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spirit of the age bas pronounced against forms turalists, ib.; the advantage of working up the
and complexities, ib.; systems must be adapt- raw material to the last degree, 641; surplus
ed to the moral nature of man, 514; credit is productions seek foreign markets, ib.; in com-
the first law developed in infancy, ib.; it is the merce risks generally fall on the producer, ib.;
great law of industrial intercourse, ib.; a defi- commerce is the most profitable where there is
nition of what constitutes capital, 615; influ- the most universal market, 642; food does not
ence of the modern commercial system on ci- command a universal market, ib.; manufac-
vilization, ib.; the union of capital with labor, tured articles have a larger choice of markets,
ib.; origin of a joint stock bank, 616; indivi. ib.; food is too perishable to be a good article
dual bankers, ib. ; those who occupy an inter- for exportation, ib.; manufactured goods are
mediate position between capitalists and la- less destructible, ib.; the productiveness of a
borers, ib.; a formula illustrating the credit country is measured by the value which labor
system, 517; invention of a paper circulation, gives to raw materials, ib. ; the chief commerce
ib.; specie, ib.; the general operation of the of our country must be for luxuries and not for
banking system, 618; the present banking necessaries, 643.-California, its prospective
system of the State of New York a great im- condition, ib.; it cannot be a commercial coun.
provement, 519; capital belongs to posterity, try, 644; the profits of the mines cannot sup-
ib.; two modes of employing capital-one, by port a large population, ib.; the expense of
possessing it; the other, by producing credit

digging gold and the inadequacy of the return,
upon it, ib.; a class of credits arnong mercantile ib.; what benefit will California confer on this
men, 620; speculation not fairly attributable

country! 646; not for the gold it supplies to
to banking, 621; the law of competition is not the world, ib. ; the value of gold will depre-
sufficient to secure the best condition of bauk. ciate with any large increase, ib.; the only ad-
ing, but legislation is required to attain this vantage of acquiring California would appear
end, 522.

to be that it may speedily open a great na-
Economy, Public Short Chapters on, (J. D. W.) tional road across the continent, and facilitate

221; the basis upon which this government trade with Oregon and China, ib.
rests and the powers granted by the Constitu- Elam, J. H., Letter of to Mr. Foote, 556.
tion, ib.; the Senate, 225; political economy, European Life and Manners, (Review-A. M.
227; division of employments, ib.; the relative Wells,) 169.
importance of occupations, 228; the powers of

government are protective and creative, 229;
the product of the land should be consumed Faith, a Hymn, (James Staunton Babcock,) 277
upon the land, 446 ; illustration of this princi- Freiligrath, (Review, William Barber,) 361.
ple, ib.; increase of national wealth, 447; the
mode in which this may be best effected, 448;

trade, commerce, navigation, and traosporta-
tion, 450; it is better to manufacture every Goldsmith, Oliver, (Review, J. D. W.,) 498.
thing at home, 451; currency, balance of trade,
452; organization of industry, 454; it is con-

trary to facts that low prices with large pro-
duction is a state of things favorable to the Hilliard, Hon. Henry Washington, of Alabama,
operative, 637; the smaller the capital in busi- biographical notice of, 610.
Dess, the larger must be its return, ib.; com- History of Parties, (Enoch Hale,) 331 ; Notice of
petition and large production reduce prices, ib.; Williams' Addresses and Messages of the Pre-
low prices reduce wages, 638; causes that sidents of the United States, ib.; divisions in
disturb the regular operations of industry, ib.; the Convention upon the acceptance of the
the effects of duties, ib. ; we cease to import Constitution, 333 ; Federalist and Anti-Fede-
when we can manufacture at cheaper prices, ralist, 334 ; origin of the terms Republicans
ib.; the adjustment of the present tariff, 639; and Democrats, ib.; the federalists had a ma-
the ad valorem duty, and its natural effect of jority in Congress during the administration of
diminishing the duty with the reduction of in- Washington, ib.; Alien and Sedition Laws,
voice prices, ib.; it encourages foreign and dis- 335; the Administration of John Adams, ib. ;
courages home manufacturers, ib.; it is a mis- difficulty with his Secretaries of War and
take to suppose that the trade and commerce State, ib.; election of Jefferson as President
of a country will diminish with the increase of

and Burr as Vice President, 336; Jefferson's
its manufactures, ib.; to judge of the real policy was to conciliate the moderate portion
prosperity of a country, we have only to know of the opposition, ib.; embargo, 337; Madison
whether its industry is well employed, ib.; the elected President, ib.; encouragement of home
commercial power of a country depends on its manufactures, 338; declaration of war with
ability to produce and to command a market, England, ib.; peace party, 624; De Witt
ib.; the distribution of employment tends to Clinton nominated by the New York republi-
increase the productive power and production, cans and by a general Convention of federal-
640; prohibition by tariff, of a foreign manu- ists, in opposition to Madison, ib.; Clay elected
facture, in such a country as ours, creates a Speaker of the 13th Congress, ib.; Hartford
bome manufacture, ib.; this improves the con- Convention, 525; effect of the war upon the
dition of agriculture, by increasing a home opinion of the republicans, ib. ; National Bank,
market and lessening the number of agricul- 626; Tariff, ib.; the election of Monroe as

President, 527; the federal party was now ens of government, we have conformed to the
Dearly extinct, 528; new parties began to form English model, ib.; the people are seldom on
out of the administration supporters, 629; their guard against legislative usurpations, 116;
John Q. Adams elected President and Clay tendency of legislative bodies to absorb the
made Secretary of State, 530.

powers of the state, ib.; the statesmen who

framed the constitution saw the necessity for

the Veto, 117; majorities require to be re-

Btrained, 118; our danger lies in too much le-
Imprudent Caliph, 200.

gislation, ib. ; the affairs of government are now
Influence of Music, (H. S. Saroni,) 390.

managed by party, 119; party feelings may in.

fluence the Executive and sometimes prevent

the use of the Veto, 121 ; the veto power is

merely negative, ib.; note by the editor, 122.
Kavanagh, a Tale, (Review) 57.-

Public Econoy, Short Chapters on, (J. D. W.,)

221, 446, 637.

POETRY.--The Pleasant Deceit, (A. M. W.) 29;

Dreams, (A. M. W.,) 38; Sonnet, 56; Sorrow,
Leaves from an Artists' Journal, 176.

(A.M. W.) 124; Faith, A Hymn, (James Staun-
Lesson for Politicians, 252.

ton Babcock,) 277; Stars, (A. M. W.,) 457 ; To
Letter from Mr. Clayton, Secretary of State to a Spider at Sea, (W. V. W.,) 468; Two Pic-

Baron Von Roenne, respecting the steamship tures, (A. M. W.) 496; Titian's Assumption,
United States, 98.

(William Butler Allen,) 592.
Letter from James M. Elam, Esq. to the Hon. PORTRAITS.—(For July,) Hon. George W. Craw-
H. S. Foote, 555.

ford : (for August,) Hon. William M, Meredith:
Letter to Mr. Foote, by J. H. Elam, 655.

(for September,) Hon. William B. Preston: (for
Letter of Samuel B. Ruggles, 651.

October,) Hon. Roger S. Baldwin: (for Novem-

ber, (Hon. George N. Briggs: (for December,)

Hon. Henry Washington Hilliard.
Manufactures in South Carolina and Georgia, 216.

Mlle de la Seigliére, (translated by John May,

from the French of Jules Sandeau,) 85—258,

Read's Poems, (Review.) Daniel Strock, 301.
Memoirs of my youth, 182.

Republic, The, (H. W. Warner,) No. III. The
Music-Its influence, (H. S. Saroni,) 390;

primary platform, 39; in the early state go-
What is it ? 247.

vernments, the power alloted to rulers was gene-

rally settled by common law, ib.; the articles of

confederation were too weak for the ends pro-

posed, ib. ; the federal constitution stronger, 40;
Navigation Laws of England, 212.

the state sovereignties were now ended, ib.;

the people and not the states are the constituents

of the general government, 42 ; each member

of congress represents the whole people of the
Organization of the Party, 443; the great doc- country, 44; distribution of government power,

trines for which the Whigs as a party contend, 46; state jurisdiction a safety valve to the fed.

eral boiler, 47; difference between the federal
Orthographic Reform, (W. H. Simmons,) 419. and state systems, ib.; conservative policy of

the early constitutions of the states, 49; patron-

age of state appointments, 61; appointment of

judges, ib.; the franchise of the polls limited,
Pacific Railroad, 67; 311.

62; qualifications of voters, ib. ; terms and ten-
Parties, History of (Enoch Hale,) 331; 524. ures of official life in the early period of the
Plagiarism, 139.

republic, 63; common law a bill of rights, 54;
Pleasant Deceit—a Pastoral, (Anna Maria Wells,) amending constitutions less popular formerly

than now, ib. ; things as they are at present
Political Miscellany, 98; 203; 311; 433 ; 540. compared with the past, 278; relative propor-
Politicians, a Lesson for, 262.

tions of individual states and the Union, 280 ;
Present State of Trade, 231.

the central government could only acquire dis-
Presidential Veto, 111. The Veto power is pre- proportional pre-eminence by a policy of war,

sumptively useful, because it is part of the or of territorial acquisition, 282 ; slavery, 286;
eystem of government, 114; it is positively mutation is now the order of the day, 287.
useful, because it protects the presidential pow. Retribution, or the Vale of Shadows, (A. M. Wells,)
er, and curbs that of congress, ib.; the sys- 376.
tem is inherited from our English ancestors, ib.; | REVIEWS. — Kavanagh, 67; European Life and
the people are the motive but not the directive Manners, 169; Memoirs of my Youth, (G. F.
power, ib.; there is but little practical differ. Deane,) 182 ; Read's Poems, (Daniel Strock,)
ence between absolute monarchy and absolute 301; Freiligrath's Poems, (William Barber.)
democracy, 115; in the separation of the pow. 361; Irving's Life of Oliver Goldsmith, (J. D.


W.) 498; Life and Writings of Coleridge, (J.
D. W.) Chap. I, 532; Chap. II., 633.

Two Pictures, (A. M. W.) 496.
Trade, State of, 231; 339.



Socialists, Communists, and Red Republicans, 401. Whig Victory in New York, 649.
Sonnet, 66.

Word to Southern Democrats, 190.
Sorrow, (A. M. W.) 124.

Washington's Administration, 1.
Southern Democrats, a Word to, 190.
Spider at Sea, 458.

Stars, (A. M. W.) 457.
State of Trade, 231 ; 339.

Zephyr's Fancy, Part II, 30 ; Part III, 151.

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The present chief magistrate of the first Administration, during which two country has, both before and since his generations of men, who knew not Washelection, publicly avowed the intention of ington, may be said to have come upon administering the affairs of the govern the stage of life, and the numerous department in the spirit of our earlier Presidents, ures which the later years of the Republic and, particularly, of the first. These de- have witnessed from the spirit of the clarations were officially re-affirmed in his doctrines by which it was originally govInaugural Address, wherein he said -- erned, render such an inquiry no less “For the interpretation of the Constitu- necessary, it is to be feared, than it is tion, I shall look to the decisions of the timely. For on the fresh remembrance of judicial tribunals established by its au- those first doctrines, depends the healthful thority, and to the practice of the govern tone of the political sentiment of the counment under the earlier Presidents, who try; on their continued application to the had so large a share in its formation. To ordering of public affairs, depends the sucthe example of those illustrious patriots I cess and the perpetuity of its free institu-, shall always defer with reverence, and es- tions. pecially to his example who was, by so We shall be guided, in our examination many titles, the father of his country.” of the character of the first presidential The well-known character of the distin- Administration, chiefly, by the Writings of guished man now at the head of the Washington, as selected and published by government, is a sufficient guaranty that Mr. Sparks; and we are happy to take any promises made by him to his coun- this opportunity, though late, of bearing trymen, even though less frequently and our testimony to the imperishable value, emphatically repeated than the above, both historical and political, of this truly will be honorably fulfilled. Fully as- national publication. These Writings, insured, therefore, that the Executive de- troduced by a personal narrative of the partment of the general government is life of the author, from the skilful pen of about to be conducted on the same sound the editor, are a compilation from Washprinciples which prevailed immediately ington's original papers, which, including after its institution, we feel a special inter- his own letters and those addressed to est in now inquiring what those principles him, are contained in upwards of two hunwere. The great lapse of time since the dred folio volumes; and have been de

* The Writings of George Washington; being his Correspondence, Addresses, Messages, and other papers, official and private, selected and published from the original manuscripts; with a Life of the Author, Notes and Illustrations. By JARED SPARKS. 12 vols. octavo. Harper & Brothers, publishers, 82 Cliff Street, New York. 1847–8.



posited, since the purchase by Congress, American Cæsar. It has already gone in the archives of the Department of into all the civilized world ; and we reState: They comprise whatever in the joice to think that wherever a copy of it manuscripts is most valuable for explaining stands, whether in the book-case of the the opinions, the acts, and the character of American citizen, the libraries of foreign the writer, and for illustrating the great scholars, or the alcoves of European kings, events and tendencies of the times, so far there stands, constructed out of materials as he was connected with them. Of the wrought by his own hand, a monument to twelve volumes, in which the work is the memory of Washington, more eloquent published, the first contains the Life of than marble, more lasting than brass. This Washington ; the second, his official let- great work, we are aware, needs no reters relating to the French war, and commendation of ours; and the limited private letters before the American Revo- space allowed us for treating an important lution ; the six volumes following contain theme forbids an extended notice of it; his correspondence and miscellaneous pa- but we cannot refrain from expressing the pers concerning the American Revolution ; wish that it may be still more extensively the ninth volume, his private letters from circulated among both those who make, the time he resigned his commission as and those who obey, the laws of the land. commander in chief of the army, to that The words of Washington and the other of bis inauguration as President of the illustrious statesmen, who assisted in United States; the tenth and eleventh, framing the Constitution, and in adminishis letters, official and private, from the tering the government under it, furnish beginning of his presidency to the end of the true salt of our popular political literahis life; the twelfth, his speeches and ture; and we need not add how much the messages to Congress, proclamations and atmosphere of society would be improved, addresses, together with seven very full if a large part of this were better salted. and convenient indexes to the whole work. Before entering upon the examination of Neither expense nor labor were spared by our subject, it is proper that a preliminary the editor in examining the whole mass of question should be settled, which persons papers ; and the selection appears to have not familiar with the history of political been made with that discriminating judg- opinions in this country, may be surprised ment, so conspicuous in all the writings of to see raised, inasmuch as it concerns this learned historian. Each volume is the purity of Washington's republicanism. accompanied with explanatory notes and But it has been maintained by the advoappendixes, the materials for which, hav- cates of unreasonably conservative views ing been derived almost entirely from un- of government, both in Church and State, published manuscripts in various foreign that Washington derived the title of the and domestic libraries, are new contribu- American colonies to liberty, from English tions to the history of the times, as well as laws, charters, and precedents, and not important illustrations of the sentiments from the principle of natural justice, as and deeds of Washington. These invalu- asserted in the Declaration of Indepenable Writings, therefore, so fitly prepared dence. This is an error. The following for the public eye by the laborious re- extract from a letter addressed to Bryan search, the critical skill, and the scrupulous Fairfax, under date of August 24, 1774, fidelity of an eminent scholar, will ever is conclusive evidence, that Washington deserve the place of honor in the library justified his opposition to the royal usurpof every American citizen, who pretends ations on the ground of his natural rights to study the history, or the politics of bis as a man, as well as his legal privileges as country. Should Congress, in its com- an Englishman. In truth,” says the mendable zeal for diffusing political in- writer, “ persuaded as I am that you have formation among its constituents, ever see read all the political pieces, which comfit to publish the entire papers of the pose a large share of the gazettes of this Father of his country, still this selection time, I should think it, but for your remust always continue, from its convenient quest, a piece of inexcusable arrogance in

and moderate price, to be the popular me, to make the least essay towards a

a of these Commentaries of the change in your political opinions ; for I am


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