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Union engravings for next year, and Noon- but, to our eye, what they gain as portraits, ing, engraved by Alfred Jones, a capital they lose as humorous pictures. The classic engraving, appear to us his chefs d'ouvre in size for comic pieces has been diminutive. his out-of-door scenes. In the first picture, Yet they are truly excellent, and we must remark the diplomatic manner of the traf- add a few words by way of description. fickers; how cool and indifferent; whittling; Just in Time represents a handsome their attitudes, like their dress, easy and young countryman, who, violin in hand, has slouching. Nooning is nature itself, a per- just hit the proper pitch. This picture is in fect transcript from life: how close and sul- the exhibition of the present year. It has try the mid-day heats; how lazily lolls the been beautifully lithographed, and is worthy sleeping negro on the hay, whose ear the of a rural Adonis by Morland. boy is tickling with a straw, which produces Right and Left is a negro fiddler calling a slight smile. The white laborers are natu- out the figures of a dance at a ball, fully rally disposed about with their farming im- equal to the last-mentioned. The negro is plements. The landscape is unmistakably a comely specimen of his race, and something that of Long Island, bare and homely, yet of a village dandy, to boot. with an air of thrift and comfort. In all of The Lucky Throw-a negro who has won his productions, the details are carefully a goose at a raffle--inimitable for spirit, expainted, but in some of them, separate faces pression, details and coloring. Indeed, the or some special object form the most at- coloring in these last three is much supetractive features.
rior to that in his earlier works : a fine tone Power of Music and Music is Contagious is prevalent, and there is no sign of carelessare, like most of his works, of cabinet size ness or neglect. and companion pieces. The titles tell the His last work, in this year's exhibition of story, which is narrated with pictorial effect. the Academy, Who'll Turn Grindstone ? They represent the love of music at different illustrates a well-known apologue of Dr. periods of life. The phrenological hobby of Franklin, impressing the moral of the heartthe artist is apparent in the musical bump less conduct of worldly men towards those of the negro, whose organ of tune in the whose good offices they have exhausted. second picture has been much developed. The countenance of the boy is the trait we The faces of the boys are full of sweetness. like best in this picture. It reminds one of California News is a hit at the times. A the amenity of Gainsborough's children, and group of listeners surround the reader of an of the faces in the Truant Gamblers. The "extra,"containing the miraculous develop-barn is as natural as possible. It was painted ments of gold discovery at the El Dorado; for Mr. Sturges, the President of the Newthe scene, a village tavern bar-room, hung York Gallery, and a liberal patron of art. round, among other ornaments, with a hand- Mount has been fortunate in his patrons bill advertisement of a vessel up for the the late judicious lover and munificent Mines. This is, altogether, a capital thing, friend of art, Luman Reed, Esq., his succesfull of telling effects: an historical painting, sor in the Presidency, James Lenox, Esq., though of an humble order, in the genuine Mrs. Gideon Lee, Mrs. Leupp, Goupil & Co., sense.
gentlemen of discrimination and cultivated Within the last year Mr. Mount has been taste. The prices he is paid are generally executing orders (of which Just in Time, higher than those he places upon his proRight and Left, and the Lucky Throw, ductions; and yet, although handsome for are three already completed) for the enter this country, he would probably receive prising French publishing and print-selling double or thrice the amount abroad. house of Goupil & Co., whose agent, Mr. Commonly considered indolent, he is inSchauf, had the taste and judgment to select defatigable in elaborating his productions. Mount, as the most national of our artists, to Fastidious and full of conscientious integrity, introduce to the French and European public. he is accused of slowness by those who are These pictures are tastefully lithographed in ignorant of the internal, intellectual labor of _Paris by La Salle, a spirited hand. "In this the artist, who, faithful to his cherished conenterprise, he has ventured on the experi- ceptions, seeks to work them out by diliment of combining portrait and comic de- gence and pains. Much is going on in the sign. The heads are life-size, half-lengths; I mind, while the artist may not touch his
brush for days or weeks. He is also much sant excursions, and little parties at home or censured for his coloring, at one time too in the neighborhood, relieve the toils of the cold, again too hot. It is true, expression studio, the farm, the manufactory, and more and character are his fortes, coloring is not real happiness is found than amid the Yet he is sometimes highly successful, as in splendid luxuries of the city. his later works, and almost always his col- The place of W. S. Mount, as an artis t, oring suits his peculiar class of subjects, may be considered as not easily assignable. which, homely and rustic as they are, neither He is an original painter, a follower of no require nor approve vivid tints.
school, an imitator of no master. But yet Mr. Mount is now living at Stony Brook, he may be classed generally with English some three miles from Setauket, on the painters, as partaking of certain of their qualSound side of Long Island, with his married ities and as possessing similar attributes. sister. His studio is as rustic as possible, Mount is not merely a comic painter, and by and nothing could be more appropriate. It no means a caricaturist. At the same time, is in the upper story or garret of an old he is much above the most successful painter fashioned cottage, a comfortable homestead, of still life. His forte properly is rustic picwith the light artistically let in from the turesqueness, and heightened by true humorroof.
ous descriptive power. He is something Mr. Shepherd Mount, well known as a akin to Wilkie, with traits of the better part successful portrait painter, for which de- of Morland and a good deal of Gainsborough partment of his art he has a fine feeling, in him. Some of his cabinet pieces with a and especially for color, is an able and intel- variety of figures deserve to be ranked in ligent artist. His drawings and sketches the same category with the admirable picare even better than most of his portraits ; tures of the Dutch and Flemish schools. Of and, in pieces of still life, he has done some course we would not insult Mount by declarcapital things. He has also a turn for land- ing such an extravagance, as that he equalscape. It is delightful to witness the frank led Ostade in coloring, or Douner in minute and generous pride of the brothers in each finish.
The general characteristics of his other, and their family connections, an in- paintings, however, are much the same with stance of brotherly sympathy and disinter- theirs. estedness as rare as it is grateful.
A comic artist without doubt, he is still The scenery about Stony Brook is not essentially a rural painter. There is nothing beautiful nor romantic, but has a certain of the town life in his pictures: all are rural charm that confirms local affection, imbued with a feeling of the country—its when a more picturesque scene might fade freshness, its foliage, its sweet airs and soulout of the fancy. It has that ever-delicious calining secret recesses. His best works repose of the country, that air of quiet and are, in a word, humorous pastorals, with seclusion, so full of unobtrusive beauty to sweetness and fine-tempered satire, (where the citizen, tired of the turmoil of a town there is any at all ;) no bitterness, no moral life. It was a favorite resort of the late obliquity or personal deformity impåir their Henry Inman. The country about here is effect; they present a picture of country life, one of the oldest settlements on the Island. at once satisfactory for its truth and agreeaIt has some antiquities of its own, the chief ble in its aspect and general features. of which is the quaint little old Caroline .The character of the artist is reflected in church, an Episcopal church, erected during his works,- his sweetness of temper, purity the reign of George II., and named after his of feeling, truthfulness, gayety of heart, consort. Old farm-houses and aged people humorous observation, and appreciation of are not unfrequently met, and comfort with homely beauties of nature that are overlooked contentment is the ruling characteristic of by the common eye. the neighborhood. Here, in serenity, and in He loves to discover the good in others, the enjoyment of social pleasures, practising in artists, especially beginners, in all pictures, a genial hospitality, with abundance of good- and indeed in every thing. He is a practical humor and native courtesy, combining much optimist, in the best meaning of the term. intelligence and true natural refinement, re- With maturity of judgment and character, side a pleasant society, of which the Mount he has all the vivacity of youthful feeling and family forms the centre of attraction. Plea-. the freshness of the morning of life. A guileless, generous gentleman, indifferent to liott, painted for Goupil & Co.'s gallery-a the pecuniary rewards of his art, except so trifle too highly colored perhaps, and making far as they insure the essential comforts of him look more like a bandit than the painter, life and bring the independence he cherishes still a picturesque head of an artist, by one with manly spirit.
who well deserves that title. His smile and In common with all the members of his frank expression, both very attractive, give family, who inherit a turn for humor and way in the portrait to a more elevated exvivacity of spirits, he is a lover of and skilled pression, not the habitual look. His eye is in music, plays with spirit on the violin, and remarkably mild and intelligent: the whole is fond of all social and innocent pleasures. profile, in a word, is such as one fancies a
His figure is tall and slight, but graceful; painter's face should be. his gait buoyant and springy; his manners In conversation he is modest and unascordial, cheery, and full of bonhomie; with suming; his remarks are direct, full of sense, a voice uncommonly musical and insinuat- humor and feeling. He speaks hurriedly at ing. Those who have not met him, may times, and without any pedantic precision; obtain a good idea of his physiognomy and but his expressions are generally as pithy expression, from the admirable head by El-'as his ideas are just and true.
The last three years will ever be remem- , with a detailed history of the struggle itself. bered with the deepest interest by the whole Our materials for this work are not so amcivilized world. Great events have trans- ple as we could wish they were, and yet they pired, and in evident preparation for greater are sufficient, we believe, to enable us to prestill
. The voice of the forerunner has been sent truthfully the great features of this most heard, and the multitudes have gone forth interesting passage in the recent history of to listen to it. The baptism of fire follows. the civilized nations of the earth. The minds of men are alert and watchful In the description which follows, it has for the opening of the next scene of this fear- been our endeavor to convey both a distinct ful and momentous drama.
and correct general impression of the kingThus far, no nation has acted a nobler or dom of Hungary, and also to give in detail a more tragical part than that of the Hun- the most important facts illustrative of its garians. For many years scarcely thought physical characteristics. Particular pains of, and hardly known by any on this side of have been taken to retain the very language the water, and not at all understood, this of those who have written from their perpeople has surprised the world with an exam- sonal observation, and in most instances this ple of heroic devotion to a righteous cause, has been done. We hope the reader will which, if it has been paralleled, has never put himself to the trouble of reading with a been surpassed by any nation of ancient or map before him; and we are confident that modern times.
if he does, he will conclude this article with We propose, in three papers of moderate a clearer idea of the land of the Magyars length each, to give an account of the late than he will readily obtain in any other way. events in Hungary ; commencing, in the pres- The kingdom of Hungary lies north of ent article, with a description of the country, Turkey and south of Poland, the great mass of its position, natural resources, capabilities of it falling between the 45th and 49th parand relations; proceeding next to a brief allels of north latitude. From the best stasummary of Hungarian history, with a state- tistics within our reach, we gather that its ment of the condition of the nation at the extent is about equal to that of the States of opening of the late struggle, and concluding Ohio and Indiana taken together, or, with Transylvania, to the united areas of New- can be raised with equal facility in Hungary, York and Pennsylvania.*
wheat, maize, tobacco, flax, hemp, and grapes Along the whole line of the northern fron- that afford some of the finest wines of the tier stretches the rough and wooded region world. It is a land remarkable for the variof the Carpathian mountains. On the east ety as well as the abundance of its products, is the principality of Transylvania, a beau- fruitful of corn and wine, affording pasturage tiful, hilly country, girt about and inter- to countless flocks and herds, watered by sected with elevated ranges, and rather more great rivers, and well supplied with the treathan equal in extent to the States of Massa- sures of the forest and the mine. chusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island. The As has already been stated, the great mass great western, central and southern regions of Hungary proper consists of two plains, consist for the most part of vast and fertile separated by the mountains which are cut plains, in certain districts well wooded, and through by the Danube near Waitzen. Of watered by four great rivers—the Danube, these the western is about eighty miles long the Theiss, the Drave and the Save. The (from S. W. to N. E.) by sixty broad, and is Danube, after having passed the outposts of almost a perfect level throughout its whole the Carpathians at Presburg, continues in extent. The traveller who goes down the an easterly course for about ninety miles, Danube from Presburg, for many miles, until, a short distance west of Waitzen, it meets with no object
relieve the eye. divides the mountain range of central Hun- The country all around is flat and sandy, gary, and bends abruptly southward. This sometimes woody, sometimes spread out range, stretching for more than two hundred into rich meadows, and looking every where and fifty' miles from south-west to north- as if it had at one period formed the east, separates the western, or the “little bed of the river itself, which, even now, freHungarian plain,” from that vast central quently changes its course. The immense plain which occupies, with its pusztas and its arms which the Danube in this part sends rich marsh lands, nearly all the remainder off at every half-mile or less, are many of of Hungary proper.
them wider than the parent stream itself, if The north-western and northern portion that term can be applied indeed to any part of the kingdom is rich in mines of gold, sil- of it. ver and copper, which are of great extent, At Grau, however, the scene undergoes a having been worked since the times of the delightful change. Instead of the flat plain Romans. “ Many of the ancient 'levels' to which the eye had been accustomed, fine still exist, and are easily recognized from mountains rise on either side, green and prehaving been excavated with hammer and cipitous, from the water's edge. These conchisel;" and to this day there are not unfre- tinue to skirt the river upon its right bank quently found lamps, coins, tools, and arti- for a considerable distance. cles of dress, evidently of Roman origin. Near the western frontier, and some thirty An idea of the vastness of these excavations miles S. W. from Presburg, lies the Neumay be obtained from the fact that in one siedler Lake, a shallow body of water, being region the subterraneous caverns commu- hardly any where more than ten feet deep, nicate with another through passages fifty and in general not more than six, but covermiles in extent. The climate of this north- ing an area of two hundred square miles. This ern mountainous district is cold, and so sub- lake is surrounded by low meadows and mo ject even in the warmer seasons to sudden rasses. On its eastern borders sandbanks and and severe changes, that it is scarcely ever islands of peat moss are frequent, which at prudent for the traveller to leave behind his length become united together, and a wide fur cloak. These chilly ridges, however, ex- marshy district commences, which stretches ert it would seem no unfavorable influence as far as to the neighborhood of the Danube, upon the plains below: for Buda-Pesth, where the land rises higher and assumes a though as far north as Quebec, has the aver- firmer character. This vast morass covers an age yearly temperature of Philadelphia.
area of more than one hundred and fifty All the productions of our Middle States square miles, and the greater part of it
may be regarded as a floating bog; but * The statistics are strangely contradictory. We here and there trees are growing, and nearly assume the more moderate.
in the centre there is a wood of alders which
does not float. Over the whole surface | tures of western Hungary is the lake known of the morass lies a bed of moss, usually by the name of the Platten See, or Lake about six but sometimes as much as nine Balaton. Its figure is a parallelogram. It or even twelve feet thick. Beneath this extends fifty miles from N. E. to S. W., with lies almost
every where a stratum of bog an average breadth of eight or nine miles, earth, resting on a firm bed of clay, cov- and a medium depth of about six fathoms. ered like the bottom of the lake with The shores are nearly straight, with one stones and gravel. In the spring, when notable exception however on the western the whole Hansag (the Hungarian name) is shore, where a considerable peninsula runs overflowed, this moss covering, and some- so far into the lake, that between its extimes also the stratum of turf, is loosened, and tremity and the opposite side there remains floats on the surface of the water. If the only a channel of two hundred yards in width. growth of the moss has been more than The color of the water is generally a clear usually vigorous, it will sometimes cling white, but when storms are approaching, even closely to the lower soil, and become over- though no clouds have yet appeared in the flowed. Occasionally it happens that large heavens, it assumes a dark hue, and forms tracts thus-submerged are suddenly loosened, thus a convenient weather-gauge. so that what the day before was a sheet of The following extract from Kohl, from water, becomes apparently transformed into whose book most of the above is taken, will dry land. Much the larger part of the Han- not be uninteresting : sag is still marshy and reedy ground, and only
« The whole nature of the Platten See bas never a very small portion is arable. The earth shakes under the tread, and it is impossible, that the few facts related to me on the spot may
been properly examined, and therefore I believe in the middle portions of it, to obtain firm offer something of novelty: The evening I speak footing any where. Kohl, the German trav- of, when I looked upon its waters, waves were eller, describes it as "stretched out before the constantly beating against the shore, although the eye, a boundless desert of reeds interspersed morning I went down to the ferry at the extremity
atmosphere was perfectly still
The following with marshy meadows, and skirted on the of the peninsula. This ferry unites the comitat distant horizon by the alder forest which of Salader
, at the north of the lake, to that of was just visible."
Schomoty, at the south. A road leads through the “The whole country between Oedenburg peninsula, over which the people who wish to go and Raab (the former situated near the S. W. Schomoty side there is a Hungarian, on the Tihany, extremity of the Neusiedler and the latter fifty a German ferryman. The walk from the convent miles to the east, at the junction of the river to the ferryman's cottage is nearly a mile. His Raab with the Danube) is as flat as though name is Dicker, and he has held the ferry over this it had been adjusted by line and level. With the water was never still, not even when there had the exception of the Hansag, the whole of been a calm for fourteen days. He also confirmed the little Hungarian plain, containing about what had been told me respecting the changes in four thousand square miles, is exceedingly the weather to be foretold by the appearance of fertile. This fertility reaches its highest point said he," the lake has got it in its stomach, and in the island of Schütt—distinguished for its foams and grumbles beforehand.? In the little impregnable fortress of Komorn—which was strait at the extremity of the peninsula, where the formerly known by the name of the Golden lake is only two hundred fathoms wide, the motion Gardens."
is the strongest, and in addition to the agitation of The Hansag itself, however, is by no strongest in the middle of the strait, where the
the waves on the surface, there is a strong current, means useless, as it affords pasturage to many water is not more than seven fathoms deep at the herds of cattle, reeds which are woven by utmost. Tlie current flows sometimes from west the shepherds into mats, and large quantities to east, and sometimes in a contrary direction ; the of soda, which in hot summer weather issues people could not say whether there was a double from the ground on the eastern margin of this current was caused by the superfluous waters
current as in other straits. The monks thought the lake, and from the dried-up beds of the of either part of the lake, and that if the wind little pools that sprinkle over the marsh. In blew long from the east the water was driven into favorable seasons and situations this salt will the western part, and vice versa; but the boatman cover the surface for miles, giving the ap- when there had long been no wind to impel the
was of opinion that the stream was continual, even pearance of snow.
waters to one part or the other. After a long conOne of the most remarkable natural fea- tinuance of wind the water became troubled, but in