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THE

AMERICAN REVIEW.

No. LXXIX.

FOR JULY, 1851.

STRAY LEAVES FROM THE UNPUBLISHED HISTORY OF THE

NEW WORLD.

Some months since an American gentle- that her statesmen utterly denied the auman, distinguished for the assiduity and thority of the Pope to cede to Spain the vast success of his American historical researches, and valuable domain in the New World, obtained from Europe a consignment of which she claimed in virtue of that funcmanuscripts referring particularly to the past tionary's grant; that is, to so much as she of Mexico, the West Indies and the Spanish had failed to colonize. The commercial Main. Among them are nine volumes laws enacted by Spain for her American of the papers of Admirals Sir Charles Wa- possessions, nominal and real, were unger and Edward Vernon, who, in the times doubtedly most oppressive to the commerce in which they were written, commanded his of other nations; and after finding remonBritannic Majesty's squadrons operating off strance to be in vain, Britain adopted the the coast of the North American colonies, system of encouraging buccaneering or the West Indies, and, generally, in and near privateering upon Spanish bottoms and the Mexican Gulf. Kindly permitting a friend settlements, by way of harassing that of somewhat similar tastes to read them government until its citizens should, for the and copy such as he judged of peculiar sake of peace, force it to grant the privileges public interest

, the latter has placed at our to her citizens for which she contended. disposal the result of his fortnight's ex- These papers, for the first time here amination, which we here give to the world, printed, are fifteen in number, and emas embracing an exceedingly curious de- brace a clearer exposition of the affairs of velopment of the spirit of the times and that quarter in 1738, '9 and '40, than we the policy originally governing Britain and can present in any other manner; being Spain respectively, with reference to this generally tersely written and replete with continent. They also show conclusively that facts, very many of which bear most forcibly political morals—of nations—a century ago, on international questions which at this were far behind those which now prevail in epoch most interest the people of the point of integrity of national purpose, and United States. As we are persuaded that l'espect for what were then considered they need few comments for their elucidanational rights. By way of accounting for tion, or to give them interest to the reader, the remarkable part our parent government we shall merely add explanations illustrative seems to have played in the affairs of which of the histoı y of the times in the summary these papers treat, it is but justice to write of the manuscripts which we here present.

1

VOL. VIII.

NO. I.

NEW SERIES.

No. 1 is a copy of the terms of capitula- No. 4 is the project of William Hamiltion at the surrender of Fort St. Lorenzo, at ton above refered to. the mouth of the river Chagre, to Admiral No. 5 is a copy of the instructions from Vernon, March 24, 1739 ; Britain and Spain the Duke of Newcastle to Admiral Brown, being then nominally at peace.

commander of the Jamaica squadron, dated Admiral Vernon was the relative of the June 15th, 1739, ordering that officer to Washington family, after whom Mount war on the persons and property of Spanish Vernon on the Potomac was called, who, it subjects. In this paper the Minister justiwill be remembered, procured the appoint- fies this order—the countries being at peace ment of a midshipman in the British Navy -on account particularly of the failure of for George Washington when a youth, the King of Spain to pay £95,000 on the which he declined. He (Vernon) was in- 29th of the previous month, according to deed the Nelson of his times.

the terms of an existing convention. On No 2 is a list of certain cargoes arriving the 20th of August, 1739, the King of in the bay of Cadiz on the 13th of March, Spain published a manifesto in explanation 1739, found among these manuscripts, pre- of his reasons for failing to make the payserved as though the desire to possess them- ment; alleging that Britain had neglected selves of such treasures formed perhaps the to comply with the stipulations on her part, greatest inducement for the proceedings of in consideration of which Spain had agreed the English in those waters.

to pay that sum. In pursuance of these No. 3 is a letter from Mr. William Hamil- instructions the Chester, Capt. Haddock, on ton, bearing date May 14th, 1739, to the the 23d of September, 1739, captured the St. government, covering his proposal for taking Joseph, a Spanish galleon, off" Cadiz, from Cuba, Britain and Spain being then at peace. Carraccas, acquiring an immense booty. On

This project was carried out in its essen- the 12th of the following month, (October,) tial features) in 1762, when on the 12th of the King of England formally declared the August of that year Havana capitulated existence of the war by proclamation. The to a combined English and colonial force. expedition against the possessions of the About $14,000,000 of the money of the King of France on the Ohio, ending in the King of Spain fell into the hands of the memorable defeat of General Braddock, byvictors. In the first division of this spoil, the-by, was undertaken by the British the English commander-in-chief (of the Government before declaring the existence expedition) was awarded for his share of the war which followed. £86,000.

No. 6 is an interesting memorial to Lord The Lt. General got £17,207 13s. 6d. Harrington, (without signature,) bearing

The Major Generals each received £4,839 date, 18th June, 1739, relative to the pro4s. 8d.

posed renewal of the attempt to colonize at The Brigadier Generals, each, £1,382 Os. Darien. 9d.

No. 7 is Admiral Sir Charles Wager's The Field Officers, each, £379 10s. 11d. project for taking Carthagena and Panama, The Captains, each, £130 15s. 9d. and harassing the Spaniards every where

The Subalterns and Surgeons, each, £80 on the coast and waters of the Pacific. This 15s, 9d.

paper bears date, Nov. 6, 1739. The Sergeants, cach, £6 6s. 10d.

No. 8 is a copy of a letter from Admiral The Corporals, each, £3 6s. 10d. Vernon to His Excellency Governor Dottin, The Privates, each, £2 17s. 11d. of Barbadoes, complaining of the manner in

The heirs of those killed in the action which his operations were being crippled for (dying before the 12th) received no prize the want of proper co-operation on the part money:

of others. It is worthy of note, that by an unex- No. 9 is a dispatch, (the particular adpected decision of the law officers of dress wanting,) bearing date, Jan. 28, 1740, England, the colonists serving on this relating an account of a sea-fight between expedition were deprived of all share in six English vessels and four French, (the this prize money;

nations being then at peace,) the former An elder brother of General Washington aiming to enforce the right of search, and made one of those participating from the the latter successfully resisting it. olony of Virginia.

No. 10, a project for the reduction of the

I.

province of Guatemala and securing the the profits from his labors on that great trade of Peru, &c., submitted to the English work, in building up this library, which, if Ministry on the 3d of March, 1740, by Mr. not obtained by the Government before his William Lea.

death, will probably be disposed of by the No. 11, a report or dispatch bearing date, auctioneer “in lots to suit purchasers ;" April 12, 1740, from Mr. Robert Hodgson, thus entirely destroying its value. It will the agent sent by His Excellency, Governor be almost impossible in such an event to Trelawney, of Jamaica, to take possession of prevent many of the most important works the Mosquito Coast, formally raising the and papers which it embraces from going British standard there, for the first time. abroad, as foreign governments and literary

No. 12, a letter bearing date, May 7th, societies hesitate not to pay prices for such 1740, from a Spanish gentleman in Panama things, which in this country would be conto his friend in Carthagena, describing the sidered enormous. We close this introduction business condition of those regions, owing to with an acknowledgment of the great value of the depredations committed by the British the historical researches of Colonel Force, the fleets and privateers.

more cheerfully, because, in a late number No. 13, an account (dated, May 11th, of this Review, injustice was done to that 1740) of the high-handed, illegal, and cruel gentleman, entirely without the knowledge proceedings of a New-York privateer, com- or consent of the proprietor, in an article manded by John Lush, in the vicinity of bearing wholly on a different subject. Porto Bello, being a report or narrative from Lieut. Charles Wimbleton, R. N.

No. 14, Mr. Robert Hodgson's second re- Articles of capitulation granted by Edward port to Governor Trelawney, (dated, June Vernon, Esq., Vice Admiral of the Blue, 21st, 1740,) describing his proceedings and Commander-in-Chief of His Britanamong the Mosquito Indians, the failure of

nic Mojesty's ships and vessels in the his scheme for surprising and plundering West Indies, to Don Juan Carlos GuPanama, &c., &c.'

tierez de Zavalla, Captain of Foot and No. 15, an addition to the dispatch last Castillano of the Castle St. Lorenzo, at above mentioned, written on the 12th of the mouth of the river Chagre. July, 1740.

1st. That upon His Britannic Majesty's The style of composition and orthography troops being put into immediate possession of the originals were adhered to in making of the Fort St. Lorenzo, at the mouth of the these transcripts as nearly as possible, words river Chagre, the said Castillano and all his being supplied (to perfect the sense) which garrison be at full liberty to march without had accidentally been omitted by the any molestation, and may retire into the writers.

village of Chagre, or where else they please. The publication of these papers has neces- 2d. That the inhabitants of Chagre may sarily suggested to our mind the importance remain in all safety in their own houses, of the preservation of the valuable Ameri- under a promise of security to their persons can historical library of Col. Peter Force, of and houses. Washington City, which is said to consist of

3d. That the Guarda Costa sloops be some 30,000 printed volumes and nearly delivered up to the use of his Britannic 150,000 manuscript volumes, and important Majesty, in the condition they are, and the single manuscripts, all of which bear on the King of Spain's Custom House. history of this continent, north and south, and the islands on its coasts. It is beyond the Town of Chagre shall be protected and

4th. That the Clergy and Churches in question the most important and valuable preserved in all their immunities. collection upon American history in the world, and should be in the custody of the Britannic Majesty's ship, the Strafford, at

Given under my hand, on board His United States, rather than as at present the anchor before the river Chagre, this, 24th property of a private individual , kept in of March, 1739.

E. VERNON. buildings which are not fire-proof.

Mr. Force, who is the compiler of the “ American Archives," has devoted the Immediately preceding a paper dated greater part of a long and useful life, and March 29, 1739

II.

III.

List of the cargoes of three men-of-war and that Great Britain, in that case, must become

register ships which arrived from Buenos possessed of the whole trade of the Spanish Ayres, in the bay of Cadiz, the 13th of empire there, and if the simple privilege of March, 1739.

trading with those people upon very high Silver coin, 1,317,520 ps. of eight.

terms is now become one of the greatest Wrought do., 7,960 marks.

prizes contended for by all the powers in Gold coin, 3,340 pistoles.

Europe, sure England will not neglect any Ingots and wrought do., 1,203 ounces. opportunity wch is offered of acquiring such Hides in the bair, 29,903.

a possession as must infallibly secure that Wool Vicunio, 1,309,

whole invaluable trade to its subjects alone,

} arrobes. do. Alpaita, 64,

especially since Great Britain is now in a Elephants' teeth, 61 quintals.

fair way of loosing all the trade she has hitherto had with those parts.

is Tallow, 184 barrels.

proposed therefore to take Cuba without put

ting England to any material expence or From Mr. Hamilton, in Strafford street, trouble, in ye following manner, viz?: Picadilly, the 14th May, 1736.

For a person of conduct and experience

to be commissioned from hence, for the Sir :—If ever the heart of man conceived chief command in this expedition to take any thing for y® service of his country and Cuba, &c. those he honours, I have, in what you re- That as soon as such person is so comceive herewith to serve mine and its gover'. missioned and properly instructed, he is to

I am convinced, from my own knowledge repair with all expedition to America, and of the people and things of America, that at the same time another proper person what I propose is to be accomplished. should be commissioned and sent to America,

I will not take upon me to represent to with instructions to begin at the most northyou yo inconceivable advantages which would ern colony and proceed from one province accrue to this nation from its being poesssed to another and apply to the governments of the place mentioned, but I will venture for each of them according to their respecto say, were it to be gained at this time, it tive capacitys, to furnish their quota of would be a definite blow to all S' Robert proper transports with 6 months provisions Walpole's opposers, and render his memory in each for as many men as they severally more glorious and imortall than all the carry; and that each province, according to ministers that ever served the crown of the number of transports they severally England.

furnish, shall raise a sufficient number of However, sir, tho'neither you nor he should men to fill them, completely armed with approve of the designe, yet I can make one ammunition, &c. That the number of men part of yo proposall a means of establishing thus raised and armed, shall consist of a general fund in America, we will be of 10,000 ; and at the same time if such pergreat service in several respects

. If I could sons are commissioned and sent away, it but know that my intention met w'h your will be necessary to send instructions of the approbation it would give me a sensible same import to the several governors in pleasure, but I submit that to your good- America to issue orders and give their best ness; and whatever you may think of me, assistance to fitt out with all expedition I am, with great respect, sir, your most such transports, &c., and men so equipped. obed and most humble serv,

That when each province has so furnished J. HAMILTON.

their quota of transports and men, accord[Endorsed on back,“ With a proposall for ing to their abilitys, these shall immediately taking Cuba."]

repair to one place appointed, which may be at South Carolina, and from thence pro

ceed, under the command and direction of A proposall to take the Island of Cuba the person to be commissioned from hence,

with very little expence to England, by They may, (if it shall appear advisable,) a force raised in tħe American Colonies. on their passage, make a feint to take St.

If the crown of England could become pos- Augustine, and having managed that stratasessed of the island of Cuba, that key of all gem properly, they are to proceed to the America, no man of knowledge can denye but | island of Cuba and land in the bay of Ma.

IV.

tanza, that being a good harbor and not | ing known by inquisitive, diligent foreign guarded, yet lying the nearest of any other spies, since ships of war are to be sent from proper one to yo Havana. Here they shall England ? land 7 or 8000 men, more or less, as neces- In answer to that, 'tis to be hoped Engsity shall require, and with that force, to land can be as politic as her neighbors : look march down and pich at a proper distance one way and steer ye contrary. It may, for to surround the Havana and cutt off all this purpose, be given out by some that manner of provisions going thereto by land; England is going to re-enforce some of its at the same time that some ships shall lye colonys; hy others that she is going to rebefore the town to prevent any provisions sume the settlement of Darien, &c. In or relief coming to it by sea, in which situa- short, there's no human appearance of this tion that important place must surrender in attempts miscarrying, if the knowledge of it a very short time. In order to render this is confined to a cabinet council, and a fitt conquest both sure and expeditious, it will person appointed for yo chief command. be necessary to send 6 or 8 sixty gun ships The proposer is so well assured his and two bomb keches, with about 2000 own knowledge, that the American people troops on board them, which if necessary, can be brought, by proper management, to may be joined by some of ye station ships fitt ye transports and raise the men pronow in America.

posed, that he will undertake to accomplish These ships of war are intended, some it by his own personal application, without to lye before the Havana to play against ye either view or inclination of cuting out or town and cutt off all relief and provisions by accepting of any place or command of profit sea, while the American forces besiege it by in y® whole transaction. land : and the rest of the ships are to take If there be an inclination to attempt this care of the Gard da Costas.

greatest of acquisitions, it is presumed no These 10,000 men being furnished and material objection can be made to the nature maintained by y® several colonys in America, of the proposall. It may be urg'd indeed, will render yo conq' of this important place y' it will be dishonourable to make such an not only secretly secure, but very cheap to attempt while there's a treaty on foot with England; for that number of forces being Spain; but such an objection must stand or raised there, will with greater certainty con- fall by the wisdom and at ye discretion of quer that place than 400,000 men would, to his Majesty's ministers. Though it is humbly be sent from Britain, because they are in- presumed if the word politick be not an urd to the American climate and will live empty sound, [neither] that objection nor nono soberer than Britains can be prevailed to do. like it can hold. By these forces and by these only, every

It is to be observed that if y® preparation man of judgment who knows yo situation of yo transports, and men proposed, is not of that place and will speake with truth to be set on foot till it is seen that nothing and candor, will lay it down as a fact, that can be done with ve court of Spain, by it is to be gained with great certainty in ye treaty, for ye advantage of ye British nation, way proposed; and if it be thus gained upon it will then be too late to begin to prepare such easy terms to England, it would be and collect them. It is presumed they offering an affront to y understanding of should be prepared as soon as possible, in every man of sense, to pretend to recount order to be collected and ready to go upon the unlimited advantages which must accrue the attack when necessity may make it to Great Britain from its being possessed of proper : and if it shall appear that there the island of Cuba alone.

will be no occasion to make such an attack, If the conquest of Cuba is effected, a small after they are got in readiness the design part of the force which does that, may with may be laid aside, without inconveniency to very little trouble take Porto Rico and St. England in either case. Augustine, if it shall appear advisable so to It

may be asked, were Cuba taken, how do. The British colonies in America lying it would be garrisoned without forces from so near y object in view, before y® knowl- England?—for 'tis to be understood that ye edge of the proposed attack can reach to American people who are proposed to be Europe, y" whole designe will be executed. raised, must not be compelled to stay in y®

It may be asked how it is possible to go garrison against their own inclination. upon y® proposed expedition without its be- In answer to y', 'tis sufficient now to say

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