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THERE are few social questions that have exercised more influence upon England in the past than the history of her colonies, or that have lately proved more difficult and disquieting than that of colonization by England and other nations the European world being at present unusually if not almost madly rushing after new colonies, as if the simple fact of acquiring a new colony was in itself a certain gain, and an object earnestly to be desired. It cannot therefore be an inappropriate subject to be brought at this period before a Philosophical Society, and a brief survey of the great distinguishing features of past colonizations during a period of at least four thousand years, I trust, will not be without interest to the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool.

Migration as distinguished from Colonization.
(Colo-ère-to cultivate, to dwell).

The movements by land of multitudes of men, women, and children, with flocks and herds to supply nourishment for indefinite periods, such as those of the Aryans from Central Asia to India, the south of Europe, the central regions of Europe, and to Scandinavia in the north, are generally spoken of as MIGRATIONS, and do not come within the scope of this paper as "COLONIZATION," which term generally implies at the present day transferrence by sea of limited numbers of persons leaving their original

homes for the purpose of finding new countries which they propose to cultivate and make into homes for their descendants. Such, in general terms, are the colonies we are now to consider, though many essential differences will be seen amongst them.

Reasons for Colonizing, and different systems for
carrying it out.

The causes which have led to the formation of colonies have been very numerous, and often essentially different, and, in the review now to be made, it would almost appear as if the only feature in which they are all alike, and that applies to all almost without exception, is that

"They should get who have the power,

And they should keep who can."

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honestly if possible, but at any rate "get" and "keep and no one people appears able to establish a right to upbraid its neighbour with being less honest and straightforward than itself in the matter of colonization.

PART 1ST. PREHISTORIC AND ANCIENT COLONIZATIONS. The earliest historic Colonizer-the essential principle of his Colonization, and its results—ABRAHAM, B.C. 2000.

The essential principle of his colonization was religious one, viz., the creation of a monotheistic community, having no visible idols, as distinguished from the polytheistic idolatrous people from whom he went out; and, further, the formation of a people who should live by the cultivation of their future places of settlement, with the encouragement at the same time of a pastoral life in those parts of their future homes best adapted for it; and also the development of industrial arts of various kinds for those qualified for them, all essentially involving work.

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