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boldly attempted giving the slip to Arabia on April 16; but she was beaten back before she reached El-Muwaylah. After another stormy day, we again got up steam, and, fighting hard against adverse winds and waves, we reached Suez on April 20. The following list of stations between El-'Akabah and ElHaurá, our furthest northern and southern points, is taken from the Route of the Pilgrims from Cairo to Meccah,' p. 541 of the Jihán-numá, or Speculum Mundi. The author was Háji Khalifah, whom Joseph Hammer (Ancient Alphabets,' &c., London, Nicol, 1806) calls "Chalabizaade Hadshi (Háji) Khalfa, encyclopædist and bibliographer." He is also known as Katib Chelebí. He died A.H. 1068 (= A.D. 1658); Flügel adds in the month of September.1 The chief interest of his itinerary is that it describes the modern line laid out by Sultan Selim. The older route lay further east and inland; passing via the Goz el-Hannán, Zebayyib (Wady Surr) Tuwayl el-Súk and the ruins of Shuwák and Shaghab.

"Sat'h el-'Akabah (the plain, or the summit of the ascent), i.e. the 'Akabah (ascent) of Aïlah (Aylah), where there was anciently a large town, now in ruins. In a low place near it there is a well lined with stone, the water of which is sweet, in a palm-grove. The Arabs settled there are those of Howeïtát (Huwaytát).2


"The next station completes the first quarter of this route.3 Its water is sweet and plentiful. It (.e. the road) all passes along the sea-shore. On the left side is Mount Tór, stretching out for a space of several miles in extent. In the latter part of it there are two descents and narrow gorges (bogház), in which are pits with wells of sweet water. Thence there is an ascent to the:

"Dhahr himár ("Ass's Back "), a rocky acclivity.5 Thence

to :

"Jurfeïn ("the two Gullies "). Thence to:

"Sherfehi Bení 'Atiyeh ("the Turret or Watch-tower of the Children of 'Atiyeh "), where there is much wood.' Thence

to :

1 The translation is taken from Lieut. Wellsted (vol. ii., Appendix). The few notes with numerals are my own.

2 The "plain" alludes to the head of the pass; whereas the ruined town is at the mouth of the valley below. The "low place" is the site of the present settlement. See The Land of Midian (Revisited),' chap. vii.

3 I.e., from Cairo to Meccah.

That is, going from Meccah to Cairo.

So called from a rise in the south. The modern station is El-Hagul (Hakl). the Ancale of Ptolemy. See chap. viii. loc. cit.

"Rather the "two high nullah-banks;" the place is generally called Umm Jurfayn.

7 "Sharaf Beni 'Atiyyah," that is the high-place of the tribe now called the

"Matlát ("the salt Slough "), between two mountains. Here is the permanent abode of the Bení Lám. Thence to:




Maghárehi Sho'aib (the Cave of Sho'aib, father-in-law of Moses). There is sweet water in its pits, a palm-grove, and many ethl (tamarisk) and mokl (or dúm) trees like those that grow near the river Nile.10 There are here also inscribed tablets (alwáh rock-faces) on which the names of ancient kings are engraven. Thence to:


"Kabr-el-tawáshi (" the Eunuch's Grave")." Thence to:-"Uyun Kasab ("Reed Springs "). It is a watery, rushy, and excessively hot valley (wádi). In summer-time many persons die there suddenly.' The grave of the children of Abraham, near the sea there, is a place of pilgrimage (ziyáreh). Thence to :


"Sherm ("a Creek") near the sea; on the left of it there is a mountain called Isháreh (" the Mark ").13 Thence to:

"Mowílahh, on the seashore: there is water, but it is rancid.14 Thence to:

"Dár Kait-Báï (Kaït Baï's House), so named from that sultan having stopped there when performing the pilgrimage; before that they used to stop at Batn Kibrit (" Sulphur Belly ")," a narrow, stony place. Thence to:


Beni Ma'ázah. The site is popularly known as El-Sharaf. Caravans halt at El-Rijm, the "Heap of Stones," about 1 hour 30 minutes to the south, and find water. The distance to Magháir Shu'ayb is the normal stage of 12 slow hours. 8 The name "Matlát" is unknown, and the Beni Lám of Midian survive only infa proverb Katí'at Bení Lám (the "Cutting off of the Beni Lám"), said when a thing is clean gone. The tribe, however, is still great and powerful in Mesopotamia between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf.


Crucifera Thebaica, or bifurcate palm, the Palma Thebaica of the ancients. 10 Magháir is a plural, " caves" (catacombs). "Mukl (i.e. bdellium-tree) is a word unknown to the modern Midianites, who eat the fruit (Wagul Wajul) of the Palma or Crucifera Thebaica. This fan-palm, when young and bushy, is called Saúr (). In the Sudán it is one of the most useful of growths, and supplies everything from sandals to drinking-cups.

"The Eunuch's grave is still seen at the head of the Zibá Cove. See chap. xii. of the Land of Midian (Revisited).'

12 This description of 'Aynúnah is not borne out by the accounts of the Bedawin, who praise both its water and its air. The visitation-place mentioned in the text is wholly forgotten, and the nearest spot held holy by the Arabs is the Goz elHannán (the "Moaning Sandheap") east of Sharma. See chap. ii. loc. cit. Either one or both of them may have inherited the honours of the ancient pilgrimage to the "Gods of the Grove" (The Gold Mines of Midian,' p. 182).

13 The Wady and its ruins are called Sharma, an Arabic word showing that the classical name is forgotten. The "Mountain-Ishárah" is the modern Shárr. See chap. xiii.

14 Read" unwholesome," fever-breeding.

15 The memory of the Circassian Mamluk Soldan, El-Ashraf Abu'l-Nasr Kái'd Bey el-Záhiri, who, after a successful campaign against the Turks, made peace with them in A.D. 1490-91, is now forgotten. The "Sulphur-belly," which should be rendered "hollow below the sulphur-cone," is our "Sulphur-hill" (Tuwayyil el-Kibrít), at the head of the Jibbah Creek, where the caravan now encamps.

"Kabr Sheikh el-Kefafi. Sheikh el-Kefafi having been killed by a spear, was buried there, and his grave is a place of pilgrimage. Thence to:


"Azlam (a very smooth Arrow). The second quarter [of the whole distance] a salt, marshy place, without any herbage, and having water which is salt. In the midst of these mountains there is a desert plain (Sahrá). Mecca senna is found here.17 Thence to:

"Simák (Sumach), also called Rakhanín;18 it is a valley (wadi) in which there are many thorns. After passing it is:

"Istabl 'Antar (Antar's Stable), an open plain among the mountains, where Arák [Salvadora Persica] is found, and on the borders of it there is sweet water.19 Thence to:

"Sherenbeh (the thick-pawed Lion),2o a mountain cape. Thence to:

"Wejh (the Face) a valley (wadi), in which there are wells of sweet water. They were renewed by Ibrahim Páshá, in the year 930 (A.D. 1524), and are supplied by rain and torrents.2 Thence to:

“Bir-el-Karawí ("Villagers' Well). Thence to:“Haríreh (milk Porridge'). Thence to:


"Haurá (the black-eyed Girl'),22 where there is water, but it is bitter."

16 See chap. xii. Midian (Revisited). The tomb still exists between Wady Kifafah (North) and W. Selma (South).

17 From Ziba (Eunuch's Tomb) the first march is to the Wady Azlam, where a ruined fort and two wells of brackish water are found. See chap. xiv.

18 May be the Wady Dukhán, or Abú Dukhán, which contains ruins. See chap. xiv.

19 The second camping-place from Zibá. This "wady" drains the little Jebel 'Antar, a range rising north of the great Jebel Libin (or Libn), and it is supposed to be the site of the ancient Rhaunathos. For the errors of the Admiralty Chart see chap. xiv.

20 Humayrát el-Shurumbah (the "Red Hills of Shurumbah") is the name of certain waterless hillocks south of El-Wijh, here called Wejh.

21 See chap. xvi.

22 I cannot understand why Prof. Palmer (Desert of the Exodus,' p. 319) says that "El-Haurá" in the Negeb has "some such primary signification" as City of Cisterns. The word, which is the feminine of Ahwar, simply means 66 Pagus Albus," Whitby. The Wady el-'Ayn, in which the caravan camps, supplies excellent water.

NOTE. The map which accompanies this paper has been reduced from the original drawing executed by the officers of the Egyptian General Staff engaged in the Survey of the country; but it will be noticed that it differs very materially in several places from Captain Burton's narrative, besides being deficient in marking many prominent features which he describes.-W. J. T.

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II.-A Visit to Lissa and Pelagosa. By R. F. BURTON.

PART I.-Lissa.

ISSA of the classical, Lissa of our modern day, to the historian, perhaps, the most important, while physically one of the smallest, and the westernmost, that is the furthest from land, of all the main features forming the Dalmatian Archipelago, had again and again tantalised me with a distant view. From south as well as from north I had sighted the tall "Monte Hum" projecting two tongues eastward and westward; the former long, the latter short, and both outlined in regular series of gentle convexes and concaves, domes and breaks, with the last and lowest sinking below the blue Dalmatian Sea.

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Three years, however, passed before September 1876 afforded me the opportunity of inspecting the new Vice-Consulate, and the graveyard of our gallant countrymen who fell in the naval action of 1811. My excellent friend M. Alber, Ritter von Glanstätten, President of the Maritime Government at Trieste, an official whose name will ever be remembered on the Istrian and Dalmatian shores, was sending the I. R. S. S. La Pelagosa (Captains Lúsina and Zudenigo) with a "Collaudo or commission to audit the accounts of a new lighthouse; and, as visits to isolated rocks have their difficulties in these seas, I felt grateful for his permission to form one of the party. It consisted of the Councillor Klose; Cav. Pietro Accerboni, I. R. Inspector of Lighthouses on the Austrian Littoral, and Herr Oberingenieur Richard Hänisch, the Government Engineer of the works; with the contractors M. Antonio Topich and his eldest son M. Serafino. The "Scientific Commission" was composed of Dr. Carlo de Marchesetti, Custos of the Civic Museum, Trieste; and Sig. Michele Stossich, a student of Natural History, son of the respected Professor of Botany at the Scuole Reali in the capital of the "Coast


On Sept. 22, shortly after midday, when every item of nature looked its best and brightest, from the clear green of the shallow waters to the deep blue of the sky, we ran past the two sun-bleached rock-lumps, known as the "Manzetti" (bull-calves), and presently found ourselves in the magnificent Porto di San Giorgio di Lissa, where an Englishman still feels at home, and where English feeling is warmer than in many of our colonies. The harbour is one of the best in the region of admirable "Zufluchthafens," landlocked and free from rocks and shoals; easy of access, and extending about one mile deep. by half that average breadth.

On the seaward brow of the north-western ridge that bounds the bay, rises Fort Benting* (Bentinck), an artless round tower, lately repaired and resembling its neighbour, Fort Robertson; both remind us of the engineer's maxim, "small work, bad work." The latter leads down to the larger square defence, called by the people Forte di S. Giorgio, and by us Fort York; it now serves as a Castello d'acqua (water reservoir); and it can cross fire with Fort Smith upon the other side of the harbour-mouth. The Porto veramente teatrale (Fortis) is defended to the N.N.W. by a natural breakwater, the Scoglio "Oste" or "Osti," in which we recognise (Commodore Sir William) "Hoste Island;"† the bare and glaring bit of limestone has changed its two old batteries and its ruined barracks for a trim, new green-capped lighthouse. Complete defence against the sea is secured by a rocky prong projecting from the eastern jaw of the harbour. Here Fort Schmidt (Smith), backed by Fort Wellington on the ridge-top, the most elevated of the three martello-towers built by the English, crosses fire with Fort York, and with two more modern batteries, the Seppurinas (Zuparinas), upper and lower; the former generally known as La Manula, after a former Governor-General of the Dalmatian Kingdom. Lissa, condemned by the Reichs Befestigungs Commission of 1870, was formerly defended by about a hundred guns; all were removed in 1873, and the works are made over to a few care-takers.

It is almost incredible that this western "Cavalier" of the bastion of Central Dalmatia between the Rivers Kerka and Narenta; this natural fortress, distant only 150 direct geographical miles from Pola, and 130 from Cattaro, commanding the western terminus of the Mostar-Serajewo-Nisch-AdrianopleStambul Line, the inner navigation-canals of the kingdom; and, indeed, the middle section of the Adriatic Gulf should thus be abandoned. Despite the example of the English, who, in 1810, thoroughly appreciated its value, the opinion of Tegetthoff has prevailed. The "Austrian Nelson" held that the isolated work must fall unless protected by a fleet, and, therefore, that the latter deserved all his care. Under present circumstances the peril of inviting hostile occupation is recognised, and Austria proposes to convert Lissa into a fortress of the second rank, with a circular tramway; platforms for guns

*I quote from the latest Austrian hydrographic map, Küstenland, Lissa, No. 19, the admirable work of my friend the Fregatten Kapitän, T. Oesterreicher, Aufnahms-Director im Jahr. 1869.

There is another "Hoste Island" near the Tierra del Fuego.

Not to be confounded with the outer lighthouse, which we shall pass on our way to Pelagosa Island.

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