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CAP: 10

IT is better generally to deale by speeche, then

I by letters, and by the mediation of a third, then by ones selfe: tres are good, when a man would drawe an aunswere by letter backe againe, or when it may serue for a mans Iustification afterwardes to produce his owne tre: to deale in person is good, where a mans face breedes regarde, as commonly wth inferiours: in choise of Instruments it is better to choose men of a plainer sorte, that are likely to doe that wch is committed vnto them, and to report back againe faithfully the successe; then they that are cunning to contriue out of other mens busines somewhat to grace themselues, and will helpe the matter in reporte for satisfactions sake: It is better to sounde a person wth whome one dealeth a far of, then to fall vpon the pointe at first, except you meane to surprize him by some short question: It is better dealing wth men of appetite, then wth those who are where they would be: if a man deale wth another vpon conditions, the start, or first performaunce is all, wch a man cannot reasonably demaunde, except either the nature of the thing be such, wch must goe before, or else a man can perswade the other party that he shall neede him in some other thing, or else that he be counted the honester man : all practise is to discover, or to make men discover themselues in trust, in passion, at vnawares, and of necessity, where they would haue somewhat donne, and cannot finde an apt pretext: If you would worke any man, you must either knowe his nature, and fashions, and so leade him: or his endes, and so win him; or his weaknesses, or disadvauntages, and so awe him, or those that haue interest in him, and so governe him: In dealing wth cunning persons, we must ever consider their endes, to interpret their speaches, and it is good to say litle vnto them, and that wch they least looke for.



ESSAY I p. 1 [1] John xviii. 38. [3] Giddinesse: Lat. cogitationum vertigine.

[4] to fix a Beleefe: Lat. fide fixa aut axiomatibus constantibus constringi. [7] discoursing: Lat. ventosa et discursantia. [13] Lat. quæ ex ea inventa cogitationibus imponitur captivitas. [15] Pro

bably Lucian in his Philopseudes. p. 2 [5] Candlelights: Lat. tædæ lucernæque nocturna. [13] Imaginations as one would : Lat. imaginationes ad libitum. [16] full of..Indisposition: Lat. languoris pleni. [17] It is not certain to whom Bacon alludes. He uses the same expression again in the Advancement of Learning (11. 22, § 14): “Did not one of the fathers in greate indignation call Poesy vinum Demonum, because it increaseth temptations, perturbations, and vaine opinions?” There is a passage in one of Jerome's letters to Damasus (Ep. 146) in which he says: Dæmonum cibus est carmina poetarum,” and possibly Bacon might have had this in his mind and quoted from memory. But an allusion in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy (Democritus to the reader, p. 103, ed. 1813) makes it probable that a saying of Augustine's is referred to. “Fracastorius, a famous poet, freely grants all poets to be mad; so doth Scaliger; and who doth not? (Aut insanit homo, aut versus facit, Hor. Sat. 7, l. 2. Insanire lubet, i.e. versus componere, Virg. Ecl. 3. So Servius interprets) all poets are mad, a company of bitter satyrists, detractors, or else parasitical applauders: and what is poetry itself, but (as Austin holds) vinum erroris ab ebriis doctoribus propinatum?This is from Augustine's Confess. I. 16. The origin of the expression is probably the calicem dæmoniorum of the Vulgate of 1 Cor. x. 20. [20] The Latin omits “with:” licet Poesis mendacii tantum umbra sit. [29] Beleefe: Lat. receptionem cum assensu.

(30) Enioying: Lat. fruitio et amplexus. p. 3 [6] The Poet: Lucretius. beautified: Lat. ornavit. The

“Sect” were the Epicureans. [8] Lucr. II. 1–10: quoted again in Adv. of L. I. 8, § 5.

Suave mari magno turbantibus æquora ventis
E terra magnum alterius spectare laborem;..
Suave etiam belli certamina magna tueri,
Per campos instructa tua sine parte pericli,
Sed nil dulcius est, bene quam munita tenere
Edita doctrina sapientum templa serena
Despicere unde queas alios passimque videre

Errare atque viam palantis quærere vita. [23] Truth: Lat. veritatem aut potius vieracitater. [25] cleare

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and Round dealing: Lat. apertam et minime fucatam in negotiis

gerendis rationem. p. 4(1) Essais II. 18. Montaigne in this passage is supposed to allude to

Lysander's saying recorded by Plutarch: “For he sayd, that children should be deceiued with the play of Kayles, and men with othes of men” (North’s Plut. p. 480, ed. 1995); on which Plutarch remarks, “ for he that deceiveth his enemy, and breaketh his oth to him: sheweth plainly that he feareth him, but that he careth not for God." [7] Lie: Lat. mendax. [13] Luke xviii. 8.

ESSAY 2 p. 5 [3] Tales: Lat. fabulosis quibusdam terriculamentis. [4-7] In

the ed. of 1612 this passage stood thus : "Certainely the feare of death in contemplation of the cause of it, and the issue of it, is religious : but the feare of it, for it selfe, is weake.” [7] weake: Lat. infirma et inanis. [8] sometimes: added in 1625. (19] In ed. of 1612, “And to speake as a Philosopher or naturall man.” [21] There is a passage in Seneca's Epistles (III. 3, § 14), which may have suggested this: “Tolle istam pompam sub qua lates et stultos irritas: mors es quem nuper servus meus, quem ancilla contempsit.”

[1] Blackes, and Obsequies: Lat. atrata funera. "Blackes,” in the sense of mourning, occurs in Shakspere, Winter's Tale, 1. 2:

“But were they false As o’re-dy'd Blacks, as Wind, as Waters.” [5] it Mates, and : added in 1625. [6] terrible: added in 1623. · (7] Attendants: in the ed. of 1612 'followers.' [9] slights it: 'esteemes it not' (1612). [10] After Honour aspireth to it,' the edition of 1612 has, “deliuery from Ignominy chuseth it,” and this appears also in the Latin, metus ignominiæ eligit. [11] reade: 'see' (1612,. Tac. Hist. II. 49. the Emperour: added in 1625. (14, 15) out of..Nay: added in 1625.

(16) addes: ‘speaketh of' (1612'. G Saciety: added in 1625. Seneca, Ep. X. 1, $ 6: comp. also ini. 3, § 26: quoted again Adv. of L. II. 21, § 1. (18—21] A man..over: added in 1625. [22] in good Spirits: Lat. in animo generoso et forti. [23–25] 'but they are the same till the last' (1612). [26] Suet. Aug. C. 99. [28] Tac. Ann. VI. 50. [30] Suet. Vesp. c. 23. Dio Cass. LXVI. 17. Sitting upon the Stoole: added in 1625. (31) Tac. Hist. 1. 41; Suet. Galba, C. 20. [32] Holding forth his Necke: added in 1623. [33] Dio Cass. LXXVI. 17. In all these passages the quotations were omitted in the ed. of 1612. In the MS. of that edition in the British Museum, which Mr Spedding describes Bacon's Works, vi. p. 535), the clause “Septimius Seuerus in dispatch,” is

also omitted. p. 7 [3] Juv. Sat. x. 357. The true quotation is

Qui spatium vitæ extremum inter munera ponit

Naturæ. It occurs again in a parallel vassage in the Adv. of Learning, 11. 21, $ 5: “And it seemeth to me, that most of the doctrines of the Philo

sophers are more fearefull and cautionary then the Nature of things requireth. So haue they encreased the feare of death, in offering to cure it. For, when they would haue a mans whole life, to be but a discipline or preparation to dye: they must needes make men thinke, that it is a terrible Enemy, against whom there is no end of preparing. Better saith the Poet, &c." [6] is: added in 1625. [7-end] Added in 1625. [13] Luke ii. 29. [15] Comp. Antitheta xvi; Nemo virtuti invidiam reconciliaverit præter mortem. [17] Hor. Ep. II. I, 14. Entered in the Promus, fol. 2 a.

ESSAY 3 p. 8. The Latin title is De unitate ecclesiæ. The Essay “Of Unity

in Religion” has grown out of that ‘Of Religion' which appeared in the edition of 1612, but has been so expanded and transformed that the differences cannot easily be indicated. I have therefore given the original Essay at length for the sake of comparison. “The quarrels, and diuisions for Religion, were euils vnknowne to the Heathen: and no maruell; for it is the true God that is the iealous God; and the gods of the Heathen were good fellowes. But yet the bonds of religious vnity, are so to be strengthened, as the bonds of humane society be not dissolued. Lucretius the Poet, when hee beheld the act of Agamemnon, induring and assisting at the sacrifice of his daughter, concludes with this verse;

Tantū relligio potuit suadere malorum. But what would hee haue done, if he had knowne the massacre of France, or the powder treason of England? Certainly he would haue beene seuen times more Epicure and Atheist then he was. Nay, hee would rather haue chosen to be one of the Madmen of Munster, then to haue beene a partaker of those Counsels. For it is better that Religion should deface mens vnderstanding, then their piety and charitie; retaining reason onely but as an Engine, and Charriot driuer of cruelty, and malice. It was a great blasphemie, when the Diuell said; I will ascend, and be like the highest: but it is a greater blasphemie, if they make God to say: I will descend, and bee like the Prinoe of Darknesse : and it is no better, when they make the cause of Religion descend, to the execrable accions of murthering of Princes, butchery of people, and firing of States. Neither is there such a sinne against the person of the holy Ghost, (if one should take it literally) as in stead of the likenes of a Doue, to bring him downe in the likenesse of a Vulture, or Rauen; nor such a scandall to their Church, as out of the Barke of Saint Peter, to set forth the flagge of a Barge* of Pirats and Assassins. Therefore since these thinges are the common enemies of humane society; Princes by their power; Churches by their Decrees; and all learning, Christian, morall, of what soeuer sect, or opinion, by their Mercurie rod; ought to ioyne in the damning to Hell for euer, these facts, and their supports; and in all Counsels concerning Religion,

→ So in the original. In the copy in the Cambridge University Library it is Corrected in MS. to 'Barke.'


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