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cific. The peaceful rivalry of England and America is apparently destined to hasten the progress of civilization in a very rapid and unexampled
FRANCE.-With all the elements of society in a state of ferment and ominous fluctuation all about him, Louis Napoleon holds right on, without abating a jot of heart or hope. He lately assisted in laying the foundation of a great central market in Paris, and told the people on the occasion that he was only carrying out the old imperial intention; that, forty years ago, the French Government was about to do what he had now such satisfaction in performing; thus linking himself with the popular associations of his uncle's time. He then said that, as he then laid the foundation of a building which would shelter the market people from the inclemencies of the seasons, so he hoped to be able to lay the foundations of a social edifice which would afford sufficient shelter from the violence and fickleness of the passions. He then in vited a deputation of the market-women to visit him at the Elysée, and they visited him accordingly,
"These daughters of the Halle, stronger than men, Huge women, blowzed with health, and wind, and rain,
when he most gallantly kissed half a dozen of them, and so made the fair descendants of the famous old poissardes all over Paris his fast adherents for life! The Prince-President affects to treat the French people as his uncle treated them before-as a light, unreasoning race, full of enthusiams, and liable to be easily impressed. A little time will tell if he has made a correct estimate of the national mind.
One hundred and seventy-eight persons were arrested for the Paris plot. After being regularly interrogated, seventy-two foreigners and four Frenchmen were set at liberty; eleven others were afterwards let go. The Department of the Ardèche was put under martial law. This is a broken and rugged district, containing a great many secret societies; and, on a recent occasion, the soldiers and gendarmerie had been attacked by mobs, in two or three places.
Prosecutions of the press continue. Five or six editors of the Evénement a bold republican paper-were knocked off, one after the other, by the angry mace of the law. Among these courageous children of the pen were two sons of the celebrated poet Victor Hugo, Charles and Victor, who were sentenced to several months' imprisonment. The old gentleman, like Torquil of the Oak, in the Fair Maid of Perth, encouraged his sons to throw themselves forward in the fight, and when the last was carried off, wrote a letter to the succeeding editor, Vacquerie, which brought down one more prosecution. The old man says that the earth still moved, though the Italian inquisitors tried to make Galileo and the world believe it did not; and that, in the same way, the cause of liberty still moved and would move, in spite of all the tyrants of the globe. A hearty old
"Coquerico cocquerico, France! met ton schako!"
As for M. Auguste Vacquerie, he has hit upon a plan by which he probably hopes to touch the hearts of the tyrants. He sits down to a leading art cle and begins:
"Two and two are four;
"The elephant is one of the largest of quadrapeds; what a flexible trunk and what sharp tusks he has!
"It is generally considered that his late Majesty, King Henry IV., was killed by the stroke of an assassin, in the Rue de la Ferronerie. Political causes were certainly connected with this bloody act, so grievously to be deplored by the nation.
"The Queen of England has seven children." And so on! Other unfortunate editors, who write as Damocles feasted, with a sword suspended over their heads, leave the leading columns blank-to remind the President of his old enemy, Louis Blanc, we suppose. Vacquerie has appealed to the Court of Cassation against his sentence of six months' imprisonment and 1000 francs fine, being doubtless ready to exclaim with Béranger:
"Mille francs! mille francs d'amende!
Dien, quel loger pour six mois de prison !" "A thousand francs! what a rent for six months' lodging in jail!" Rouy, the editor of the Presse, has also appealed against his sentence; and Barreste, the editor of the République, was to be tried for libel on the 14th ult. Altogether, the lawyers of Paris were in high feather. It has been stated by the Marquis de Jouffroy, a legitimist, and editor of the Europe Monarchique at Brussels, that all negotiations for the fusion of the two Bourbon houses have failed. The Ordre continues its canvass for the Prince de Joinville as next President. The same paper published a long list of fires that have lately blazed in the neighborhood of Paris, giving the Government no little uneasiness.
Several of the Paris journals hint that Louis Napoleon meditates against the red-republicans of the National Assembly such another measure as that by which Napoleon purged the Tribunate, and sent a body of his enemies to exile at Cayenne. The red-republicans oppose the revision of the Constitution, and it is asserted the lawyers of the Elysée have advised the President they may be removed "at one full swoop," seeing they have subscribed to the democratic loan which Mazzini has set on foot to liberate Italy. This, it is reported, can be tortured into a matter of impeachment; and if it can, we think Louis Napoleon will certainly impeach, and thus remove the Mountain.
GERMANY.-The thirty or forty powers and principalities of Germany are all busily engaged in bringing that multifarious nation to its previous The Frankfort Diet is leading the way in this busicondition, and obliterating every trace of 1848. ness of recalcitration. A little time ago it passed a resolution to demand of the several federal governments of the fatherland that they examine their several constitutions granted since 1848, and to alter the same in all cases where they may not be found in perfect harmony with the constitution of the despotic Bund, represented by the Diet. If it should so happen that the people of any federal
State will not quietly go " back again," the Bund will appoint a commission to investigate the matter, and settle it, when called upon. This central power has also determined to draw up a general federal law of the press, to oppose and correct the existing abuses of the press, and thus help the grand scheme of arrangement it has in view. This Frankfort Diet, of course, expresses and sustains the policy of the rulers of Germany who have thus agreed to nullify all their late concessions, on the plea, doubtless, that they were frightened into the granting of them, which was indeed the case. The King of Prussia-always considered to be one of the mildest and most liberal of the German governors (we recollect the bonhomie of his manners when he visited London a few years ago, and went with Mrs. Fry to see the prisoners in Newgate, where, with that good lady, he knelt down and said his prayers among them)--this King, we say, shows himself as anxious as any of them On the 22d Pesth was the scene of a horribly to get back to the old ground. Cologne, that city ridiculous spectacle. Louis Kossuth and thirty"of three and seventy stenches," according to six of his brave companions were hanged upon Coleridge, is at present in very bad odor with his the public gallows--in effigy. As they could not Majesty, who finds the political airs of the people strangle them literally, the Austrian officials rethe worst of all. He first put down the Cologne solved to do execution upon them by strong effort Gazette, and he lately directed a prosecution to be of imagination. And so while our good ship Miscommenced against six of the municipal council- sissippi was bearing the rescued Magyars out lors, who, in a debate concerning an address to the through the Pillars of Hercules into the Atlantic, King, were considered to have cast reflections upon the soldiers of Francis Joseph were drawn up in the government. The poor Burgomaster who pre- square about the gallows in the public place of sided at the meeting of the town-councillors was Pesth, and the sentence of each of the contumaseverely reprimanded for allowing them to go on cious Hungarians (to the number of thirty-six,) bavspeaking. On the 24th of September, the Dieting been read, the hangman took thirty-six black of the province of Brandenburg were suddenly prorogued because some of the members on the day before ventured to allude to old guaranteed rights and such things. On the same day the establishment of the Constitutional newspaper of Berlin was confiscated and put to silence, and the editor and all hands left to join the nearest club of secret conspirators for want of something to do. These clubs, which are scattered all over Germany, and called Communities of Free Religion, have lately fallen under the suspicion of the governments, in consequence of information transmitted from Paris by the agents of Louis Napoleon, to the effect that the Paris plot comprehended some designs against the rulers of Germany. The consequence has been that the houses of the leaders of these "communities" have undergone a general search, and every thing suspicious has been seized by the authorities.
He made a grand entry into Milan on the 21st of September. Surrounded by soldiers he rode along, while the people preserved a calm demeanor which has been called respectful. He held a military review, and heard high mass in the cathedral, Several houses in the city were illuminated in the evening, but more as a matter of fear or policy than loyalty. The Emperor took up his quarters at Monza, the country palace of Radetsky, twelve miles from the city. During his absence, his uncle's old minister, the Nestor of politicians, Prince Metternich, (who also ran away with such celerity in 1848,) came back to Vienna. He entered it on the 28d September, and was received by Prince Esterhazy and other members of his family. The crowd are said to have received him with respect, that is, they did not pelt him with any thing, and said nothing. The Prince, who is very old, will not, it is stated, meddle with statesman-craft any more.
wooden simulacra, and launched them into eternity, according to the forms in such cases made and provided. To each wooden traitor was attached his name and brief biography. Kossuth's cartel was as follows:—
"Ludwig Kossuth, born in Monok, county of Remplin, Hungary, forty-seven years old, of the Protestant religion, married, father of three children, advocate, and newspaper editor, Hungarian Finance Minister, and deputy of the city of Pesth at the Hungarian Diet, has from the beginning to the end of the Hungarian revolution played the principal part, and this preeminence was particularly shown in October, 1848, when he prevailed upon the Diet to remain together and not obey the Imperial mandate dissolving it; further, that he took upon himself the presidency of the Provisional Government, or so-called Committee of National Safety, and issued paper money, in order to A commercial treaty has been made between furnish means for an armed resistance to the ImHanover and Prussia, by which the former virtu- perial Government, which he developed in a danally enters the Zollverein, or Customs Union of gerous manner, by recruitings, organization of a Germany-the objects of which are protection National Guard, and Landsturm;' that he himand equal tariffs among the States of the Union. self joined the army in its invasion of the Austrian The finances of Austria are in a very debili- archduchy, declared the succession of Francis Jotated condition. The Government lately called on seph a usurpation, transferred the seat of the all Europe for a loan; but the money has come Diet from Pesth to Debrecsin on the approach of but slowly in, and there is a chance that the the royal forces under Windischgrätz; that by amount will not be forthcoming. The Emperor means of exhortations and proclamations, by rerelied very much upon the Londoners; but the wards and martial courts, he raised the enthusirecent sentiments of Gladstone and Palmerston, asm of the army and the people, and excited them and the excitement about Kossuth, have done to go on with the revolution, and tried to gain the away with his chances in that quarter. In the sympathy of foreign countries through his agents mean time Francis Joseph has been to visit his abroad; that he, finally, on the 13th of April, in Italian dominions, lately pacificated by Radetsky. | a private conference, and on the 14th in a public
sitting, proclaimed the total separation of Hungary from the Empire, outlawed the sacred dynasty, chose a Ministry in his character of Governor, took the oath of independence on the 14th of May, and on June 27, 1849, preached a crusade against the allied forces of Austria and Russia, and ruled Hungary with the power of dictator, till at last he was compelled by the events of the war to resign, (August 11, at Arad,) and soon afterwards fled into Turkey."
Then followed Richard Guyon, born at Bath, in England. On the same day, thirty-eight others were summoned to come and be hanged within a specified time. Of course they'll be hanged if they do. On this fatal occasion, the bodies having hung the usual time were cut down, and then buried, doubtless, in unconsecrated ground.
the matter, by the mediation of Sir Stratford Canning. The making of the road will go on whether the Sultan permits it or not.
On the 7th of September the Hungarian prisoners, fifty-five in number, arrived in the Dardanelles in a Turkish ship; whereupon the captain of the Mississippi went on board, and going up to Kossuth, saluted him in the name of the Republic, said the ship of war was at his disposal, and quite in Oriental fashion, which, however, was not at all disgraceful to the West, presented him a purse of money-$15,000. It was a great scene when Kossuth found himself on the quarter-deck of the Mississippi; seeing he was now as much out of the power of Padisha or Kaiser as if he was sitting on New-York Battery! He was quite overcome, and spoke of his liberators and friends with tears rolling down his face. Capt. Long, too, caught the contagion, and, stammering at the commencement of a regular address, could only come out with-"You are welcome to this ship, sir! Three cheers for Governor Kossuth!" Which mode of
The Elector of Hesse has got a great number of political prisoners in his fortress of Spanzenberg-counsellors, burgomasters, directors, generals, and colonels. The editor of a paper at Mayence was imprisoned for quoting from the Berlin Gazette a report of one of Gavazzi's Lon-salutation, seeing he could bring out nothing better don lectures which was rather hard on the Catholic Church. The son of privy councillor Welcher, of Baden, who had given medical advice to some wounded rebels, was let out of prison, on conditioning and genuine emotion. that he should emigrate to America.
under the circumstances, he repeated: "Three cheers more for Governor Kossuth!" And if there was little oratory, there was a great deal of shout
We see it stated that Sir Stratford Canning and Mr. Lavalette proceeded to the Dardanelles to congratulate Kossuth on his departure. On her way up the Mediterranean, the Mississippi touched at Genoa, Spezzia, and Marseilles. The Sardinian authorities, though friendly to the patriot, were reluctant to give him permission to land; and though he desired to touch the soil of Piedmont, he acquiesced, and remained on board. It has col-been stated that he will make a stay in England, on his way to the States; but at this moment it is uncertain whether he will turn aside from the direct course to New-York.
Every thing, in fact, seems to show the design of the German rulers-a design which, as we have already said, has given rise to a very general conspiracy, the head quarters of which is in London, and the object of which is a German revolution. Professor Kinkel has come to this country to raise funds for that object among the German population here, and the lovers of revolution in general. His purpose has been announced, and he has lected, it is said, over $40,000 in these States. The peoples of Europe now perceive that no sudden outbreak and victory of the masses can succeed in beating down the despotisms of Europe, with all the influences of custom and the formidable strength of armies on their side; and that the people must first agree to act every where in concert, and take care to have every where the proper sinews, weapons, and munitions of war, when the time of rebellion shall come
TURKEY.-Turkey has let Kossuth go, after a detention of two years. This act may involve the Porte in serious difficulties. Austria has already begun to concentrate her troops on the frontiers of Bosnia, Servia, and Wallachia. Turkey is just now full of difficulties, present and prospective. Her finances are at a very low ebb; so much so, that the Government lately took the extreme and somewhat disgraceful course of demanding back again the diamonds which had been for some time past given with orders of honor. The various provinces of the empire are in a state of great confusion; and not the least of her troubles is her difference with the Pasha of Egypt, who is about building a long railway from Cairo to Suez, and that without any recognition of the Turkish supremacy. The English Government, which, of course, would benefit by the railway more than any other in the world, is trying to make peace in
SPAIN AND CUBA.-The Spaniards, who were at first terribly indignant at the invasion of Cuba, have subsided into a state of calm satisfaction, on hearing that General Lopez was garotted. They are also satisfied, it is said, with the intentions of England towards them; and they have complimented Lord Palmerston for his desire that Cuba shall not be taken by the flibustiers. But the shrewdest speculators are of opinion that this Spanish gratitude is rather premature, for it is believed that England will only agree to guarantee the possession of Cuba to Spain on condition that some sort of reform shall be introduced into the island; this guarantee to be against foreign invaders alone, not against the efforts of the Cubans themselves. It is further reported that a rich and influential merchant of Cuba has gone to London to induce the English Government to interfere for the suppression of the slave-trade, a fixed yearly payment by Cuba to Spain, and the participation of native Cubans in the government of the island. The present temper of the English nation and ministry seems to show that England will not guarantee the possession of Cuba to Spain in the present condition of the island. The organs of the Government at Madrid were at first inclined to
advise war with the United States, and the seizure of American vessels to compensate for the loss of Cuba, but that mood is over. And the results to Cuba will probably be that some alterations will be made in the government of the island, to meet the wishes, not of the islanders, but England.
A letter written to the London Morning Post by a Spanish officer, offers an explanation of the enmity of Lopez against the Spanish Government. In August, 1836, Lopez, then a Brigadier-General, at the head of 2,000 men, was sent from Madrid to join the army operating against Cabrera in Arragon. About 60 miles from Madrid, he allowed himself (being at breakfast at the time) to be surprised by the Carlist General Gomez, who cap tured his entire column with the exception of a few cavalry fugitives. Lopez was confined by Cabrera for several months in the citadel of Canta Vieja, till liberated by the Christino General San | Miguel. From that time to the last hour of his existence Lopez was never reemployed by the Spanish Government. His friend Valdez gave him an appointment in Havana, some years since, when he was Captain-General; but the Govern ment at Madrid did not recognize it, and Lopez was dismissed when the successor of Valdez ar rived. The high spirit of Lopez brooded bitterly over this, and his resentment against the Spanish Government incited all his future attempts on Cuba.
ITALY. It is stated on authority that, in the recent consistory held at Rome, the chief question under debate was, not the regulation of cardinals or bishops, but the probability of some general outbreak in 1852. A letter received from Vienna, in answer to one sent to the Austrian Ministry by the Pope, was also discussed. It is described as giving His Holiness every assurance of assistance against the people, who, he now sees with fear, regard his priestly government with abhorrence, and are ready to defy it on the first favorable opportunity. Should a Roman Republic be proclaimed, Austria will send an army to Rome capable of quelling all rebellion. Attempts at assassination continually take place at Rome. Letters from Milan state that the attempted rejoicing to welcome the Emperor Francis Joseph to that city had failed. The majority of the population quitted the town while the Emperor remained, and left to their servants the compulsory duty of illuminating, &c.
of the island kingdom. An ordinance granting certain privileges of inter-island navigation has been granted by the King, empowering Mr. Howard to establish steam navigation between all the ports of the kingdom. The first steamer is at work by this time. The anniversary of the restoration of the Sandwich Islands by the English Rear-Admiral Thomas in 1843 was celebrated on the 31st July, in great state. Admiral Moresby in the Portland, and H. M. brig Swift, were contributing to the splendor of the jubilee. On the report of the discovery of gold in Australia, a great excitement rose at Honolulu, and five vessels were at once advertised for Sydney, and four or five thousand bags of flour changed hands in a day.
PLAGUE AT THE CANARY ISLANDS.-A terrific plague has been lately raging at the Canary Islands, to which, it is said, it was brought by some fishermen, who caught it on the coast of Africa A letter from the islands says that "History does not record any thing so sad as the spectacle which the island of Grand Canary has presented and still presents. The best directed pen attempts in vain to relate such misfortunes and horrors, and words would not be sufficient to depict their intensity."
VOLCANO IN MARTINIQUE.-About the first week in August last, the Montagne Pelée, in Martinique, began to vomit sulphurous vapor with a terrible noise, like the trampling of cavalry. The top of the mountain was hitherto regarded as an extinct crater, and the recent explosion threw up its old coatings of soil, burnt and impregnated with sulphur. Montagne Pelée continues to exhale poisonous sulphuretted gases.
REBELLION IN MEXICO.-Mexico has been late
ly-and perhaps is still-in a perilous predicament between bankruptcy and rebellion. has an empty exchequer, and has been for a good while puzzled how to raise the wind. A sort of States General, (ominous name!) that is, a Junta of the Governors and Representatives of States, met about the middle of August, to devise some means of recruiting the national finances. But they did nothing decisive. In the mean time, the people of the Northern States of Tamaulipas and New Leon became dissatisfied, chiefly with the Government prohibition which forbids them to bring into their States duty-free goods obtained THE SANDWICH ISLANDS.-The monarchy of by them from the Americans in exchange of comHawaii is favorably progressing under the foster-modities of their own. The Central Government ing care of John Bull. The King is assuming the wished, in fact, to raise taxes, and raised a rebelcustomary state of all the rest of the potentates; lion instead. For lo! a proclamation was issued and the court of Hawaii is a faithful miniature of against it on the 3d September, signed Canalez that of Buckingham Palace. The President of (Governor of Tamaulipas) and Gonzales; and anPeru has sent to let his "august Majesty " Kame- other appeared on the 16th, signed by Colonel hameha know that he was President; and the King Carvajal, and ending with, "Long live Liberty," tells his "great and good friend" in return, that and "Death to Tyrants." In justification of the he is extremely well pleased to hear it. The Poly- movement, these manifestoes dwelt upon the innesian publishes the treaty recently made between efficiency and misconduct of the central power, England and Hawaii. It conforms to the treaty of which permitted the Indians to massacre a great 1849 with these States, and will be ratified in ten many of their people, and which distressed and months. It guarantees the complete independence hindered the trade of the community, by an unjust
system of prohibitions and duties. They specified | about a dozen demands, and offered them with a belligerent alternative. The alternative came first; for, on 19th September, Carvajal, assisted by two companies of Texans, under the command of Colonels Tremble and Lewis, attacked the Mexican troops at Camargo, and drove them out after killing sixty of them. Other advantages followed, and then the insurgents succeeded in taking possession of the town of Reynosa, where they found a field-piece and a quantity of small arms. In the mean time, the Mexican General, Avalajos, proceeded to put Matamoras in a state of defense and await the approach of the revolutionists, who by this time had circulated their pronunciamento and the account of their successes very generally. General Canalez, Governor of Tamaulipas, was said to be approaching Matamoras, and Avalajos preparing to meet him, either to fight or negotiThe two Texan companies, hearing that Canalez was about to take the chief command of the revolutionists, declined to cooperate any farther. It is now confidently reported that negotiations are pending between Carvajal and the Government, and that if the latter shall agree to redress the grievances of Tamaulipas and Leon, the rebel forces will be disbanded.
American ships, those of Captain Austin and Sir
On the 8th September, the Advance and Rescue proceeded through the ice to Barrow's Inlet, and on the 11th reached Griffith's Island, beyond which they did not go in a westerly direction. They left this on the 13th, intending to return home, but were locked in near the mouth of Wellington Chanel. They were then drifted by the ice-drift to 75° 25′ N. latitude, and thence southerly into Lancaster Sound. Here both ships were kept for five months. While thus frozen in, the terrible night of the Arctic regions fell upon them, and for eighty days they remained in darkness! The thermometer (Fahrenheit) ranged 40 degrees below zero. About the 5th of November the Rescue was abandoned to economize fuel and let the men come together. For a long time they expected the vessel (the Advance) would have been crushed in the awful commotion of the bergs about them, and slept in their clothes with their knapsacks on, ready to take to the ice in the last extremity! At last, on the 18th of February, the sun rose, and it was morning; whereupon the crews cheered the luminary as if they were Fireworshipers! On the 13th of May the Rescue was re-occupied; and on the 10th of June the ships came into the open sea. Captain De Haven then proceeded to Greenland, where he refitted, and then proceeded northward once more. On the 11th of July he had reached Baffin's Island. He continued warping through the ice till the 8th of August, when he became again perilously entangled in a sea of icebergs. He there found that the north and west were already closed against him, and seeing that further effort would be useless, he returned. The ships of the different expeditions reached their respective homes about the same time-the last week in September.
THE POLAR EXPEDITIONS.-All the ships which went to the Arctic Circle last year, from England and America, have returned without finding the whereabouts of poor Sir John Franklin or his ominously-named vessels, the Terror and Erebus. The crews of eleven ships have in vain tried to reach the secret so closely concealed in the terrible wildernesses that lie around the pole. Captain Austin's four ships, the Resolute, Assistance, Intrepid, and Pioneer; Sir John Ross's two, the Felix and Mary; Captain Penny's two, the Lady The Arctic explorers, Sir Edward Parry, Sir Franklin and Sophia; the Prince Albert, the Prince James Ross, and Captain Beechey, hearing the acof Wales, Commodore Pullen, (sent by the Hud- counts of the expeditions, were of opinion that Sir son's Bay Company,) and Mr. Grinnell's two, the John Franklin had taken the northwest passage Advance and Rescue, have only succeeded in dis-out of Wellington Channel, which in the opinion of covering that Sir John spent the winter of 1845-6 on Beechey Island. Detailed accounts of these expeditions will doubtless be given in time.
On the 26th of August last year, the Advance and Rescue entered Wellington Sound, and there found Captain Penny's two ships. Captain Penny had then made the only discovery the expeditions were enabled to make. He had found three graves in a spot on Beechey Island, and knew by the wooden head-boards-the dates on which were so late as April, 1846-that they were men of Sir John Franklin's crew. A direction post found near the graves was formed of a boarding pike-staff, seven feet long. The spike end had been broken off within five inches of the point of the iron, and the staff was found lying on the ground. Some canvas which was found was proved by several persons to be part of a trysail of one of the vessels; the letters N. C., ("naval canvas,") and a yellow sort of Government thread in it, showed that it did not belong to the mercantile marine of England or any other country. Shortly after the
a great many would lead into a more open expanse of sea. The Danish interpreter who went out with the Lady Franklin is of opinion that Sir John and his ships are still safe. Captain Penny says that nothing effective can be done among the icebergs of the high latitudes without a screw-steamer. He expressed himself ready to go back again with such a vessel, and addressed the Admiralty for the purpose. But they decline to aid any further attempts this season. Sir John Ross, differing from the rest, believes that Sir John Franklin did not proceed to the northwest. He credits the report of certain Esquimaux that Franklin's ships were wrecked in Baffin's Bay, and a portion of the crews murdered by the natives. Captain Penny, however, with a greater show of correctness, disbelieves the Esquimaux statements-interprets them differently. For, this matter turns upon the meaning of some words in the savage dialect of those miserable polar human beings. Considering every thing, we think it probable that still further efforts will be made to learn something of Franklin's fate.