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κάλλιον ήν] see on Charon 8 1 καλώς είχε.

αναπόμπιμοι] sent up to the earth from the world below. πάλιν goes both with this and with αφικνούντο.

és Tov Blov] compare piscator § 14 tl aids és TÖv Blov, and see note on Charon § 15 TÒr Blov.

$ 11. 31 Novoautes] for the washing of the corpse compare Eurip Phoen

1667 συ δ' αλλά νεκρά λουτρά περιβαλείν μ' έα, Iliad XVIII 343-351, Virgil Aen vi 219. ως ουχ ικανής] that is, oύσης.

Page 60. xploavtes] the corpse was anointed with precious sweet perfumes after the washing. See Iliad xviii 350–1, Virgil Aen VI 219.

a pòs dvowdlav etc] 'being by this time overpowered so as to make a stink'. That is, being so decomposed as to be offensive. Tipos dvowdlav =in relation to, or in the direction of, a stink. Compare Thuc 11 65

8 apds vdový tl Néyelv=to say something to please (the Athenians), 53 8 3 ταχείας τάς έπαυρέσεις και προς το τερπνόν ήξίουν ποιείσθαι = they were resolved to take their enjoyments in haste and so as to secure

pleasure (from them). See also on piscator § 8 mpos óprúv. 3

τοις ωραίοις άνθεσι] with the flowers in season. For the custom of placing garlands on the corpse see Aristoph Eccles 537–8.

porlevtal] 'lay it out' on a bed (kllun). POKeltai in § 12 is the passive in use of this verb. The apóleols was on the second day after death.

Naumpôs dupléo avtes] having wrapped it in splendid raiment. There is no doubt that the outer shroud or pall was always white, but whether the under garment was not sometimes of a bright colour, such as purple or scarlet, may well be doubted. See Iliad XVIII 352—3, Virgil Aen vi 221–2, XI 72–7.

deyqev] the change to the plural shews that Lucian, though he has been speaking of to owua in the singular, merely means “the body in any particular case'. Hence we resume with a supplied nominative "the dead'.

trapà thu o8dr] see on Charon § 18 napà rdv Blov. Render (that they may not be cold of course on their journey nor be seen naked by

Cerberus’. oñlov ēti indicates the ironical nature of the remark. 5 TỘ Kepßépv] this dative of the agent as it is called is only used in

Greek prose of the best age after the perfect and pluperfect passive. Remember that BNÉT OLVTO literally=be looked upon.

$ 12. 8 polvloobueva.] being reddened; that is, with the blood from



και που και] and perhaps too'. 13 ώσπερ ες πομπήν etc] as though adorned for a procession'.

$ 13. 15 εκ μέσων etc] having come forth from the throng of relations

and Aung his arms around the departed'. 16 προκείσθω γάρ etc] we must suppose that it is some handsome youth

who is laid out, to heighten the tragic effect of the scene at his funeral'. προκείσθω literally =let there be laid out. The yào cannot be rendered in English: it introduces the parenthesis in the sense of 'it should be said that'.

ακμαιότερον] with more vigour (ακμή, prime) about it. 17 το επ' αυτώ δράμα] the performance over him. δράμα = stage effect,

especially tragic. It is used of pitiful appeals made by a man on his trial in Plato Apol 35 b πολύ μάλλον καταψηφιείσθε του τα ελεεινά ταύτα δράματα εισάγοντος και καταγέλαστον την πόλιν ποιoύντος ή του ήσυχίαν άγοντος.

άλλοκότους] see on piscator 8 25. 18 ει λάβοι φωνήν] often said of inanimate objects. Compare Soph Elect 548 φαίη δ' αν η θανουσά γ', ει φωνήν λάβοι.

παρατείνων] drawling out' his words one by one. Compare what is said of an echo in a house, de domo 8 3 (οίκος) παρατείνων τα τελευταία της φωνής και τους υστάτους των λόγων εμβραδύνων.

οιχη μοι] see on 8 17.
κωμάση] take part in a revel (κώμος).




8 14.


oιόμενος δείσθαι etc for this argument against the muddle-headed popular conceptions of the condition of the dead see Lucretius III

830-930 especially 896-901. 27 και μετά την τελευτήν] even after his death '. 28 και ίππους etc] I think this passage must be suggested by the

account of the funerals of the Scythian kings in Herodotus IV 71, 72, especially by these words εν δε τη λοιπη ευρυχωρία της θήκης των παλλακέων τε μίαν αποπνίξαντες θάπτουσι, και τον οινοχόος και μάγειρον και ιπποκόμον και διήκονον και αγγελιοφόρον και ίππους, και των άλλων άπαντων απαρχάς, και φιάλας χρυσέας. The custom of burning or burying things for the use of the dead is of immemorial antiquity. Not only is it often alluded to by ancient writers, but amply attested by excavations. So in Nigrinus S 30 Lucian says of Romans οι μεν εσθήτας

$ εαυτούς κελεύοντες συγκαταφλέγεσθαι οι δ' άλλο τι των παρά τον βίον τιμίων.

εκεί] in the other world'. Often used thus to denote the life of the soul after death as opposed to this life' (ενθάδε).




§ 15, page 61. 3 Tpayqdeiv] to declaim in the style of tragedy, or as we say 'to take on'.

ουκ άκουσόμενον] that is, τον παίδα.

ETÉvtopos] the loud-voiced Greek of Iliad v 786 os tógov aŭdoarx' όσον άλλοι πεντήκοντα. 5 ppoveiv] to 'feel' thus. Compare Soph Aias 942 gol per dorelv

ταύτ' έστ' εμοί δ' άγαν φρονείν. 8 atrợ] what has befallen the boy in relation to him=what has be

fallen his son. See on piscator § 48_Kevóv ool for this delicate dative,

which I cannot express separately in English. 9 Mâlov dė] ‘or strictly speaking'. See on piscator $ 5.

TÖv Blov aŭtor] our life itself, the present world. See on Charon § 15.

våp äv] 'for then he would never have'. See on § 5.





$ 16. Trapaitnoduevos] ‘having won over Aeacus and Aidoneus to let him peep over the mouth (of Hades) for a short space'. Here we have the double construction (a) with the accusative, as piscator § 4, Aristoph Vesp 1257 tapythoavto TDV TTETOVOóta 'they prevail upon the man whom they have assaulted' (to say nothing about it), and (b) with the infinitive of the thing one gets leave to do, as Herodotus IV 146 παραιτήσαντο αι γυναίκες......εσελθείν ες την ερκτην “ the women got leave to enter the dungeon'. We have the same sense in Charon § 1 expressed by altno áuevos tapà with the genitive, followed by an infinitive as here. And in piscator § 14 we have tapaitno duevol followed by a simple accusative ular ruépar raútny in the sense having begged off this one day' (of residence below)='having got a day's leave of absence', where the accusative resembles that in tapautelodai Smulav and similar phrases.

Alakòv] see on Charon § 2 eurow. We must remember that only the soul is spoken of here, or we shall not understand § 18. 13 'Αιδωνέα]= Αίδης = Πλούτωνα.

İTEPKÚ¥a.] the subject of this verb is aúrós to be understood, and is constructed with this explanatory infinitive as though wote were also there. The full construction then is παραιτησάμενος τον Αιακόν ώστε αυτός υπερκυψαι. Such too it must be in the passage of Herodotus quoted above, and often elsewhere when the explanatory infinitive is employed.

ματαιάζοντα] a late form = ματάζοντα. 16 ÉE ÉTitolñs] 'on the surface. This is a late phrase=érltons,

which the writers of the best age use. Compare Nigrinus $ 35 ou yàp εξεπιπολής ουδ' ώς έτυχεν ημών ο λόγος καθίκετο, where Bekker writes it as one word.

δεινόν τι


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19 5 tl gol etc] 'is it that I seem to you a hardly-used man?' We

regularly find û thus introducing questions to which the answer 'yes' is expected. So § 19 û voué ŠETE. Remember that ti here is not the interrogative. The accent upon it is thrown back from col. πάσχειν or δεινά πάσχειν are both good prose Greek: δεινόν πάσχειν Ι cannot establish. On this ground and on that of improvement in the sense, I venture to leave Bekker's reading ï tl ool for the above.

DLÓTL] 'is it because'. This is a separate question; 7... ...=an in Latin, ñrol... Ñ

un] intolerable un for oŮ.

Thy de Ofw etc) 'and with face full of wrinkles (durldes), bent double and feeble in the knees'.

yóvata] often referred to thus; compare Theocritus XIV 70 as yóvu xiwpov, Horace epod XIII 4 dumque virent genua.

Tplakádas] 'thirties' hence 'months' as containing 30 days. Compare rhet praec 8 9 έτη πολλά, ου καθ' ημέρας και τριακάδας αλλά κατ'

ολυμπιάδας όλας αριθμών. 23 Alumiádas] 'olympiads'. This was the common unit of reckoning

in Greek chronology. The great games at Olympia, in which all Greeks took part, were held every fourth year. An Olympiad then= 4 years.

ávat.noas] having borne, endured. The expression is bold, but I prefer it to åvarlýoas, and it may perhaps receive some support from Aesch Ag 715–6.

Tapatalwv) striking aside or falsely: said of one playing on the lyre. Hence acting foolishly': It is here used with a cognate accusative as in de hist conscr 8 2 ουχ ώστε τραγωδεϊν (έλαττον γαρ αν τούτο Tapétalov). Render ‘and in these very (d) last acts playing the fool before all these witnesses'.

ŠTU TOGOÚTWv uaptúpwr] see on piscator § 27.

tl Col dokeî etc] 'what good seems to you to be bound up with the life of men, which we shall cease to share?' 25 elval nepl] to be concerned with, mixed up with. This use is very common, and is similar to that of á upi illustrated on piscator $ 40.

μεθέξομεν] that is, ημείς οι θανόντες. 26 ģ épeis dñov 8ti] 'is it that you will say ... to be sure you will'=

'you will say of course'. The original ή δήλον ότι έρείς has crystallized, and the onlov become really one word, capable of being put after the verb which should follow it. See on Bottel in Charon $ 9.


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$ 17. 30

Dépe didátouai] 'come, I will teach you'. This use of the future with pépe is one of Lucian's slips. In avig § 4 he even writes εθέλεις εγώ αύθις επανειμι. For the form διδάξομαι see on Somnium § 1o.



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31 kal on] 'so then'.

ávalaßwv etc) do you resume from the beginning and shout!. So more fully Plato Rep 544 b και ούτω δή συ αναλαβών τον λόγον δεύρ' αφίξαι.

Page 62. oixuoc] 'you have passed away in relation to me'='you are lost to me for ever'. So above § 13. For uol compare piscator § 48 kevóv σοι το άγκιστρον.

öủk &pws etc] 'love will not vex you, nor dependence pervert you, nor yet will you be in anxious haste on this account twice or thrice a day, alas, alas!' ourovola in Lucian's time had acquired a sort of special sense of “intercourse between employed and employer'. Hence used of the employed it=dependent position, and Lucian has olémi Miodu συνόντες. Compare apolog de merc cond 8 9 υποστήναι την παρούσαν ovvovolav 'submitted to the present relation', namely, service under a patron. How the meaning arose is seen by reference to such phrases as ouveîval a páyuaou to be concerned with affairs'. The meaning of dlagt péyel is will distort your character, making you suppress your own opinion and echo the sentiments of another'. The tame philosopher in the house, a sort of despised tutor, was a well-known character in

those days. 6 ω της συμφοράς] see on Charon 8 13 ώ πολλού γέλωτος. 7 Blenbuevos] being looked at='when they set eyes on you'.

$ 18. 9 gelobtepa ékelvwv] ‘more facetious than what you did say'.

tode] 'this ', namely what follows.

ανιά και διανοή] these are indicatives, not subjunctives, as δέδιας shews. See on piscator § 5 opâte uri TOLETTE.

diavon] are thinking of'. Used here simply as “have in your head', for which I can find no parallel.

001] see on Charon § 1.

xon etc) 'but you must set against these things that '...... 14 el ye] 'if as I expect'. Often='seeing that '.

kaûoal ue] remember that it is the spirit who speaks. See on § 16. 15 kal taūta uèv etc] 'and all this perhaps is moderate'='and so far perhaps there is nothing extravagant'.

§ 19, 16 ar pds rdv aŭldv] to (the accompaniment of) the flute. So $ 20 mpos

το μέλος. 18 duerpla] extravagance.

λίθος εστεφανωμένος] this is the grave-stone (στήλη, cippus), an apright slab, on which it was customary to hang wreaths. This custom, like many others, has survived to our own days. See Charon § 22, Nigrinus 8 30 οι δε και παραμένειν τινας οικέτας τους τάφους (κελείοντες), ένιοι δε και στέφειν τας στήλας άνθεσιν. H. L.


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