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ouyxwpoetal KT., he will show that he sees his mistake, by allowing you to annul those provisions in respect of which he committed an error. ápaprei is more generally followed by tepi with the accusative, but cp. Plat. Legg., x. p. 891 E, ήμαρτήκασι περί θεών της όντως ουσίας.

féyelv oů Boúhojai. Demosthenes uses the mildest expression that he can, by a kind of oxñua mapà apoo doklav, for his antithesis to ουκ έχω πώς έπαινέσω.

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$ 144. unte, rather than oŰte, as looking at the question from Leptines' point of view. Seeing that by such a line of conduct,' etc.

ακινδύνου, by προθεσμία ; the time within which the action for proposing illegal measures could be brought against the proposer having expired. See Excursus II. $ 8.

ÚTreúduvov, responsible to the State for what he had done.' The word originally applied only to ex-magistrates liable to evd uval for the administration of their office ; but it gradually obtained a more general signification.

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$ 145. tpeîs . . TLVÈS would commonly mean, three, more or less ;' but here it seems to be rather three obscure individuals.'

Toûde, sc. Apsephion, rather than Bathippus, who is probably the prosecutor alluded to below as having died before his case came on for hearing.

elpnkéval, sc. in proposing the law.

Sleypáfato, 'struck the cause out of the list,' by drawing a line through it.

παρεσκευάσθη, was a collusive prosecutor from the first,' a praevaricator, called into existence to bar the way of any genuine suit. Who these last two were we have no means of knowing, but it seems clear that Demosthenes is referring to the actual circumstances of the previously threatened prosecutions.

όλως .

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P. 48, § 146. oúvelkou, public advocates to defend the law which was impugned. These were always five in number, the proposer of the law, if alive, being one as a matter of course. Of the others, Leodamas was a pupil of Isocrates, oox HTTOV Δημοσθένους λέγειν δυνάμενος, according Æschines (in Ctes., p. 73, 21). Aristophon had been before the public since B.C. 404, when he proposed a law for striking the sons of alien mothers off the list of citizens. He is said to have lived to the age of nearly 100, and is several times mentioned as an orator by Æschines. Cephisodotus was probably the general who four years before had made disadvantageous terms with the Eubean Charidemus for the cession of the Chersonese, for which he was condemned to pay a fine of five talents, and narrowly escaped the punishment of death. Deinias is only elsewhere mentioned by Athenæus as a member of a club of wits (gel WTOTOLOL) at Athens.

Ty Xaßplov owpeáv, “the rewards given to Chabrias, including the exemption (TOÛTO).' For the case of Chabrias, see above, § 75 foll.

των εκείνω τι δοθέντων have the appearance of a gloss, and are quite unnecessary for the sense. The words are rejected by some editors, but there is no variation in the MSS.

8 147. οι νόμοι δε ουκ εώσι. For this principle of Athenian law, cp. de Cor., p. 269, 4, αθώος .. το κεχρίσθαι περί πάντων TT pótepoy. The kinds of suit mentioned below are merely meant as specimens, not as an exhaustive division of Athenian lawsuits (hence ούτ' άλλο τοιούτον ουδέν). Δίκαι are private suits, eŰduvai the investigation into a man's conduct during his tenure of office, Oladikaolai suits between rival claimants to any property or privilege. The argument of Demosthenes is not sound, since it is by no means a repetition of the same case to try and abolish all exemptions, after trying to prove that a particular person was unworthy of such a boon.

ταύτα υπάρχει, we have the merits of Chabrias to begin with.'

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§ 148. dv éxelv. See on $ 109.

ékelvó ý o'xl Sixalov. It was inconsistent, says Demosthenes, to acquiesce in the exemption being given to himself, and to seek to take it away from others. But it might at least be answered that he showed his consistency and patriotism by supporting a measure of which he would be one of the first victims.

ταύτα, sc. ή δωρεά.

P. 49, § 149. Telápxų. Gelarchus, or Agelarchus as Reiske has emended the name, is not known to us from any other

source.

WS trapao Xóvti, 'as having advanced the sum.' τοίς εν Πειραιεί του δήμου, “ those of the democratic party who were in the Peiraeus ;' in B.C. 404, taking refuge from the thirty tyrants. Seen on 11. Toû ònuov is an unusual and unnecessary addition τοίς εν Πειραιεί, but is perhaps inserted here to mark the point of επί τη του δήμου προφάσει below.

ápáptupa, Gelarchus having apparently no vouchers or other evidence to prove the fact of his advance.

S 150. δεινός ειπείν, more generally δεινός λέγειν ; but cp. adv. Androt., p. 603, 5; de Symm., p. 180, 9. Here eitel is evidently used for the sake of variety.

8 151. ούτος .. λειτουργίας, he will talk of his trierarchies and other deltovpylai ;' evidently implying that he will make the most of them. Cp. pro Phorm., p. 957, 11, åla joveúgeTAL και τριηραρχίας έρεί και χορηγίας.

εφ' οίς.. φθονείν. εφ' οίς is an attraction for επ' εκείνοις ά, “to feel envious of your neighbours on the ground of the exploits for which they receive honour.' επί τινί φθονείν, to feel grudge or envy on the ground of any turn of fortune, is a rare construction, used here for the sake of the antithesis to the preceding εφ' οίς. Cp. Χen. Cyr., ii. 4, 10, επί τοις αγαθοίς του άρχοντος φθονήσοντας.

§ 152. TOÚTWv hodlákus. The asyndeton here is rare, but not without sufficient parallels. Cp. Æsch. in Ctes. p. 59, 27, ο δ' ήν επιφθονώτατον, προξενίας τινές . επράττοντο ; Dem. in Meid., p. 540, 11; in Aristocr., p. 626, 21.

τισι πράγμασι ; not necessarily as advocates of impugned laws, but in some State trials or other.

oukoavtla, whatever its derivation (see Lidd. and Scott), means the conduct of a professional informer, then as now deemed infamous.

υπό του δήμου χειροτονηθέντα. From this it would seem that a man was entitled to come forward more than once in such a capacity on his own responsibility. It is probable enough that the law which Demosthenes quotes against these cúvdikol was practically obsolete, or he would have given it more prominence. This raking up of obsolete laws seems to have been a favourite field for forensic ingenuity at Athens, being conspicuous in the contest between Demosthenes and Æschines de Corona.

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Ρ. 50, 8 154. καταβήσομαι, sc. από του βήματος.

δι' ών .. την πόλιν, on whose working it depends whether the city is great or small.' This whole passage is repeated nearly verbatim in Timocr., p. 766, 17.

Tàs ripás, 'the honours they have to bestow.'

$ 155. napavolas, of folly,' in not seeing the inconsistency, that is, between the law of Leptines and the fundamental law on which punishments at Athens were awarded.

παθείν ή αποτίσαι, “to suffer in person or in purse. The extract is evidently taken from the middle of the law, without regard to the meaninglessness of unoè without what goes before, or the want of some verb on which út ápXELV should depend. This law would seem also to have become practically obsolete, as åteula and fine are frequently combined in a single punishment. Westermann thinks that it applied only to dywes Tiuntoi, in which the penalty was decided for the particular

case.

P. 51, § 156. áraithon xápuv, 'ask any favour of you,' such as the forbidden ατέλεια.

évelgels were prosecutions for undertaking public functions while labouring under disabilities. á traywyn was a summary process, applicable to many kinds of offences, and consisting in taking a man who was caught flagrante delicto at once before a magistrate, and having him tried then and there.

εάν τις οφείλων αρχη, if any one hold office while in debt to the treasury.' This is probably the opening clause of the law, which would contain later provisions applicable to the case in point.

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8 157. kal-TÒ LouTòv é@, 'to say nothing worse.' oi trepà állýlovs bóvou, ‘murderous dealings with each other.'

περί ών .. τέτακται. Cp. in Aristocr., p. 641, 29, τούτο μόνον το δικαστήριον ουχί τύραννος, ουκ ολιγαρχία, ου δημοκρατία τας φονικάς δίκας αφελέσθαι τετόλμηκεν. This jurisdiction in cases of wilful murder seems to have been the chief function left to the Areopagus after the limitations placed on its power, first by Solon, and later by Pericles and Ephialtes.

P. 52, $ 158. ó Apákw. Draco's laws about murder were left unrepealed by Solon, and continued in force throughout the whole course of Athenian history. The privileges from which the murderer was debarred by them are nearly identical with those enumerated in Edipus' proclamation against the murderer of Laius, Ed. Tyr., 236 foll.

τον άνδρ' απαυδώ τούτον, όστις εστί, γής
τησο,' ής εγώ κράτη τε και θρόνους νέμω,
μήτ' εισδέχεσθαι, μήτε προσφωνείν τινά,
μήτ' εν θεών ευχαϊσι μήτε θύμασι

κοινόν ποιείσθαι, μήτε χέρνιβας νέμειν. xépvißes were the sacred washings of the hands, whether before a meal at home, or before a sacrifice in the temple. Kpatîpes and orovdal both refer to the drink-offerings which preceded sacrifice. The murderer would further be excluded from the temples, as the centres of religion, and from the dyopà as the centre of social and political life.

my toll Sukalov rátu, 'left its due place for pleas of justifica

tion.'

č' ols teival. In Greek the infinitive is often found in relative sentences in the oratio obliqua, the force of the principal verb being continued in the relative clause ; 'in which he enacted that it should be lawful.'

octw, 'under the conditions which made it justifiable,' as, for instance, in self-defence, or in vengeance for an outrageous injury or insult.

§ 159. Tôv kalpãy trap o0s, 'the whole series of emergencies in which.' Tapous represents these emergencies as occurring all along a line, as it were.

τους ευρομένους, sc. την χάριν, easily supplied from χάριν κομίσασθαι.

Δημοφάντου στήλης. This was erected immediately after the expulsion of the thirty tyrants, in B.C. 404.

Populwv, the advocate of Apsephion. See Introduction.

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