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must be musical, let the words be set to music in rem. citative, that these melodious speakers may no longer lie open to the farcasm; Do you read or fing? If you fing, you fing very ill. Seriously, it is much to be wondered at, that this kind of reading, which has so little merit confidered. as music, and none at all considered as speaking, should be so studioufly practised by many speakers, and so much admired by many hearers. Can a method of reading, which is fo entirely different from the usual manner of conversation, be natural and right? Is it possible that all the varieties of sentiment, which a public speaker has occasion to introduce, should be properly expressed by one melodious tone and cadence, employed alike on all occasions and for all purposes?
Acquire a juft VARIETY of PAUSE and CADENCE.".
ONE of the worst faults a speaker can have, is to
, make no other pauses than what he finds barely necessary for breathing. I know of nothing that such a speaker can so properly be compared to, as an alarm-bell, which, when once set a-going, clatters on till the weight that moves it is run down. With
out pauses, the sense must always appear confused and obscure, and often be misunderstood; and the fpirit and energy of the piece must be wholly lost.
In executing this part of the office of a speaker, it will by no means be sufficient to attend to the points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauses which ought to be made in speaking. A mechanical attention to these resting-places has perhaps been one chief cause of monotony, by leading the reader to a uniform found at every imperfect break, and a uniform cadence at every full period. The use of points is to aslift the reader in difcerning the grammattical construction, not to direct his pronuciation. In reading, it may often be proper to make a pause where the printer has made none. Nay, it is very allowable for the fake of pointing out the sense more strongly, preparing the audience for what is to follow, or enabling the speaker to alter the tone or height of the voice, sometimes to make a very considerable pause, where the grammatical construction requires none at all. In doing this, however, it is necessary that in the word immediately preceding the pause, the voice be kept up in such a manner as to intimate to the hearer that the sense is not completed. Mr. GARRICK often observed this rule with great success. This particular excellence
Mr. Sterne has described in his usual sprightly manner. See the following work, Book VI. Chap. III.
Before a full pause, it has been customary, in reading to drop the voice in a uniform manner; and this has been called the cadence. But furely nothing, can be more destructive of all propriety and energy than this habit. The tones and heights at the close of a sentence ought to be infinitely diversified, according to the general nature of the discourse, and the particular construction and meaning of the sentence. In plain narrative, and especially in argumentation, the least attention to the manner in which we relate a story, or support an argument in conversation, will shew, that it is more frequently proper to raise the voice than to fall it at the end of a sentence. Interroa gatives, where the speaker seems to expect an anfwer, should almost always be elevated at the close, with a peculiar tone, to indicate that a question is asked. Some sentences are so constructed, that the last word requires a stronger emphasis than any of the preceding; whilst others admit of being cloied with a soft and gentle sound. Where there is nothing in the sense which requires the last found to be elevated or emphatical, an easy fall, fufficient to shew that the sense is finished, will be proper. And in pathetic pieces, especially those of the plaintive,
tender, or solemn kind, the tone of the passion will often require a still lower cadence of the voice. But before a speaker can be able to fall his voice with propriety and judgment at the close of a sentence, he must be able to keep it from falling, and to raise it with all the variation which the sense requires. The best method of correcting a uniform cadence, is frequently to read select sentences, in which the style is pointed, and frequent antithesis are introduced; and argumentative pieces, or such as abound with interrogatives.
· RULE VIII.
Accompany the EMOTIONS and Passions which your
words express, by correspondent TONES, LOOKS, and
THERE is the language of emotions and passions, as well as of ideas. To express the latter is the peculiar province of words; to express the former, nature teaches us to make use of tones, looks, and gestures. When anger, fear, joy, grief, love, or any other active passion arises in our minds, we naturally discover it by the particular manner in which we utter our words; by the features of the countenance, and by other well-known figns. And even when we
speak without any of the more violent emotions, the same kind of feeling usually accompanies our words, and this, whatever it be, hath its proper external exapression. Expression hath indeed been so little ftudied in public speaking, that we seem almost to have forgotten the language of nature, and are ready to consider
every attempt to recover it as the laboured and affected effort of art. But Nature is always the fame; and every judicious imitation of it will always be pleasing. Nor can any one deserve the appellation of a good speaker, much less of a complete orator, till to distinct articulation, a good command of voice, and just emphasis, he is able to add the various expressions of emotion and paflion.
To enumerate these expressions, and describe them in all their variations, is impracticable. At... tempts have been made with fome success to analyze the language of ideas; but the language of fentiment and emotion has never yet been analyzed; and perhaps it is not within the reach of human ability, to write a Philosophical Grammar of the Passions. Or, if it were possible in any degree to execute this design, I cannot think, that from such a grammar it would be possible for any one to instruct himself in the use of the language. All endeavours therefore to make men Orators by describing to them in words the manner in which their voice, countenance, and