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Owing to the fact of the last Whig Con- measures of the party, on which all could vention of the State of New-York occurring reunite and harmonize. SO soon after the

of the
great com-

We congratulate the country on this repromise measures of the last session of Con- sult. The following is the statement of pringress, that the heats engendered by the de- ciples which they have agreed, after discusbate on those measures had not had time to sion, to set forth:cool, there occurred a division in that body

· Believing that an expression of the views and touching the compromise, which led to the principles of the Whigs of this state, as they are appointment of two Whig State Central understood by us, in relation particularly to quesCommittees holding hostile opinions on the tions which now agitate the country, should be policy in question. Since that time it has made, in order to induce an intelligent, honest, and been obvious to all reflecting politicians that Whigs of the other States of the Union, the State

cordial co-operation among ourselves and with the the smoke of the conflict has been gradually Committees, appointed at the respective Convenclearing away, and the landmarks of duty tions held in 1850 at Syracuse and at Utica, and and principle have become more or less dis- the Committee appointed by the Whigs of the tinct to the minds of all but those who are the following, as presenting what they believe to

Legislature at its recent session, have agreed upon constitutionally incapable of seeing. The be the sentiments of the great body of the Whigs steady light of the Constitution—that bea- of the State of New-York:con of all true American statesmen—is again

“An Economical Administration of the Govertbeing recognized as the guide through the menthe strict accountability of public officers, and difficulties that surrounded us. Under the

their rigid adherence to the limitations of power influence of these facts, the Whig Committee prescribed by the Constitution and the laws; an of the State Legislature invited the two Com- honest and faithful performance of all obligations mittees above mentioned to meet in Albany, made with foreign nations, with a scrupulous rewith a view to harmonize the Whig party gard for their rights, and a firm and steady defense in this State." They accepted the invitation,

“ The Improvement of the important Rivers and and met about the first of the present Harbors of the country, so as to render them navmonth; and after

a conference of three days, igable and accessible, by prudent and systematic agreed to a call of a Convention for Septem- appropriations, founded upon examinations made ber next, to be held at Syracuse ; and also by competent and disinterested

public officers :

“Such a discrimination in the Duties necessarily agreed to a statement of the principles and/ laid upon Imports for the support of Government, VOL. VIII. NO. III.



as shall secure to the Industry of our countrymen pair the public faith, and all unlawful enterprises a just remuneration, and shall stimulate Mechani- calculated to disturb the public peace and provoke cal and Manufacturing Enterprise, and thus provide civil war, or to sever or weaken the relations of a hume consumption for the products of Agricul- any State with the Union: ture, which may control and counteract the un- * That the Administration of this State has fully steady demands of foreign markets, and as shall justified the confidence in its capacity, intelligence promote that healthy interchange among ourselves and integrity, which called it into being ; that the of the fruits of our own skill and labor, which is so public interests in the various departments of Eduwell calculated to cement our Union, and main- cation, Finance, and Jurisprudence, and in the tain the spirit of national independence : extension of the means of intercourse and of cheap

" That the Whigs of the State, as a body, are transportation, have been vigorously and prudently inflexibly opposed to the subjection of any terri- sustained and promoted ; Constitutional Governtory of the United States, now free, to laws im- ment by legal majorities has been vindicated, and posing involuntary servitude, except as a punish- the general prosperity of the State has been sedment for crime, and they rejoice that no proposition ulously and successfully maintained ; and by emto that effect is now pending, or is likely to be pre- ploving the means which previous expenditures, sented; while, at the same time, they unqualifiedly guided by enlightened forecast, had placed within acknowledge the right of every sovereign State our reach, to consummate the great work of the to regulate its own municipal institutions, in such age, has presented a vivid contrast to the narrow, manner as its people may deem most conducive unjust, and wasteful policy of those who would to their safety and happiness, without interference, scatter those means by such an impotent applicadirectly or indirectly, by citizens of other States, tion of them as would postpone to a very distant or subjects of other countries:

posterity, if not indefinitely, the enjoyment of an " That the Whigs of this State will abide by the inestimable heritage of wealth and prosperity : Constitution of the United States, in all its parts, " That for the purpose of sustaining those views and that they will receive its true meaning and con- and principles in the election of State officers enstruction from the judicial tribunals it has created tertaining them at the ensuing general election, for that purpose, and will always sustain and de. the Committee above mentioned recommend that fend such decisions, as the law of the land, until a Convention, consisting of one delegate from each they are reversed by the same tribunals : Assembly District of the State, be held at Syra

"That the laws of Congress and of the State cuse, on the 17th day of September next, at 12 Legislatures, pronounced constitutional by the o'clock at noon." judicial tribunals, must be enforced, and implicitly obeyed; and that while this is cheerfully recog- It will be seen that reflection and patriotnized as the duty of all, as subjects of the laws, ism have combined to produce a reconciliayet that the right of citizens, as voters, is equally tion of the conflicting elements. There must undeniable to diseuss, with a full and mutual re in all questions be some absolute principles, gard for the rights and interests of all parts of the confederacy, (which is as necessary now to main which are ascertainable by reason and cantain, as it was indispensable to achieve the blessed dor combining to discover them. In this Union of these States,) the expediency of such case we believe these principles have been laws, and the propriety of any of their provisions, ascertained and set forth. On the practical and to seek, by constitutional means, their repeal application of them there may still differor modification:

" That all who are animated by a sincere desire ences of opinion arise; but in the mean time to preserve the Union unimpaired, and the free

a great gain has been made, inasmuch as institutions which it sustains and guarantees, by the party can act together under them, and which alone individual security and national peace await the issue of events for their application, and prosperity can be perpetuated, must condemn all attempts to resist, defeat, or render ineffectual when the same reason, patriotism and canany laws passed by constitutional majorities of dor will, we have good reason to hope, prelegislative bodies, in either the Federal or State vail, should occasions arise when they have Governments; and that the Whigs of New-York to be acted on. In this statement we conwill ever be found prompt to render a patriotic ceive each division has conceded to the other acquiescence in all such laws:

* That the National Administration is entitled the abstract principles that lay at the founto the confidence and support of the Whigs of New-dation of their opinions. The right of obYork, for the eminent ability and patriotism which jection and constitutional resistance has been have characterized its measures; for its successful management of our foreign affairs ; the generous

conceded, whilst on the other hand the policy sympathy it has exhibited toward an oppressed and necessity of acquiescence, submission to people struggling for freedom; the force and dig- and maintenance of existing law, has been nity with which it has maintained the right to admitted and enforced. This is in perfect indulge such sympathy, and with which it has accordance with the very genius of our porebuked the threats of an imperious Government to violate the immunities of an accredited public litical institutions, and must command ihe agent; and the determination it bas evinced to approval of all candid minds. repress and defeat all movements tending to im- There has undoubtedly been, as we have

already intimated, a reaction in the public and settles all questions. No officer, howmind; and it has become generally appa- ever high, can administer “as he underrent to all, that no practical good can result stands," or make his will the law. He must from the agitation of any of those questions be held strictly accountable to the nationwhich were intended to be settled by the the people. Not their will of to-day or tocompromise measures. Parties, it has at morrow as he may conceive it is, or will be, last become perfectly plain, can accomplish but their will as it has been enacted into nothing towards their ascendency as such, constitutions and laws. by incorporating into their legitimate creeds Honesty and good faith (for we must diany thing sectional. Very properly, there- vide this paragraph of the platform") are fore, these Committees have repudiated for the very soul of the Republic. Our agreethe Whigz any such idea, and have promi- ments and obligations with and to other nanently set forth those doctrines which have tions must be preserved inviolate by the addistinguished them heretofore, and which ministrators of the government, if they would have animated those known by this name not create a moral atmosphere in which the in every part of the Union, North and nation will sicken and die. Without this South.

how can we assert, maintain and defend our The action of the Whigs of the great own rights from encroachment? Without State of New-York on this subject has been this, instead of going forth to fight for them, watched with great interest and anxiety by when the occasion may arrive, in the bright its friends in other sections of the country, armor of right, we shall be covered but with and the proceeding on which we are com- the shirt of Nessus, that will poison and menting will be hailed by them as an aus- destroy ; happy if, like Hercules, we have but picious omen of a return to that harmony | the spirit left to make our own funeral pyre, which will enable them, as heretofore, to and become immortalized for what we have labor together for those great principles of done in our more heroic and virtuous youth. national beneficence for which they have ever So far these propositions may appear to contended.

some to be undeniable abstractions, not propThose principles are, it will be perceived, erly belonging to the creed of any party very properly put forth prominently in this as such; but whoever so considers them has call. They are such as the country cannot taken little note of the last twenty years of do without and prosper. They are essential our political history. During that time they to the independence and the vigor of the have been openly and palpably violated by nation. Its true progress is involved in them, our opponents. Some of their great men as is demonstrated by every page of our have avowedly acted in opposition to them. history.

They have been the apologists for State delinAn essential feature in the administration quencies to them, and they have encouraged of a republican government is economy; irresponsible combinations for the infraction an economy that has no merely technical of some of the most important by the dessignification, but that also embraces the idea perate and reckless “fellows of the baser sort” of obtaining real value and service for the amongst them. If not openly incorporated money expended; discouraging by its pos into their creeds, " Baltimore platforms," itive requirements that bane and canker of and so forth, opposition to these principles our political life, office-seeking, by retaining has become part of the common or unwritall who have conscientiously qualified them- ten law of the party. selves to serve the country, and appointing Among the passages of recent history none but those who have the character and which crowd upon us in illustration of this, ability to do the same. To the victors do there is one which covers so much ground, not belong the spoils, for there are no spoils, and illustrates and confirms in so striking a unless parties confess themselves thieves and manner these observations, that we will fortiplunderers of the public purse.

fy our position by quoting it. Under a republican government there In Mír. Calhoun's speech against the Conare no irresponsible public officers. The quest of Mexico, delivered in the Senate, Constitution and laws of the land confer and January 4th, 1848,* occurs the following limit all powers and proceedings, define all duties and privileges ; the judiciary explains * See American Review, March, 1848.


significant, we had almost said terrible pas- | fatal to those constitutional guarantees on

which they rely for the security of their “Sir, there is no solicitude now for liberty. rights against such fanaticism. If our treaty Who talks of liberty when any great question obligations with other nations, and the comes up? Here is a question of the first magni- laws enacted by ourselves to


them into tude as to the conduct of this war; do you hear effect, are to be thus infamously trifled with, any body talk about its effects upon our liberties who can tell what other laws, no less sacred, and our free institutions ? No, sir. That was not the case formerly. In the early stages of our gov- will share the same fate? Resistance to such ernment the great anxiety was, how to preserve a spirit, in any and all its forms, is the most liberty. The great anxiety now is for the attain. sacred political obligation that can rest upon ment of mere military glory. In the one we are

a republican citizen, be he of what party or forgetting the other. The maxim of former times

what section he may. was, that power is always stealing from the many to the few; the price of liberty was perpetual

It will easily be perceived that these last vigilance. They were constantly looking out and sentences have been penned in view of the watching for danger. Not so now.

so now. Is it because new hydra head that is just making itself there has been any decay of liberty among the apparent in the Cuban attempt to repeat people? Not at all. I believe the love of liberty the Texan abomination. It bids fair to be was never more ardent, but they have forgotton the tenure of liberty by which alone it is pre- a monster more hideous than the last-a served.

much more illegitimate progeny of the law“We think we may now indulge in every thing less party of the Republic. Those desperawith impunity, as we held our charter of liberty does who engage in it, without the honor, by 'right divine'—from Heaven itself. Under these impressions we plunge into war, we contract heroism, or courage to regard it as a purely heavy debts, we increase the patronage of the personal adventure, but desire to tarnish the Executive, and we talk of a crusade to force our in- honor of this nation by involving it in the stitutions of liberty upon all people. There is no scheme, wiil (there is no alternative) either species of extravagance which our people imagine will endanger their liberty in any degree. Sir, meet their own destruction, or bring destructhe hour is approaching--the day of retribution


upon this Union. From the questions will come. It will come as certainly as I am now growing out of the Texan scheme we have addressing the Senate, and when it does come, barely escaped this result. This, following awful will be the reckoning; heavy the responsi- so closely upon it

, would inevitably effect it. bility somewhere."

But passing these principles, let us proSuch is the tone and purpose of that un- ceed to the measures set forth by the Comscrupulous party; as plainly exhibited at mittees. That the Federal Government this day as it was when this warning was should undertake a judicious system of imuttered by this great and experienced states-provements of the rivers and harbors of the man. It has not, it is true, made as yet a new country, is, we believe, a universally admitfield of action such as it had then; but it is ted doctrine by Whigs of all sections. rapidly preparing to do so, and thus strike The miserable fallacies which the other another blow at the Union and existence of party have opposed to this beneficent meathese States, which if it is permitted to do sure are utterly unworthy of refutation. we have no doubt will be its death-blow. They have in fact already failed to prevent How necessary then for the Whigs to reit- its passage through Congress; and the erate and claim as belonging to the party arbitrary tyranny of the veto had to be rethe doctrine of Administrative Economy; sorted to to destroy the bill. The internal the accountability and limitation of the commerce and facility of communication bepowers of public officers ; the faithful per- tween almost any two States of this Union, formance in letter and spirit of our obliga- is of more consequence than our whole tions to other nations ; a scrupulous regard external relations, if we except one or two for their rights, and firm maintenance of our nations. The party that opposes this meaown. What reliance can any section of the sure has no objection to spending thousands country have, for the observance of their of dollars through charges and ambassadors constitutional rights, upon a party that in obtaining commercial arrangements with practically consider nothing as law but the the most insignificant nations-arrangements demagogue-excited fanaticism of the hour? / many of which only benefit two or three What madness in the South, for instance, to mercantile firms—such is the force of traencourage in any degree this spirit so utterly Iditional

, technical politics ; whilst they stren


Their Principles and Measures.

uously opposo expenditures by the Govern- of their country, are bound hand and foot
ment, which in a single year might save and must labor for whatever the avarice of
from absolute destruction property beyond their master pleases to pay them? The
the whole amount required, and through false political systems of the European
all time facilitate the flow of that “vital cur- nations reach and enslave us, to a greater
rent" of prosperity—the internal trade be- or less degree, as long as this state of affairs
tween the various States of the Union—that lasts. The British system of “free trade”
of all other things most tends to cement our pharisaically demands that we should con-
nationality, and insure prosperity and inde- sider our “ brethren in bonds as bound with

them;" but we would rather invite the bondFollowing this, we have a statement of men to leave their shackles behind, and join the doctrine of Protection to our native in- us in the establishment of a nation, that in dustry, at the present time the most pressing its political, social and economical equality necessity of all. We write in the midst of and perfection, will by its peaceful progress a threatened commercial crisis and convul- shame those nations into the adoption of a sion, when money is commanding on the like system of freedom, equality and justice. best mercantile paper fifteen per cent. per Such are the wide, important, world-embraannum; and that in the midst of the unex- cing views with which we would advocate ampled influx of gold from our Pacific pos- protection to American industry and Amerisessions. It is notorious that this alarming can freedom. A freedom thus secured and fact is owing to the excessive purchases of thus protected appears to us to go beyond foreign goods, induced by a most senseless the mere political idea usually attached to and undiscriminating ad-valorem tariff'; a the term, and, if thoroughly understood and tariff that is throwing into the hands of carried out, to be the solution for most of other nations all the pecuniary advantages the social enigmas that perplex and distract we expected to reap from that amazing the age—so far at least as that solution is enterprise of our countrymen, by which to be sought for, or expected, outside of the they have opened to the world the vast individual regeneration. riches so long hidden in the streams and Other results there are of this measure of mountains of California. We are taking all protection to our native industry, that reach the risk and they all the profit. Whilst we beyond the mere economic, (this, too, we are making these excessive purchases abroad, also claim as has so often been demonstrated and thus contributing to pay the grinding in these pages,) calculated, with that we taxations of monarchical powers required for have referred to, to inspire the party that their senseless splendors and excessive debts, maintains it with a unity of devotion and -debts contracted, in many cases, to put an enthusiasm of action, before which the down the liberties of man,

-our own mills, theorists for a mere material national wealth, mines and furnaces are to an alarming ex- however unequally distributed, should be tent idle and useless, the capital invested swept away as choff before the wind. in them utterly unproductive. Our farmers One of these is diversity of labor and are obliged to expend most of their labor in enterprise. Looking at the gigantic and cultivating the most unprofitable products, horrible evils resulting from the competition in consequence of the limitation of the home among laborers for the same employment, market, and to sell them at the most unre- as recently exhibited in such books as munerating rates, in order to compete, in a “ London Labor and the London Poor," market three or four thousand miles off, · Alton Locke," &c.,—undeniable representawith products grown on the spot, or only tions of facts, -every thoughtful statesman brought across the British channel, or from must be led to the conclusion, that here is the shores of the Baltic sea. Our republican discovered the pit-fall of modern civilization, system demands and requires protection to the inevitable doom of unrestricted or unadour republican laborers. Of what avail is it, justed competition; and that unless this so far as their material well-being is con- gulf be avoided, his labor for his country or cerned, that these classes have the franchise mankind is in vain, and there can be no conof freemen and a voice in all the affairs of tinuous progress for the race.

Modern state, if they are obliged to compete with civilization, like the ancient, must fall into those who, having no voice in the legislation ruin. The human intellect must return to


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