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did, also. It is impossible to think Burke did denunciations of him in 1767; and that not suspect of whom he was speaking, when Junius was, at first, desirous of making a he thought an anonymous writer for the false impression for purposes of secresy and Public Advertiser worthy of an emblazon- safety. Junius is singularly and suspiciously ment in the House of Commons, such as is inconsistent as regards Chatham and Camconveyed in the following very Irish mob of den. This “ apostate lawyer” (Pitt's lifemetaphors: “How came this Junius to have long friend, and the executor of his will) broken through the cobwebs of the law, and receives a cordial recognition of his greatness to rage uncontrolled, unpunished through and goodness in Junius's last letter. The the land? The myrmidons of the Court irreverent Wilkes seems to look with reveliave been long and are still pursuing him rence upon the veiled eidolon. He says, in rain. They will not spend their time in reply to a private letter from Junius in upon me, or you, or you. No, they disdain 1771: " I do not mean, sir, to indulge the such vermin when the mighty boar of the impertinent curiosity of finding out the most forest that has broken through all their toils important secret of our times—the author is before them. But what will all their of Junius. I will not attempt with profane efforts avail? No sooner has he wounded hands to tear the veil from the sanctuary. one, than he lays another down dead at his I am disposed with the inhabitants of Attica feet. For my part, when I saw his attack to erect an altar to the unknown God o upon the King, I own my blood ran cold. our political idolatry, and will be content to I thought he had ventured too far, and there worship him in clouds and darkness.” In was an end to his triumphs. But while I another letter he says: “ After the first letter expected in his daring flight his final ruin and of Junius to me, I did not go to Woodfall to fall
, behold him rising still higher, and com- pry into a secret I had no right to know. ing down souse upon both houses of Parlia- The letter itself bore the stamp of Jove." ment. Yes, he did make you his quarry, As regards Woodfall, we see that he also and you still bleed from the wounds of his approaches his correspondent with the protalons. In short, after carrying our royal foundest respect. The sagacity of these men eagle in his pounces and dashing him against could not be completely bafiled in a case a rock, he laid you prostrate. King, Lords like this; and we hold that, like the man and Commons are but the sport of his fury.” betraying the stag to the hunters in Æsop, Horne Tooke also shows that he suspects though they do not speak, they point truly who Junius is. He says: “ The darkness in the direction of Junius. in which Junius thinks himself shrouded has Having considered the salient features of not concealed him. Because Lord Chatham the likeness we perceive, we would mention has been ill-treated by the King and treacher- a few apparent objections against it. It is ously betrayed by the Duke of Grafton, the thought Junius must have been somebody latter is the pillow on which Junius will rest in the War Office, because his knowledge of his resentments, and the public are to oppose military men and matters is so remarkably the measures of Government from mere minute. But Chatham, who during his own motives of hostility to the sovereign !” This ministry disposed of armaments like figures is almost laying his hand upon Chatham. on a chess-board, and organized victory from It was in reply to it that Junius wrote the his arm-chair, (while Carnot was yet in his curious panegyric on Lord Chatham in his first petticoats,) knew the business of the War fifty-fourth letter. This eulogy has every Office almost as well as the best clerk in it, appearance of a feint, and an uneasy desire and could easily learn the current history of to mislead those who came too near identify- it from Francis and others who were bound ing him with the gouty old Earl. Like the to him for favors conferred. Junius's asfirst invective of Poplicola, this praise is saults on Lord Hillsborough were provoked conditional. He who was a black villain by the dismissal of Chatham's friend, Genand deserved the gibbet, conditionally, is a eral Amherst, from his government of Virman around whose monument recorded ginia, to give it to Lord Botetourt. Those honors shall gather, conditionally! It will on Lord Barrington, Secretary of War, are be safely concluded that the man who accounted for principally by the fact that could write as Junius did in 1771 of Lord Legge, Pitt's Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chatham, could not be very sincere in his was turned out to make room for him, on
the accession of George the Third. The I breathed his last in an effort to hinder the general military policy of government, which independence of the colonies. An average had counteracted his own and displaced of Chatham's and Junius's American opinmany of his friends, would naturally urge ions, respectively, reads alike ; showing that Pitt to denounce the mistakes and abuses of the early invectives of the latter on this subthe War Department.
ject, directed against the Earl, are palpably Again, the idea of Lord Chatham seems, hollow. at first glance, at variance with Junius's in- Wo have already spoken of Chatham's terest in the politics and civic doings of the hatred of Bedford. Le bated Grafton for metropolis. But that is a mistake. Whig- his desertion and ingratitude. The Duke gery and William Pitt could always boast had been a worshipper of the Earl, under a strong fortress and defense in London; whom he said he would serve in any capathe citizens of which held the latter in high city ; honor, and gave him several tokens of it
“Been his sworn soldier, bidding him depend one of these being a bridge dedicated to his
Upon his stars, his fortune, and his strength;'' name and glory, in a document that lies in copperplate at the bottom of the Thames, but, in 1767, had fallen over to Bute and under what was intended to be Pitt's Bridge, the court foes of the name of Pitt. “If the and is now Blackfriar's. And it must be Duke of Grafton," says Mr. Heron,“ had remembered, that to the remonstrance of the remained faithful to the Earl of Chatham, city of London, backed by Wilkes, Tooke, and scorned all political alliance with the Sawbridge and the rest, Chatham looked Bedfords as with the King's friends, the with solicitude for aid in overthrowing the union of Pitt and Grenville, the NewcasTory Ministry in 1770, and reinstating Whig- tle and Rockingham Whigs, would have gism in triumph. The disappointment of been triumphant, and the King would have Junius at the failure of this and other schemes surrendered the government to them on is irritably expressed in his last note to their own conditions.” Grafton's defection Woodfall.
was a grievous disaster; and grievously did It has been said that Chatham and Ju- Junius avenge it. Chatham's dislike of the nius differed with respect to the treatment King is very intelligible. George enterof the American colonists. But it is plain tained a hereditary aversion from William they only seemed to differ a3 much as was Pitt. The latter, in effect, said in the House necessary to keep up the deception and to of Lords in 1770, that the King had duped carry out the desire of Junius, so palpable him; whereupon Grafton started up with, in all his letters, to be taken for Grenville— "I rise to defend the King!" Wilkes, who to lead the curiosity of the world in the suspected to whom he wrote, tells Junius in direction of the Grenvilles. Junius, in the one of his letters, “ The Earl of Chatham told first letter, Poplicola's, denounced Chatham me ten years ago, that the King] was the for encouraging the recusant Americans ; yet falsest hypocrite in Europe." The haughty afterwards he admits (in the first of the Earl had sufficient motive to hold in scorn Junius series) that the question of taxation the ignorance, bigotry, and hypocrisy of had been revived, which should have been George the Third ; and Junius has inter“ buried in oblivion." And again in 1771, preted the feeling in a personal manner, he
says he considers the right of taxing the which is not to be mistaken. Chatham decolonies by an act of the British Legislature, tested Mansfield as the most subtle, constant, a speculative right merely, “ never to be ex- and powerful of his Tory opponents. The erted, and never to be renounced." These estate which Sir W. Pynsent left to William opinions of Junius seem vacillating or in- Pitt was litigated, and Lord Mansfield favored sincere, seeing he had denounced Chatham the claims of the Pynsent family, against for something similar. Chatham, too, seem- the great Commoner. And such a circumed to hold undecided opinions on the mat- stance as this would naturally embitter the ter. He was at first disposed, with George hostility felt by the Earl towards Mansfield, Grenville, to tax the Americans, if they on account of their great political differences. would quietly permit it. As they would As regards the conveyancing part of this not, he opposed taxation. He next “ rejoiced mystery, Lord Chatham's wealth gave
bim that America had resisted;" and ultimately I ample means to insure the safe transit of
the correspondence with Woodfall
. Money gracious sovereign is as callous as a stockconquers the mightiest difficulties. Further- tish to every thing but the reproach of cowmore, and accounting almost conclusively ardice; this alone is able to set the bumors for the successful concealment of this extra- afloat, and after a paper of that kind he won't ordinary business, he had amanuenses, at eat meat for a week;" that the King used to least an amanuensis, in his own household. live on potatoes only for several days; the His wife was sister of Richard, Earl Tem- statement that the Duke of Bedford had ple, and George Grenville, a woman of tal- rated him in the closet and “left him in ent and accomplishments. The Rev. Mr. convulsions ;" the quick notice taken of GarThackeray, biographer of Lord Chatham, rick's communication to Mr. Ramus, at Richsays: “She possessed a very powerful un- mond palace,(Peter Pindar's “Billy Ramus, ") derstanding, combined with great feminine that Junius would write no more; all these delicacy. The ease and spirit with which things are naturally accounted for by the her ladyship wrote, rendered her letters very residence of Mrs. Anne Pitt in the heart of delightful to her friends, and enabled her the royal household. Apropos of David to assist Lord Chatham during his attend-Garrick, the bitter letter which Junius wrote ance in Parliament or his attacks of the to him shows how much the concealed gout, in answering many of his correspond writer feared his prying inquiries. Chatham ents.” Chatham's sister, Mrs. Anne Pitt, would greatly dread the curiosity of this a spinster, was just such a woman as her eminent player, seeing that the latter was brother was a man. Bolingbroke used to once on very intimate terms with himself call her Divinity Pitt, naming her brother and his family, and would be very likely to Sublimity Pitt; and Horace Walpole said make a shrewd guess at the handwriting. she and" William were as much alike “ as He might have recognized Lady Chatham's: two drops of fire.” With such an amanu- he certainly knew his Lordship’s; for, seveensis as his wife, and perhaps, occasionally, ral years previously, when Garrick was on his sister, the writing, copying, and trans- a visit to Mount Edgecombe, overlooking mitting his letters would not be the difficult Plymouth harbor and the sea, William Pitt matter which a man differently situated wrote to him an invitation to his own place, would have found it. And we perceive how in some verses which may read curiously in the chances of discovery would be excluded the present connection : by such means. Lady Chatham's seigned " Leave, Garrick, the rich landscape, proudly gay, hand may well bafle the critical sagacity of Docks, forts and navies, brightening all the bay; all who tried to trace it home. All they To my plain roof repair, primeval seat; could make out was that the writing was Yet there no wonder thy quick eye can meet, like the hand used by ladies at the begin- Save should you deem it wonderful to find ning of the century, with one exception. The Ambition cured and an unpassioned mind.
A statesman without power and without gall, letter to the King seemed to have been Hating no courtiers, happier than them all; traced heavily with a pen over pencilled Bowed to no yoke, nor crouching for applause, letters. Wilkes said Junius's usual hand Votary alone of freedom and the laws. resembled that of Lady Chatham's mother, which he had seen. While the character Come, then, immortal spirit of the stage,
Great Nature's proxy, glass of every age,” &c. and abilities of his wife enabled Junius to say, with something near enough perhaps Very different all this from “Now, mark to the truth, under the circumstances, "I me, vagabond !" But this quotation exhibam the sole depository of my secret," the its the versatility of Pitt's pen. If he had accuracy and minuteness of his information not been a great statesman, he would have of the doings at the palace would cease to been a great literary man. be surprising, seeing that Mrs. Anne Pitt To return to Junius's court informawas Privy Purse to the King's mother, and tion. What an idea does it not give of the as much the centre of English court gossip amazing audacity which we assume to have as Madame Dudevant was of the French. been Chatham's, in laying about him so The assurance to Woodfall in 1771 that the desperately on the highest people in the Princess Dowager was in the habit of “suck- realm, with whom he and his family were ling toads from morning till night” for the in the habit of mingling in the daily intercure of a cancer in the breast; that “our ! course of society! He might very well
say: " I should not survive a discovery striking in a multitnde of passages from his three days.” Junius in the Cabinet ! and pamphlets and speeches. It is not worth Junius, by proxy, in the Palace ! The idea while to dwell on these; no amount of them certainly carries a fascination along with it; could ever make Francis the real Nominis and we do not wonder the veiled assaulter Umbra. There is another view of Sir of King, Lords and Commons should employ Philip's feeble likenesses which strikes us. every effort of power and ingenuity to carry Even putting any design on his part out of his secret to the gave with him. None but the question, it may not be improbable that a man in the predicament of Chatham would the peculiar shape of his sentences, the tone have taken such a world of pains to remain of his sentiments, and the character of his hidden. To a secretary or any other hire- figures are owing to a bona fide sympathy ling, what would discovery signify! What with Junius, whose identity we believe he would it signify to Sir Philip Francis? suspected, if he did not know it. Francis Celebrity; an imperishable name. To seems to have formed his style on that of Chatham it signified odium which would him, whose Latin secretary he was, who, he weigh down the honor or prosperity of his says, fascinated his young enthusiasm by house ; deprive his family of their pen- his imposing qualities, and to whom he prosion; hinder the fortunes of the future Prime fessed himself under an endless weight of Minister—the future Commander-in-Chief; gratitude. And, indeed, perhaps Sir Philip, tarnish the dignity of his fame with the seeing the wish of Lord Chatham to remain unworthy stains of truculent passion. As for ever unknown, may have thought he for the renown-he could do without it; could show that gratitude in no better way his column was high enough already. What than by helping a deception which should would build up an enduring name for any bring suspicion to his own door, and away other man, Chatham flung by. No small from the right one! We sometimes think man would ever have done this. The pride there may have been some understanding, of assuming such an authorship must have by which the young man, for some powerful been balanced by powerful considerations, considerations of emolument, as well as such as we assert could belong to none but friendship, was bound to discourage the a man of lofty mark and likelihood.
truth by every means in his power. HowAs for Sir Philip Francis, the idea that con- ever this may be, we find that Sir Philip's siderations of the kind could belong to him is resemblances to Junius cannot be admitted absurd. He did his best to look like Junius, as any valid proof. A few facts as unshakwe are convinced. We perceive this preten- able as pyramids settle that question. sion in a hundred passages and traces. Mr. Wade, in the edition of Junius referred his paper on the Regency published in 1811, to in the beginning of this article, takes up he employs the words spoken by Chatham Taylor's hypothesis and attempts to corrob(in a speech of 1770) as an epigraph: orate it. He argues for Sir Philip through • There is one ambition at least which I a series of what must be considered very will not renounce, but with my life. It is lame and impotent conclusions. the ambition of delivering to my posterity thing is very remarkable both in Taylor's those rights of freedom which I have derived and Wade's views of the case: they bring from my ancestors.” Sir Philip then says : Chatham into the foreground; they cannot “ After the noble speaker of these words, no get on without him—a fact full of suggesman has so good a right to make use of tion. The grave and gouty figure is always them as I have." He wishes to make the ''to the fore.” Mr. Taylor believes Junius world think that when he reported Chatham's reported Chatham's speeches, and Mr. Wade speech, he made him a present of some of believes Junius received most of his Parliathe sentiments--which is also found in ment, Court, and Club news from Lord Junius. The mere reporting the speech Chatham, also from Lord Holland. He could scarcely give him any right to it. In also thinks that Lord Chatham only became another place he says Chatham made a intimate with this terrible young man of certain assertion, or, “it is recorded for him." twenty-seven or twenty-eight after his letters A wish to confound himself with Junius is had made him popularly known; but that palpable in Sir Philip. His imitations of thereafter his Lordship contributed to them Junius's phrases or his plagiarisms are very and encouraged them ; so that Chatham
must be considered as only a piece of Junius ! | nations. Lady Francis is sure her husband With reference to his Lordship's speeches, was Junius, because he gave her, on her marknown to be reported by Francis in 1770, riage, a copy of Junius's Letters, and was Mr. Wade says: “ It is not improbable always interested in every thing that conthat Francis composed these speeches for cerned them. Lord Chatham : 'he certainly composed Mr. Wade admits, not being able to help many of his Lordship's speeches !" "Our it, that the object of Junius was the rereaders are beginning now to understand the placing of Chatham at the head of the govvalue of Mr. Wade's disquisition to the ernment; and that the mighty juvenile new edition of Junius. He states, in sup- ceased his letters because the cause was port of his assertion, that, in a copy of "given up,” and Lord North came into Belsham's History of Great Britain which power. He also argues that Francis was belonged to Sir Philip Francis, he (Sir Philip) known to be Junius by the King, Lord North, had made the following manuscript note: and the government' who gave him a place “ I wrote this speech for Lord Mansfield, as in India worth ten thousand a year, to be well as all those of Lord Chatham on the rid of him. But he says Francis had no Middlesex Election." Surely the word understanding with the Court that he should wrote means reported. To show that Francis be silent in return for the place. No; he could employ himself in making speeches took it like a virtuous Roman, as his due, for Lord Mansfield is not the happiest mode for other considerations. Now it must strike of proving Sir Philip to have been Junius. every body as very curious that Francis never Mr. Wade supposes that Junius, as Lord thought of telling his wife what he commuChatham's auxiliary, tried along with him nicated to the King, Lord North, and the to pull down the Grafton Ministry; and he government. Poor Lady Francis would give adopts a very clumsy explanation to account any thing to be able to state the fact, yet for the coincidences between Chatham and she cannot say, and she says all she can, Junius. He
says Mr. Calcraft, the army that her husband ever confided the secret in agent, usually sent information of all sorts any way to her. Mr. Wade's elucidation of from London to Lord Chatham at Hayes; Junius is wonderfully unique. With referand he tries to show by very desperate ence to the pretensions urged for Chatham, inference, that young Francis the auxiliary he says decisively, that this nobleman, communicated with Calcraft, and, through though most effective in oratory, was carehim, with Chatham. It would have been less in literary composition, inexact, loose and much easier for the young man to go to repetitionary." It is well known that all Hayes in a post-chaise and do his business great orators have been, and are, in the habit directly! Mr. Wade quotes Justice Hard- of writing their speeches, or the salient and inge to show that Junius mentioned a matter telling points of them, before speaking them. known only to Chatham, Temple and Cam- It is also known that at college Pitt was in den, and concludes it was Temple, as it could the habit of translating the orations of Thunot be any body else, who betrayed the mat- cydides and Cicero, with the most sedulous ter to the pages of Junius. A letter of the attention. Besides this, the general truth widowed Lady Francis to Lord Campbell is lies the other way. A man's written comalso quoted, in which she makes some very positions are usually closer and more correct rambling and contradictory statements, say- than his spoken eloquence. Pitt always ing in the first place, that Sir Philip never thought earnestly and forcibly, and his said he was Junius, and yet going on to speeches are well-knit and full of close arstate, (as if the thing was an admitted mat- gument. Such a man could not write inter of course, that in his (Francis's) contro- exactly and loosely. versy with Sir William Draper, “ a new and Mr. Wade speaks much of the Chatham powerful ally came to his assistance," mean- correspondence recently published by the ing by the latter, William Pitt, Earl of grandsons of the great Earl. It is by means Chatham! Whatever may be thought of of this correspondence that the attempt is Mr. Wade and his witnesses, it is plain Lord made to connect young Francis, or Junius, Chatham stands very much in the midst of with Chatham, by means of Calcraft. The them; his great shadow is always crossing family of Chatham would dread nothing so the net-work of their hypotheses and expla- much as the identification of the truculent