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συντριβέντες] often thus with the genitive, which must be literally explained by 'in', as it is a sort of partitive genitive. Compare Aristoph Pax 7ο-Ι προς ταύτ' ανερριχάτ' αν ες τον ουρανόν, έως ξυνε
τρίβη της κεφαλής καταρρυείς. 8
μετατίθει] transpose; that is, take it from its place and put it on the top of Pelion.
μηχανήν] an engine, scaffold. 13 eľ ye] ‘if at least'. Generally=our seeing that'. See on piscator
87. Here there is as often an ellipse (you mustn't mind that) as you want to see everything'.
εθέλεις] see on 83 εθελήσαι. 14 ουκ ένι δε άμφω] you can't be both at once'= ουκ ένι= ούκ ένεστι
as often. Literally “there is not the opening (to be) both '... 15 φείδου μή] μη is often added when there is a negative notion in the
verb, bringing it out prominently. Compare Plato Rep 574 b dp ευλαβηθείη αν και φείσαιτο μή τι δράσαι των τυραννικών;
κατά του ολισθηρού] down on the slippery; that is, in a slippery place. 17 δικόρυμβοs] two-peaked. So Euripides (Bacch 307 Phoen 227) calls
it dikópupos, and Persius has bicipiti Parnasso in his Prologue. 18
årolaßbuevoi] having taken off for ourselves, 'appropriated'. Compare bis accus 89 σπήλυγγα ταύτην απολαβόμενος οικεί. 19 επισκόπει] pass in review-the dialogue is called επισκοπούντες. See on Somnium 8 15.
8 6. λίμνην τινά μεγάλην] a sort of large lake'. Charon is thinking of Acheron, comparing the ocean to it. See on de luctu 8 3. We must remember that the ocean was thought to surround the earth, which was looked upon as flat. Also that Charon judges everything (rivers &c) by the things of his own world below.
Κωκυτού] for the waters of the nether world see Odyssey X 512-4 αυτός δ' εις Αίδεω ιέναι δόμον ευρώεντα. ένθα μεν εις 'Αχέροντα Πυριφλεγέθων τε ρέουσιν Κωκυτός θ' δε δή Στυγός ύδατός έστιν απορρώξ, and
note below on de luctu $ 3. 24 εκείναι......ούς] not εκείνα......ά, though we must render in English
“ those things......which'. For the attraction compare ταύτην above in
8 3, εκείναι 8 9. 26 olo ' où ws] 'do you then know that'='don't you see then that'. 27 αυτη Κασταλία] Castalia and all'. Compare 8 7 αυτή Σκύλλη και
7 Χαρύβδει και Κύκλωπι, and Thucydides' frequent accounts of a ship being taken αυτοίς άνδρασί. Castalia was the name of the holy well of
the Muses on mount Parnassus. 29 ότι τί ;] because what (is amiss)?' = why, what's the matter ?'
Sommerbrodt compares catapl 8 13 και μήν εν τη προεδρία καθέζεσθαι με
δει. Κλωθώ. ότι τί; 30 dyw yoûv] 'I at least'='I for my part'.
31 αυτό μόνον ώσπερ εν γραφαϊς] αυτό μόνον =it and no more,
and must be taken closely with wontep év ypapais. Then. as in pictures, it and no more'='no more clearly than in pictures'. We must remember that names were often added to the figures in a picture, to distinguish the one from the other. For aútò móvov see on somniuin $ 9.
Page 14 kal ola Néyovow] we must supply to hear' from Spâv above. 3 8 Te yer ønv] 'what was I laughing at'.
TLVOS) neuter, as al dè TOÛT' shews. 7 és Thy votepalar] for the following day=on the following day.
uálcota , čon] 'I will be with you to a certainty' said he. Remember that ykw='I have come', not 'I come’. So to0 oίχομαι = 'I have gone'. öğw then='I shall have come'. See § 24.
METAŠI Néyoutos) see on somnium § 17. Render "and the words were hardly out of his mouth when a tile dislodged by some one or other
fell upon him from the roof and killed him'. 8 oủk old' Stov) the common parenthesis.
Folka Tokataßnoeobal) 'I seem that I shall go down gradually'= 'I think I must get gently down' from my perch. The construction of the future infinitive with fouka is like that with mol dokw, which is very common. Sommerbrodt well compares de lapsu in salutando $ 19 έoικα δ' ενταύθ' ήδη γενόμενος είκότως άλλο τι φοβήσεσθαι.
βλέπoιμι] see on 8 ι ως παρέχουμε.
$ 7. Kal ToûTO] 'this too'. That is, this dulness of sight. He remedied the lowness of position by piling up the mountains.
léoqual col] 'I will put right for you'. That is, for your convenience, to help you. Here we have the so-called dativus commodi.
Compare gallus 8 Ι ει δέ σοι καθεύδειν ήδιον, εγώ μεν ησυχάσομαί σοι. 13
dropavw] will render, make. Compare § 12 Makápcov Tòv Deòv αποφαίνει».
παρ' “Ομήρου......λαβών] having got a sort of charm against this too from Homer'. The lines quoted are from Iliad v 127—8. 15 μέμνησο μηκέτι αμβλυώττειν] remember not to be dazzled any
longer’=do your best, strain your eyes, to see clearly. Compare for this use Ρlato Apol 27 b μέμνησθέ μοι μη θορυβείν, εάν εν τω ειωθότι τρόπο τους λόγους ποιώμαι, Aristoph Eq 495-6 μέμνησο νυν δάκνειν, διαβάλλειν, τους λόφους κατεσθίειν.
Avykeùs] the famous sharp-sighted man, one of the Argonauts. 23
TÒ froútw] that which follows on this = next thing. Tò is an accusative of respect. Then as to what follows'=' in the next place'.
βούλει έρωμαι] see on 9 9.
Page 15. τοίς πλέoυσιν] with αίσιον. “A song of evil import for men at sea'.
ως ο Ποσειδών etc] Odyssey ν 291-4 ώς ειπών συναγεν νεφέλας, ετάραξε δε πόντον χερσί τρίαιναν ελών, πάσας δ' ορόθυνεν αέλλας παντοίων ανέμων, συν δε νεφέεσσι κάλυψεν γαίαν ομού και πόντον ορώρει ουρανόθεν νύξ.
τορύνην] a ladle, used for stirring soup pottage etc. 7 ότε περ] when exactly’ = which was the very time that’ he fell
sea-sick and threw up the greater part of his cantos, Scylla Charybdis
Cyclops and all. 9 Σκύλλη] the description of this monster of the rock is in Odyssey XII 85-100.
Xapúßdec] Odyssey XII 101-110, the monster of the whirlpool.
$ 8. τις γαρ etc] parodied from Iliad III 226-7 where Priam asks Helen concerning Aias τίς τ' άρ' όδ' άλλος 'Αχαιός ανηρ ήύς τε μέγας τε, έξοχος 'Αργείων κεφαλήν τε και ευρέας ώμους και
πάχιστος] very stout, sturdy. Compare the Homeric χειρί παχείη, παχέος παρα μηρού and so forth. 14 Μίλων] of Croton in Italy, a very famous athlete of the 6th
century BC. His name became proverbial for strength. See Ar Eth in 6 $ 7.
επικροτούσι] are cheering him. Sommerbrodt charges Lucian with intending to pun upon Κρότων. 15 τον ταύρον] the article is added, since this exploit of his was well
known. Compare Cicero Cato maior § 33 Olympiae per stadium
ingressus esse Milo dicitur, cum umeris sustineret bovem. 16 δια του σταδίου μέσου] through the course in the middle=right
through or across the course. 19 οπόταν ήκη] when he has come.
undè ouvels] 'having not even caught the trick by which he threw him'. A wrestler would in most cases expect to learn something from defeat. But it is too late to learn from Death.
οιμώξεται ημίν] will pour his griefs into our ear'. The dative ημών, either because oιμώξεται= μετ’ οιμωγής έρεί, or as an ethic dative, for
which see on 8 Ι σοι. 24 τί ούν ποτε ;] Well what are we to think that he
expects to die some day?' kai gives emphasis.
26 mbdev äv] ' whence should he'='what should make him'. 29
o ÚX Ömws] not only not. Generally explained as 'I do not say that' he will not be able to carry a bull. Render 'not able to lift even a gnat, let alone a bull'. The argument of the construction is thus a fortiori. 'I don't say a bull, because that is absurd if he can't carry a gnat'. Compare piscator § 31.
§ 9, page 16. Kûpos] his conquests are described in the history of the Eastern empires given by Herodotus (book I).
Trapeothoato] 'brought over to his side'; the common word for reducing a fortress.
FOLKEVélagelovni] 'is like to one seeking to attack'Lydia = 'seems about to attack' Lydia. Compare Iliad XXIII 379 (of the horses of Diomed in the chariot race) αλεί γαρ δίφρου επιβησομένοισι είκτην.
ως άρχοι] see on 8 1 ως παρέχoιμι. 5 Kpołoov] the interview of Solon the great Athenian lawgiver with
Croesus the wealthy king of Lydia, no doubt mythical, is given by Herodotus 1 30–33. The effect is much the same, and Lucian probably got the tale from Herodotus ; but inadvertently he has put Tellus after Cleobis and Biton in order of happiness, whereas Herodotus puts him
first. 8 την το τριπλούν τείχος] that is περιβεβλημένην. The participle is often
thus omitted in conversational Greek. Compare 8 14 και το διάδημα (φορών), 8 23 ή τον μέγαν περίβολον (περιβεβλημένη), gallus 8 14 και τα ράκια τα πιναρα (φορών), bis accus 8 9 και την σύριγγα (έχων or φέρων), 8 ΙΙ τους το γένειον ομοίους έμοί (έχοντας), piscator 8 13 την από του σχήματος (επίσημον), Αristoph Pax 241 ο κατά τον σκέλουν (λέμενος).
εκείναι] for the attraction see on 8 6 εκείναι...ούς. 9 ñon] with opậs.
Boúhel åkovo wuer] 'do you wish we should hear'. Compare § 7 βούλει έρωμαι, 8 20 βούλει ούν παραινέσω, Aristoph Eq 36 βούλει το πράγμα τους θεαταϊσιν φράσω, Ran 415 βούλεσθε δήτα κοινή σκώψωμεν 'Apxéo nuov and often in Plato. Madvig (syntax § 123 remark 5) explains this as an imperfect construction in which onws is omitted, and says that it is confined to the aorist subjunctive. The latter statement is too sweeping as is shewn by Xenophon memor II i § 1 Boúhel σκοπώμεν, ΙΙΙ 5 8 1 βούλει επισκοπώμεν. Νor can I accept the supposition of an omitted όπως, for βούλει όπως ακούσωμεν seems to me very indifferent Greek. I would rather regard the subjunctive as giving an invitation while Boúhel or Boúlcole asks a sudden question : ‘let us hear—do you wish' (to do so)? Thus in Plato Phaedo 79 a we find θώμεν ούν βούλει, έφη, δύο είδη των όντων, το μεν ορατόν το δε άειδές, where the Boúhel is in what seems to me its proper position. Some even read el Boúhel there, compare 95 e, See also on de luctu 16 oñlov ötl. As general references I may add Xen memor II i § 10, IV 2 SS 13, 16, Plato Gorgias 479 C, which last passage well shews how the phrase
had crystallized even in the days of Plato. Lucian navig & 4 dares to write έθελεις εγώ αύθις επανειμι. For ακούσωμεν = let us hear’, compare Aesch Eum 307 άγε δή και χόρον άψωμεν, and below here 8 11 επακούσωμεν ούν.
$ 10. 15 την άλλην πολυτέλειαν] my lavish outlay generally. 21 Tûs 'Apybev] that is, belonging to the great temple of Hera at
Argos. See Thuc IV 133. 23 UTOBÚTes] 'when they went under’ the yoke. Herodotus says ol
νεηνίαι υποδύντες αυτοί υπό την ζεύγλην είλκον την άμαξαν, επί της
αμάξης δέ σφι όχέετο ή μήτηρ. 29 kádapua] criminals were at Athens sometimes kept and in time
of trouble, plague or famine for instance, thrown into the sea as a sort of sacrifice for the people, scapegoats to 'bear their sins'. Hence the word kábapua, which from means of cleansing' or 'scapegoat' got the
sense of 'rascal'. Compare piscator $ 34, Aristoph Plut 454. 31
nu un] 'unless'=until.
ήν μή ...... διαβιώναι] this favourite commonplace has been employed by Sophocles in the opening of his Trachiniae and the close of his Oedipus Tyrannus. Aristotle discusses the paradox in Eth I 10, speaking of it as Solon's, doubtless on the authority of Herodotus.
Kállota] Charon cannot help saying 'bravo !' to so wise a remark as that of Solon. 5 Tapà Tò mopo uelov atro] at the ferry itself, the very ferry-boat.
Compare Dem Midias p 523 Tap' aŭtà rádekńuata=at the very time of
$ 11, 8 Allvovs] for the golden bricks or bars sent by Croesus to the
temple of Apollo at Delphi, see Herodotus I 50. The oracle that lured him to his doom was Κροίσος "Αλυν διαβας μεγάλην αρχήν καταλύσει.
ékeivo yáp......] 'what, is gold that......'? ydp often thus joins a question to what precedes, as $ 12 olel yáp ti deioal, and tws yàp oở, που γαρ τοσούτος...
το ύπωχρoν μετ' ερυθήματος] “ that pale substance with a ruddy glow'. 13 åkoúwv åel] 'though I used to hear of it from time to time'. å koúwn
is of course the imperfect participle. 14 εκείνο Tepipáxntov] ‘that is the celebrated and strife-stirring
name'. For the use of ovoua when the thing bearing the name is really