. Only two of the eleven were born in Beirut."

At Sidon the attendance on religious services has been considerably in advance of that of former years. Five persons, we are informed, have been added to the Church. The zeal for education, though not so great as in Beirut, is increasing year by year, and the success of colportage has been "unexpected and cheering." One colporteur was employed by the American Bible Society, and three were sent out at the expense of a gentleman in England. The report states :-“They visited most of the villages in which nominal Christians dwell between this place and Jerusalem, and opened their packages and sold the Word of God within the Church of the IIoly Sepulchre. Not a few Mohammedans manifested an interest in hear ing the Gospel. In one Moslem village, the men called the women and children together to listen with them, for a long time, to the tidings of salvation through a crucified Redeemer. In another place, a Mohammedan kept the colporteur two days, not allowing him to depart, and hardly to rest, while he read and expounded the Gospel. He asked to be taught to pray, and declared that henceforth his trust for salvation should be in Christ alone." Oh, that instances of a similar nature might be of very frequent occurrence, not only in Syria, but everywhere, until darkness and error, superstition and idolatry, sin and misery, shall disappear from the carth, and the light, and truth, and power of the Gospel shall be universally diffused and experienced!

THE AWAKENIXG IN THE NORTu OF CHINA.--A VISIT TO SHANGTung.-In the current number of Evangelical Christendom, there is a

well written and very interesting paper, containing an account of a visit to the scene of the great awakening in North China, by the “Wife of a Missionary." The fair writer resides, it appears, at Tien-tsin, and from statements contained in the narrative, we infer that she is the wife of one of the London Society's agents. Of our Mr. Hall and Mr. Hodge, who were visiting our stations at the same time, and also of Mr. and Mrs. Hu, frequent and affectionate mention is made. On several occasions, Mr. Hall and Mr. W. (the lady's husband, we presume) addressed the same congregations; and the lady herself and Mrs. Hu acted much in concert. It is very pleasant for such harmony and kindly feeling to exist among those who belong to different sections of the Church of Christ. This is the true spirit of the Gospel, and it was beautifully exemplified on the occasion referred to. The people gathered in large numbers, and listened to the truth from the lips of Christ's servants with eager attention. Meetings exclusively for women were also held, and were addressed by Mrs. Hu and her lady friend, the “ wife of a missionary." The scenes were very exciting, and the services deeply interesting. They will not soon be forgotten. May a glorious harvest of good be the result of the seed then sown! At one of the services, Mr. Hall took notice of a touching incident which had occurred a short time previously. A poor woman, one of the first converts in connection with the awakening, was seriously ill, while Mr. Innocent was there last October. Mr. Innocent visited her several times, and gave her medicine. She lingered some time, and died in December. She left a firm and clear testimony to the power of Divine grace on a dying trial. May not only Ceylon, but the world soon be converted! July 8, 1867.

L. S.

bed, and exhorted her husband, children, and friends, to trust in the same Saviour in whom she had believed, and to follow her to the better land. It was decided to give her Christian burial; so, instead of observing their heathenish rites, a band of Christians followed her remains to the grave, where prayer and exhortation were offered. A deep and lively interest in the truth was excited in the mind of the husband, who appeared as a candidate for baptism; and he, with a number of others, received the ordinance during Mr. Hall's stay. Several other very pleasing instances of what the grace of God had wrought are noticed in the narrative. May the blessed work continue and extend, until it has spread through the whole of China !

PROGRESS IN INDIA.—The Rev. J. Duthie, of the Nagercoil (Travancore) London Mission, reports several baptisms ; and from the Kottaram district, the Rev. W. Lee reports that several more of his best men have been ordained to the work of the ministry, and that the subscriptions of the people towards the support of their own pastors are increasing. Sixty years ago there were no Protestant Christians in Travancore: now there are 27,000, with a staff of 500 agents, and eleven ordained native ministers.

CEYLOX.-The Wesleyan mission in Ceylon is doing well. “By means of the labours of our brethren," writes the Chairman of the Ceylon district, “there were 45 known conversions from Buddhism, and five from Popery during 1866, and without doubt the influence of the Gospel has extended far beyond our power to trace it.” The Wesleyan converts in Ceylon now number 1,220 full members, and 365 on

THE CELESTIAL SCENERY
OF THE MONTHS.

VIII.-AUGUST. At this season of the year the duration of twilight prevents the long continuance of celestial observations. Nevertheless, the objects now visible well repay our gaze. In the article for June the course of the Milky Way, in the neighbourhood of Cygnus and Lyra, was shown in page 386. These constellations are now more favourably situated for observation, and at midnight the course of this luminous zone may be plainly perceived. Ursa Major is fast progressing towards the northwest, and with it have advanced the neighbouring constellations. Lyra is now over our heads, and another fine group of stars, to which some reference must be made, is near at hand. Before we point out the place of this group, let the observer look towards the south-east soon after dusk, and in the constellation Aquarius he will see a star of superior brilliancy, far exceeding in lustre the other gems of the celestial concave. This is the planet Jupiter, and nearly over it, towards the left, may be traced four stars in the form of a square, commonly called “the square of Pegasus," or the Flying Horse. This group (usually represented on globes by the head and fore-paws of a charger at full speed) enables the observer readily to recognise the neighbouring constellations, and is delineated in fig. 1. The 'star at the lower right-hand corner of the square is Markab; above it is Scheat; at the lower left-hand corner is Algedib; while the star at the upper left-hand corner belongs to the neighbouring constellation Andromeda, of which it is the brightest star. Immediately under Markab and Scheat, and below Jupiter, but at a very low elevation, is the bright star Fomalhaut, in the Southern Fish, which never rises to a high altitude in Europe. At mid

night during this month the magni. ficence of the Milky Way exceeds all description. Below Cygnus the naked eye can plainly see two branches which here diverge till they are lost in the southern horizon. The constellation Aquila, or the Eagle, on the edge of the Milky Way-consisting of three stars, of which the central star is the brightest—may be seen under Cygnus. Over our heads the Milky Way may be traced till it becomes invisible in the north-east. This magnificent girdle will form a striking object during the ensuing autumn. To admire the splendour of this section of the

Admiral Smyth, an excellent observer, likens it to "a double-headed shot." This object may be detected by a small telescope as a hazy cloud, but Lord Rosse's giant reflector, 54 feet long and 6 feet diameter, exhibits it as a most astonishing object, “myriads on myriads of suns bewildering the mind and dazzling the eye with insufferable splendour." What must be the distance and dimensions of this wondrous congregation of gems, if the largest telescope in the world can only barely resolve its brightest parts into individual stars ?

Fig. 1.–The Square of Pegasus.

“And these are suns!-vast, central, living

fires, Lords of dependent systems, kings of

worlds, That wait as satellites upon their power, And flourish in their smile. Awake, my

soul, And meditate the wonder! Countless

suns Blaze round thee, leading forth their

countless worlds ! Worlds-in whose bosoms living things

rejoice, And drink the bliss of being from the

fount Of all-pervading love. What mind can

know, What tongue can utter, all their multiThus numberless in numberless abodes? Known but to thee, blest Father! thine

they are, Thy children, and thy care, and none

o'erlooked of thee !"

[graphic]

tudes,

heavens we do not require the largest telescopes, as a small cbject. glass, 24 inches diameter, with a low magnifying power, will bring to light a large number of minute shining points, and lead the enraptured observer ardently to covet the possession of a larger instrument to penetrate still farther into the depths of infinite space. Ilow true are the words of Milton ! “A broad and ample road, whose dust is

gold, And pavement stars, as stars to us

appear; Seen in the galaxy that Milky Way Like to a circling zone powdered with

stars." With reference to the map given in page 386, a few remarks are necessary. The five stars in the upper left-hand corner belong to the constellation Dolphio. At the extreme lower edge is the star Vega, in Lyra. The central stars belong to Cygnus, or the Swan. Between Lyra and the Dolphin, in the constellation Vulpecula, is a magnificent nebula, called the "Dumb Bell," and its appearance, as seen in Lord Rosse's telescope, is shown in fig. 2.

During this month, and for the rest of the year, the most conspicuous celestial object worthy of notice is the brilliant planet Jupiter. This is one of the primary or superior planets, so called because their orbits evclose that of the earth, and therein differing from the two inferior planets, Mercury and Venus, which are nearer to the sun than the earth. From the earliest ages of astronomy Japiter has been known as a planet, and doubtless his superior lustre caused the name of the leading mythological deity to be applied to him. There is an observation of Jupiter reported by Ptolemy, dating as far back as the 83rd year after the death of Alexander the Great, when the planet eclipsed a star in Cancer. At certain periods Venus attains to a

greater degree of brilliancy than Jupiter, but is never seen far from the wet when the sun has set, or in

we in the east betore sunrise. Like wars, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the family of small planets, Jupiter may be seen in all parts of the heavens,

the heavens. and is not, like Mercury and Venus, inseparably connected with the sun. In almanacks, the planets are usually distinguished by certain signs, and it mar be useful to give here the probable explanation of these signs :

P ra, represented by an en. twicei ('aducean rod, supposed to be carried by that dirinity.

olcs, represented by the mirror of the goddess of beauty.

or ; The Earth, represented by a glolie.

? Ceres, the goddess of harvests, a star and a sickle.

Pallas, represented by a star sur. mounted by Minerva's spear.

Juno, represented by a star, as queen of the gods. .

Vesta, or Cybele, goddess of the earth.

The remaining eighty-sis asteroids (as they are sometimes called) are distinguished by female mythological naines or numbers. These small planets have only been discovered since 1845. For a list of them the reader will do well to consult page 44 of Hannay's Al. manack for 1867.

Jupiter is by far the largest of the planets, being at least 1,400 times greater in bulk than the earth.

[graphic]

Fig. 2.–The “Dumb Bell” Nebula, as seen in Lord Rosse's Telescope.

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His diameter is 89,100 miles, while that of our globe is 7,900 miles. His distance from the sun varies from 400,000,000 to 590,000,000 miles, which causes a considerable difference in his apparent magnitude at various times. Round his vast orbit this huge planet moves at the hourly velocity of 29,900 miles. To accomplish a complete revolution round the sun, Jupiter occupies 11 years 315 days. The axial revolntion, which determines the length of a Jovian day, is performed in the incredibly short space of 9 hours, 55 minutes, 50 seconds. From this

we deduce the striking fact of the of course, preferable. A power of rapid motion of the equatorial por- 20 will very slightly augment the tions of this planet, wbich are carried disc of the planet, and show the round at the rate of 26,000 miles moons like stars of the seventh per hour, about 3,000 times swifter magnitude. Many persons have than the earth's rotation in 24 fancied they could detect these faint hours. The time of axial revolution objects with the naked eye. The was determined, soon after the in- traveller Brydone, from the summit vention of the telescope, by observing of Mount Etna, regretted the abthe change of place of certain spots sence of Jupiter from the clear sky on the planet's disc. It has been esti- of that elevated region, as he felt mated that there are 24,000,000,000 certain he could have seen the satelsquare miles on the surface of Jupiter, lites. The missionary Perkins, at which vast space would afford ample Oroomiah, in Persia, tries to perroom for the accommodation of nearly suade his readers into the same con7,000,000,000 of inhabitants, or clusion. Those who have looked at more than 8,000 times the present Jupiter through an ordinary telepopulation of the earth. A globe so scope, and have noticed how extremely vast, replenished with such a number close these faint objects are to the of intellectual beings, revolving with planet's brilliant disc, will dissent such amazing velocity round its axis, from the opinion of both Perkins moving forward in its annual course and Brydone. There are some in30,000 miles an hour, carrying with teresting remarks on this subject in it four moons, presents to the imagi- Humboldt's work, “Physical Denation an idea at once wonderful and scription of the Heavens," which our sublime, and displays a scene of readers will do well to peruse. The wisdom and omnipotence worthy of following table exhibits the sizes and the infinite perfections of its Creator. distances of Jupiter's moons :The late Rev. Dr. Dick, to whom we

Diameter. Distance. are indebted for the preceding sentence, remarks, “In consequence of

No.1 ... 2,440 miles ... 278,500 miles.

No. 2 ... 2,190 , Jupiter's rapid motion, the days and

... 443,000

No. 3 .. 3,530 , ... 707,000 , nights will be proportionably short. No:4 ". 3.060

No. 4 ... 3,060

"
, ...1,243,500
", 943

, The sun will appear to move through the whole celestial hemisphere in less The first satellite revolves round than five hours, and all the planets Jupiter in 1 day 18 hours; the and constellations will appear to second, in 3 days, 13 hours; the move with the same rapidity; so that third, in 7 days 3 hours ; and the the apparent motions of all these fourth, in 16 days 16 hours. Sir W. bodies will be perceptible to the eye Herschel, from a long course of obwhen contemplating them only for a servations, inferred that the satellites few moments, excepting those near rotate upon their axes in the time the polar regions. The sky of this of one synodical revolution round planet will therefore assume an air Jupiter. These moons are frequently of sublimity, in consequence of all eclipsed, which circumstance renders the bodies its contains appearing to them peculiarly valuable for determisweep so rapidly round, and to ning the longitude at sea. The Nauchange their positions in so short a tical Almanack gives the time when space of time. As Jupiter moves these phenomena are seen at Greenround the sun in 4,332) of our days, wich; and if an observation be made and round its axis in 9 hours 56 at sea, the difference of time when minutes, there will be 10,470 days in the eclipse takes place from that at the year of that planet."

Greenwich, will give the difference Jupiter is attended by four moons, of longitude, and thus enable the which were unknown till the time of mariner to determine the position of their discovery by Galileo in 1610. his vessel. It requires a very small telescope, Römer, a Danish astronomer, with low power, to see these satellites, about the year 1675, by noticing although the higher magnifiers are, the eclipses of the satellites of

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