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power, but exercising similar indirect influence with the court at home, ceremonial and social, and unconnected with direct party questions, but of such benefit to the community at large as our own Queen's sovereignty at home. Such was the origin and foundation of so-called "Responsible Government" in that colony, which was afterwards extended to Australia, the Cape of Good Hope, and New Zealand; and since that date Canada has been one of the most loyal and attached colonies that a monarch could desire to possess.

There are still several colonies, some of which-such as Gibraltar, Malta, and Aden-are almost entirely for military purposes, while in others-such as Ceylon, Natal, Jamaica, and Guiana-the coloured natives are so preponderant in number, or the place is so poor, that the government could not be entrusted to them, or the expense of maintaining it would be too great. In these cases the Crown appoints a Governor, who does really govern, sometimes on his own judgment, and sometimes assisted by a council appointed by himself or by the home government. The Crown Colonies are ruled according to the judgment of the Governor and their particular circumstances, but the colonies with responsible governments make their own laws, and fix their own customs and taxes, support their own military for their own defence, and do in short almost everything except declare peace or war, or make alliances with other powers, whether friendly or not; but they are still dependent upon the British navy for the defence of their coasts, towards the expense of which they do not contribute anything.


After the review we have now made of modern colonizing systems, we are perhaps in a position to enquire in a

spirit of fairness into the predominating causes of their success or failure, and I think that we shall find them to be the following.

Spain sent out her adventurers, not to work themselves, but to appropriate the treasures already accumulated by the work of their predecessors-the civilised kingdoms of Mexico and Peru; and when real work had to be done (as in the mines), it was done by the enforced labour of slaves, not by themselves. They also intermarried with the subjugated races, who were inferior to themselves in physique and mental calibre, and as a mixed race they degenerated, and became even less capable still of actual work, and less disposed for it than they were while pure Spaniards. They allowed the colonists no share in their own government, and they failed as colonists.

Portugal, in Brazil, failed from the same causes as Spain in Mexico and Peru; and in their Eastern possessions also, in consequence of having no possession of anything beyond their sea ports, and having no fleet to defend them. Their religious intolerance also made enemies instead of friends of their neighbours, and they failed as colonizers.

French. They gained many of their colonies by the sword, and lost them by the same weapon when their fleet was gone; and the colonies they have since acquired have been mere trading posts or military stations rather than agricultural colonies for building up homes for future generations. In their intercourse with the natives they have been friendly; but the North American Indians of Canada were not the people to raise future generations of an elevated stamp, and the very courtesy of the French temper has thus been a source of weakness rather than of strength. They have also looked to the mother country

for direction rather than relied upon themselves, and have still regarded her as their real home, rather than cherished the new homes they have made for themselves; and they have not proved permanently successful colonizers.

Dutch. They have been a strong working, self-reliant, and home-cultivating people, and also an agricultural and pastoral, as well as a trading nation. They have been tolerant in their religious relations with their neighbours, and they have not enfeebled their race by mixture with others lower than themselves in the scale of nations, and they have been successful colonists.

English. - Can an Englishman form a just and impartial estimate of his own race? Perhaps not; but the attempt must be made. First, perhaps, of all, he is a working being. As Trench has put it amusingly in his lectures on "words," the Englishman's salutation to his friend is "How d'ye do?" Not that he thinks one jot about the answer, but "do" an Englishman must, as a matter of course, and the only question therefore is, "how" he does. Next, he is a home-loving agricultural being, and therefore his great object is to make a freehold, permanent home for himself and his family after him. He is self-reliant and never knows when he is beaten, and therefore he overcomes early difficulties. He is accustomed to be self-governing, and, therefore, he adapts his rules for the community to the circumstances around him, while he is also a law-abiding citizen from his Roman descent and training. He shrinks from mixing his blood. with that of what he thinks to be inferior races; and while on the whole he tries to behave justly to them, and does not take active means to remove them, yet by some hitherto unexplained law they seem to melt and disappear wherever an Englishman plants his foot. He hates to be

called “religious," which in his ears sounds like "goodygoody," but he tries upon the whole to observe the decalogue; and the sequel of all this has been that he has so far taken possession of much of the previously unoccupied world and peopled it; and what was previously occupied he has (as he thinks) improved. At any rate he has it, and the future must prove whether the qualities we have attributed to him are those which will keep it, or whether he also will some time degenerate from riches, pride, and vain glory, and sink down as so many nations, even great ones, have done in past times which may Heaven of its goodness forbid.





WHEN I stand before such monuments as the Tower of London, or the walls of Chester, I cannot help mentally expressing a wish that the stones might become vocal, and echo some of the phases and incidents that have occurred since the day they left the quarry to become mute witnesses of history. So I felt when I watched the demolition of the Ghetto, or Jews' quarter, in Rome. With the carting away of the debris there is an end to a district in the City of the Seven Hills full of classic and archæological interest. It represents an unbroken history and tradition of upwards of two thousand years.

Whilst the present Roman citizens are only Romans from the fact of having been born, or being descended from those who for some generations have lived, in the metropolis of Italy, ethnologically they are so mixed up with Neapolitan, Longobardic, Vandal, Hun, and Gothic, as well as Spanish, Austro-German, and French infusions, that it would require a very powerful microscope to detect any original blood of the Roman of the republic or of the Cæsars. The Roman Jews are the same family unchanged, and identically the same in race, as those that lived on the shores of the Tiber at the period of the

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