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We tremble when we see him cast into the | justify it, or convince ourselves or our readers dreary prison of the "Everlasting No," when of its truth. The dramatic artifice of introfaith has fled from his soul, like the maiden ducing the personification of Evil into the from his side, and all the world is a horrible presence of the Divinity, in order to account blank, on which the name of God is written for the temptation of the man, is as old as nowhere, and even the serenity of nature is the Book of Job. Göethe and Bailey have a torture and a curse. And we rejoice, even both copied that; and, in doing so, they have to tears, when the happy change comes; selected a glorious model. Job was a good when a ray of human affection lights his man, who lived in the fear of the Lord, and eye once more, as he gazes on man his bro- daily testified to His greatness, by sacrifices ther, and the lost soul is recalled and pointed and prayers. And Jehovah smiled kindly again to the skies, made perfect by suffering, on him, and "blessed the work of his and redeemed by love. "Tis the old, true hands." But, as no man can enjoy his story. There is a great similarity in the Heaven upon earth, he is compelled to enhistory of intelligent nations, and greater in dure anguish and sore suffering, for the life-process of thinking men. Festus and Sartor are of one race. Their blood is the same; they are both poets; they have both reached the height of manhood;

"The degree They took was high; it was wise wretchedness;"

they are both thunder-scarred; and even after their redemption, bear marks of the fire upon them.

"On a certain day, when the sons of God came to stand before the Lord, Satan also was present among them.

"And the Lord said to him, Whence comest thou? And he answered and said, I have gone round about the earth, and walked through it.

"And the Lord said to him, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a simple and upright man, one that feareth God, and avoideth evil?

"And Satan, answering, said, Doth Job fear God in vain ?

"Hast thou not made a fence for him and his

house and all his substance, and blessed the work of his hands, and his possession hath increased on the earth?

"But stretch forth thy hand a little, and touch all that he hath, and see if he blesseth thee to thy face.



of the Lord."

In the first scene of Bailey's drama, Lucifer asks the permission of God to tempt Festus, as does Mephistopheles in "Faust." We learn from this that the sufferings of the man are permitted and preordained: but we also hear God's words, "He is chosen," and know the moral-that evil only works out "Then the Lord said to Satan, Behold! all that the primal design of the universe, and works he hath is in thy hands; only put not forth thy unto good. This thought was almost ex-hand upon his person. And Satan went forth from pressed by John Sterling, when he said, "Lies are the masks of truths." Under the appearance, evil is the substantial good, and the existence of the one is as necessary to that of the other as bone to flesh. It was indispensable, however, to the elucidation of this idea, that the temptation of the man should be consented to by the Divinity; on which account we have Evil, or Lucifer, demanding the Divine permission to tempt him. Lucifer can no more avoid tempting Festus, than the latter can escape being tempted. The demon is a part of the machine, and as necessary to its continuance as the man; like an unsightly crank in the steam-engine, the blotch is indispensable to the beauty. It fulfils its mission. It mars the appearance to the casual eye; but, in reality, it secures the stability and symmetry of the whole. So we understand Bailey's theory; and again we must remark, that we are endeavoring only to analyze it, not to

Here, too, temptation is permitted; evil is a necessity. The prosperous man is tested by suffering, and redeemed by love. Many writers assert that the grand poem, called the Book of Job, was written as an argument for universal salvation; but, be this as it may, Bailey has borrowed his plan from it, and told the old story in modern verse. Festus yields to temptation; becomes the slave of the senses; loves, and sins; wanders over the earth without a purpose or aim, blindly groping for light, "as the Cyclops in his cave" drinks deep of pleasure, which is the herald of death; and finally returns, in humility and love, to the Author and Origin of all Good. But there is one characteristic of Bailey's Lucifer which we should not forget to mention a characteristic not belonging to any other creation of the kind. He is a sorrowful devil; he laments, and almost repents; he indulges in supernatural

And thou who cam'st to heaven to claim one soul,
Remain possessed by all. The sons of bliss
Shall welcome thee again, and all thy hosts-
Whereof thou first in glory as in woe-
In brightness as in darkness erst shall shine.
Take, Lucifer, thy place. This day art thou
Redeemed to archangelic state. Bright child
Of morning, once again thou shinest fair
O'er all the starry ornaments of light.”
So mote it be.

sorrow, like unto no other sorrow, and knows
not how to shut his misery in his heart. He
speaks like a being who foresees a worse fate
even than an eternity of misery; as one who
expects an eternity of annihilation. He appears
to feel that, some day or other, his existence
will cease to be necessary to the existence of
the world-machine, and shudders as he faces
nonentity. Better to be in torture than
not to be at all. He can endure any thing
but death. And from those complaints and
shudderings we conclude that Bailey wished
to teach the utter destruction of the evil
principle finally, and the return of all created
things to Good, or God. Indeed, when we
reach the conclusion of the book, we are
scarcely astonished to find mercy meted out
even to Lucifer; to find him not only de-
stroyed as an evil principle, but restored to
Heaven and happiness. We close our im-inspired youth.
perfect analysis with the final words of God:

"Rise, spirit! all created things unmade;
It suits not the eternal laws of good
That evil be immortal. In all space
Is joy and glory; and the gladdened stars,
Exultant in the sacrifice of sin,

And of all human matter in themselves,
Leap forth as though to welcome earth to heaven-
Leap forth and die. All nature disappears;
Shadows are passed away. Through all is light.
Man is as high above temptation now,
And where by grace he always shall remain,
As ever sun o'er sea; and sin is burned

In hell to ashes, with the dust of death.

The worlds themselves are but as dreams within

Of the style of "Festus" we will not trust ourselves to speak. Great thoughts look forth from every line, like calm, deep eyes. Every page is starred by them. The writer "spake inspired." A late essayist, in a feeble and diffuse paper on the subject, said one truth-"Bailey hath a demon." * He speaks like one possessed. He was only twenty-three when he published "Festus, and it will stand as a grand monument of

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Here let us pause. We have seen that all men are agreed as to the existence of evil, but at variance as to its nature and origin. Each personality fashions it according to its own views. But it is universal, and, in the opinion of most men, immortal. The existence of conscience implies the existence of evil, against which it battles. Furthermore, conscience is not only an inspirer of our good actions, but an historian of our crimes.


the morning, the noonday, and the night, it teaches us that evil is not only a terrible existence, but that it coëxists with us, is with

Their souls who lived in them; and thou art null, us, now and for ever, in secula seculorum.

And thy vocation useless, gone with them.
Therefore shall Heaven rejoice in thee again,
And the lost tribes of angels, who with thee
Wedded themselves to woe; and all who dwell
Around the dizzy centres of all worlds
Again be blessed with the blessedest.
So, ye are all restored, rebought-rebrought
To Heaven, by Him who cast ye forth, your God.
Receive ye tenfold of all gifts and powers.

What shall we say? Nothing. But let us think that we are the subjects of a mystery, and obey. J. B.

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* Gilfillan, in his Literature and Literary Men." By the way, is not the popularity of this declamatory, bombastic writer amongst us a clear proof of a highly vitiated literary taste?


[THE rapid extension of our commercial marine; its recent peaceful and gratifying triumphs, both in steam navigation and in rapidity of sailing; the new class of clipper-ships, with their magnificent proportions and scientific construction, almost rivaling steam in their speed, have awakened public attention to this branch of our national success in no ordinary degree. But whilst having our attention directed to these brilliant external results, it is to be feared that we are overlooking other improvements more essential to our true greatness and real success. With the view of awakening the attention of the country to those moral considerations which should go hand in hand with all physical improvements, we give place to the following communication. It is, what it purports to be, from one who "knows the ropes;" and although possibly too sweeping in its condemnation of our sea-captains, there are more than enough who deserve what is said, as the following case will show some evidence of :

"A case in Admiralty came off on Saturday, P. M., before B. F. Hallet, U. S. Commissioner, which, from its peculiar and astounding atrocity, ought to find a place in every largely circulated journal in the country; and the monster, guilty of the charges preferred against him, let loose, while every honest hand manned a whip to lash the petrified scoundrel sans culottes through the world! One Captain Teale, master of a vessel bound from New-Orleans to this port, shipped' a lad as cook, &c, in the latter city; but when some five days out, the lad grew sick, kept his bunk, was hauled out by the mate, and kicked, says the evidence, until the boots of the mate were worn through at the toes! Recuperating, next day the captain took the boy in hand, triced him up to the rigging, and gave him twentyfive lashes; threw him down into the scuppers after the operation, and washed the poor lad's wounds with brine! For the next twelve days the boy was whipped aloft and alow, finally shut up under the booby hatch on top of a load of cotton, denied light, air, and food; the result was death, the most horrible! Is this case not damnable! Yet the Commissioner allowed the atrocious monster to get off on $1,000 bail, which he will forfeit, to meet death, doubtless, at some other time, at the hands of some outraged seamen, who will be charged with mutiny, &c., and be hanged. The murdered lad's name is unknown; he shipped as Bryson, but he, it is supposed, was the son of parents in good standing, from whom he had become estranged. The mate, in evidence before the Court, said, the feller died to escape work!"-New-York Times of Nov. 1st.

The practical suggestions of our friend at the conclusion of his communication are eminently worthy of serious consideration.

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THE passengers of a packet-ship of a packet-ship are usually so absorbed in their own sufferings, or in securing their share of the luxuries provided for them, that the condition of the crew entirely escapes their observation; and except as they sometimes watch them, admiring the dexterity and courage with which they move through the dizzy maze of swaying sails, and spars, and cordage aloft, with much the same sort of interest, if not with less, than that with which they regard the frolics of the porpoises and gulls, they would never see that she was not made victorious over the winds and waves by the simple magnetism of the great mind of her captain.

If the habitual brutality with which, in most ships, the seamen are treated, is forced

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as you do your horses ashore; but I didn't weather through with the rascals for nothing, sir, and I know better."

Supposing friend Greenhorn is thus silenced, I would take up his cause; for though I am now "only a passenger," I also once fought for my life in the forecastle, and have been worked harder and bedded more gloomily than the horse in the coal mine, and had given me for food such matter as no decent Christian on shore would throw to a dog. Yet I disagree with the captain, and confidently assert that he is not a bit the better, but a good deal the worse fitted to command, for all that initiatory experience on which he so much prides himself. For how is it, think you, that some of these brave captains, generous, whole-hearted fellows as they commonly appear to their passengers, as they are known on shorethese gentle and attentive ladies' favorites in the cabin; these dignified, polite, and entertaining companions on the quarter-deck, who compel plate, and cards, and testimonials from every grateful and admiring company that they conduct to safety and comfort through the dangers and distresses of the sea; so kind, and brave, and generoushow is it, I ask, that some of these very men are looked upon by those in their forecastle as mean, inhuman tyrants? How is it, when at their homes on shore they are all manliness, refinement and affection; when in the cabin they can only exercise goodness, and kindness and care-how is it they can be so indifferent to the life, health, comfort and well-being of those "placed temporarily in their guardianship," only the other side

of the foremast?

"Ah! their goodness is all stuff," Jack would mutter; "they give it out only where it's paid for." But, friend Greeny, we should know better than that. We have seen too much of it, seen it too steadily, to believe it altogether insincere; seen it living, and carrying him nobly ahead of us, where cargoes of money, mailsful of newspaper glory, would have been worth less than a spoonful of fresh water.

But what, then, can it be, so far from all true dignity, refinement and kind-hearted ness, that makes them only mean, vulgar, passionate, heartless, when they turn from one end of the ship to the other? Is it credible? Is it possible? Can it be accounted for-this Janus-faced character? It can.

It is the direct, irresistible, unconquerable effect of CUSTOM, to which, in that educating forecastle, they were obliged to surrender all manly trust in the reward of honest purpose; all hopes of avoiding cruelty by simple performance of duty; all hopes of kindness, or even justice, from those having power to those who make themselves subject to it. There and then was formed that habit of mind that makes it impossible for them to expect a sailor will obey from any but a sordid or despicable motive, or that he can respond with any confidence to a kind, and just, and reasonable authority. So they were trained to believe that a sailor, for ten or fifteen dollars a month, barters all right and claim to be dealt with as a man; to consider that he rents for this pitiful pittance his body and mind as well as his labor. Thus they have been made to forget that the duties of Charity and Mercy can never be intermitted or bargained away, or the claims of brotherhood bought off. So, and only so, can it be explained, that our brave, generous, courteous, and affectionate packet captains should be indifferent, reckless savages to their crews, their comrades, their own equally true, and noble, and tender-hearted brothers of the sea; for degraded and brutal as a sailor may generally appear, ofttimes he also will show the port and carriage of a feeling, God-like man. Dan, shipmate; sainted, holy-born was the spirit that lived through all in thy rude habit. Great was the heart in the iron chest that could moisten thy cold gray eye, and soften thy horny hand, and melt thy hoarse utterance, and hush the tale of thy heavy step. Would that thy unconscious faith were but as manifest in my works as when in those days of fever's anarchy thou wouldst become sister, mother, angel to me!)

(Yes, old

But sailors are seldom saints, it must be confessed. Suspicious, distrustful, often dishonest and hard-hearted themselves, the captain is partly right in thinking they would not understand, could not trust, and might fail to reward a worthy, generous and manly command. Trained like brutes, they must be driven yet like brutes. The old wrong has produced the evil, and the evil excuses the present wrong; and thus here, as often elsewhere, both are perpetuated. Such are always the hardest cases for the philanthropist, where heedless, fanatical, im

practicable reformers are for ever making mischief.

Worse than all else is it when those professing honest intentions, perhaps even arrogating in their promises the spirit of Christ, prove unreliable, cowardly, inconsistent and contradictory, whether from weakness in the faith, want of self-control, stupidity, or knavery.

None do so much to aggravate the degradation and unworthiness of the sailor as those who, instead of good fare, give him good words; who, instead of hot coffee, when he comes down half frozen from reefing the icy topsails, press him to swallow temperance tales; who invite him to prayer-meetings in their rose-wood cabins, instead of allowing him watch-and-watch, needed rest, and regular sleep, in his own dingy forecastle. I have known a man who would turn the watch below out of their bunks to attend prayers in the cabin, then be so overcome by religious emotion (or what I have little doubt he thought was such) that he could not speak for sobbing, and shortly after come on deck and kick a man for passing him on the weather side of the quarter-deck, (equivalent to the inside of the walk in olden etiquette,) at the same time calling him by an obscene and contemptuous epithet, loudly enough to be heard from stem to stern. One voyage with such a man, whether sincere or hypocritical, will do more than any thing else to confirm a sailor's contempt for or indifference to religion.

know, too foul to be related ;) the mockery of a man's most sacred feelings; aggravation of the horrors of death; total neglect and repudiation of all fellow-feeling; it is this spirit that is most ruinous to all that have to bear it. Ask any sailor, and he will tell you that he cares little for violent temper, hard swearing, and ready blows, if he can have wholesome food, just time for rest and sleep, sailors' work, and plain, straight-forward dealing. It is not less true than strange that this should be denied him by men sailing under the Christian pennant, who never express a doubt of their own consistency, and probably never have any.

I am glad to believe that my experience in this respect was peculiarly unfortunate. But of the general question, if it is one. I have never found a sailor, when at sea, whose opinion of the folly, meanness, and outrageous petty tyranny of the generality of shipmasters, whether of pious or impious pretensions, was not stronger than mine; and I have seldom seen an officer who did not consider such treatment always quite excusable and often necessary towards free men of the United States at sea, as would be hardly allowed for any purpose towards the meanest and most untamable animals in a high-toned community on shore. In every crew, you will be told, there are some men of desperate character; and to retain command of a vessel, and conduct in safety the treasure with which it is laden to its destination, you must keep a tight hand on them. "Discipline and subordination are the life of a ship."

I have myself experienced and seen much, and I have heard more of infamous cruelty practised on seamen. I have heard the yells, True enough. But can discipline be enand seen the blood-marks of horrid corpo- forced only by an irritable and violent temreal punishment upon delicately nurtured per? Is subordination the result only of boys. I have known old men to be knocked fear? Is not a manly acknowledgment of a down like bullocks; yet, I assure you, that real "ordainment of good sense" to the atrocities like these are not the worst. It is the lingering, deliberate, studiously contrived torture, inflicted in what is called working up. Often I have heard a second mate boast that he could work up a man, so he would wish he was in hell. The miserable deprivation of the cheapest necessities of life; (I have myself suffered with the scurvy, because, when victualing in a tropical port, a lot of mouldy bread could be bought at less cost than a sufficient store of yams, though the latter were in great abundance;) the contemptuous disregard of the common needs of mankind, (instances of which I

* One of us, when nearly the whole crew were heart-rendingly that I held my ears. sick below with the jungle fever, was shrieking so An officer called loudly through the scuttle, "Will you stop that infernal noise?" "O God! O God!" exclaimed the sufferer. "God! God! What good help you?" "Oh, let me die, sir; let me die!" "Well, is there in yelling to God? Do you think He'll if it will stop your jaw, die, and be damned!" And this in a ship that was selected, on account of the religious character of the owners and master, assured that it would be a privilege to sail with to carry missionaries to the heathen. I had been this very officer, so highly was he esteemed for his virtues and moral character on shore.

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