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FIRST STAGE.

Kala Abdullah Kha'n to Badwa'n. 6 miles. General forward bearing, 86°. 11th March.

Kala Abdullah Kha'n, 5600 feet, is a village at the entrance to the Kho'jak Pass from the Pishin side to s. of the pass. It is the residence of Mi'r Aslam Kha'n, Abda'li, the Sirda'r, or chief, of the Achakzai section of the Dura'nis. He is the son of the late Mi'r Abdullah Kha'n. The village is not large, say twenty houses, though it has the appearance of being so on account of the sera'i or fort Mi'r Aslam Kha'n has built by it. There are some trees and a garden in this upon which the Sirda'r has spent, he says, Rs. 2000. The arable land between the Kho'jak stream and the village is said to be a ja'gi'r and rent-free.

The crops grown hereabouts are wheat, barley, millet, Indian corn (maize), and lucerne.

Supplies are plentiful of all the sorts generally obtainable in Afghanistan, viz., bhoosa, barley, milk, butter, fowls, eggs, and I saw some cloths of European make also being sold. The supplies come from the district round, Habibullah, a large Achakzai village to s.E., furnishing a quantity under the influence of the Sirda'r, who had the farming of this part of the Pishin under the Ameer's Government.

There is a large space for an encampment alongside the Kho'jak stream (about a mile from the village), which has here a broad stony bed like most mountain rivers, through which the river winds in several streams. At this time of the year, winter, the stream at this part is small, but clear and sweet, with a fast current. The drawbacks as an encamping-ground are that the place is liable to violent winds and dust-storms, and in the winter there is some danger of being snowed up. Wood, too, is scarce in the district, and the local supply is soon used up if a force has to halt in bad weather. The village and encampment are situated just within the range of low hills at the entrance of the gorge of the Kho'jak stream. These hills are bare and somewhat bleak, but the view is fair on the whole. There is a view N.E. into the Pishin through the entrance of the pass, but it is not extensive. Mount Takatu', 10,500 feet, is visible across the valley. There is considerable cultivation along the hill-slopes.

The road leads right through the Kho'jak River in its several beds altogether for aboutmile, then over some uncultivated lands for about 4 miles to Rahamdil Kha'n's village, and then through the Arambi stream, after which it passes a series of water channels, or torrent-beds, for 24 miles to Badwa'n. These beds are stony and full of detritus, which is washed down in enormous quantities from the bare hills to the N.; in fact, the whole country between the streams is waterworn and appears to be scoured after all heavy rains. It, with the Khojak and Arambi streams, is liable to sudden floods, when the water rushes down with great violence, but to no depth. The road is, on the whole, bad, except in fine weather, and in bad weather, if not impassable, would give great trouble to baggage-animals. The higher places between the river-beds, where the water cannot scour, are usually cultivated, and there are patches of cultivation along the hill-sides.

At 4 miles to the left, close by the road, are passed Rahamdil Kha'n's villages of the Mu'sizai sept of the Tor Tari'ns, a largish place, to the back of which, over the low hills, lie the villages of Mi'r Kalam Kha'n, of the Ka'kozai sept of the Achakzais.

There is an interesting a'sya', or watermill, near this, with a raised ku'l (open watercourse) leading to it, and close by is a ka're'z, but most of its wells are dry. Some distance to the right also lie Brija'n Kala, called also Auli'a

Kala after its malik, of the Ma'ezai sept of the Tor Tari'ns about 4 miles off, and Da'dgwal, of the Mu'sizai sept of the same tribe, about 5 miles distant.

A noticeable feature in the country is the peculiar glacis or slope up to the hills on the valley-sides, which is also to be seen on the other side of the Kho'jak Pass in the Kadanei Valley. The houses also differ a good deal in build from those on the other side the Kho'jak, the peculiar domed roof is nowhere seen here. The kile's (properly kizhdais), or black semi-permanent tents of the Achakhais, are to be seen dotted all over the hill-sides and the plain. Large quantities of sheep and goats are to be seen grazing, but not many cattle: horses are to be found in the Sayad villages engaged in the Kara'chi horse-trade.

Badwa'n, 5600 feet, malik She'rdil Kha'n, is a To'r Tari'n village of the Badozai section; not particularly large, but straggling, like all the villages of the Pishin. Supplies were plentiful, and willingly offered-bhoosa, barley, wheat, eggs and butter, ghee, fowls, sheep and goats, and also several Persian greyhounds were offered for sale, but all the prices asked were exorbitant; water is plentiful from a small stream. Trees are seen on the hill-slopes and on the tops of the hills, but otherwise the country is bare of trees as usual. The chief natural products are southernwood and a weed like an onion.

There is a fine view from the village over the valley. To the s.E. is the Ghaz line of hills, separating the Pishin and Sha'lko't (Quetta) Valleys, behind which, lying to the s. of Quetta, rises Mt. Chiltan to a considerable height. To the E. lies Mt. Takatu' and the snow-capped peaks Zarghu'n, Pi'l and Kand, in succession, to the N. of Takatu'. Behind these ranges again is visible the round snowy head of Mt. Chappar in the distance. About 6 miles distant to the E. lie the Sayad villages of Shahda'd and Sayad Paind, and beyond them again, at some 10 miles, the Tor Tari'n village of A'li'zai.

Badwa'n to Ali'zai. 12 miles.

SECOND STAGE.

General forward bearing, 90°. 12th March. The road runs mainly through light sandy soil at the foot of the hills to the N. of the Pishin for about 10 miles, but for the last 2 miles, it goes through torrent-scoured country, where it is stony and covered with detritus. In parts it is broken by water washing through the soil and creating irregularities in the surface, and it crosses several small nullahs with hard sandy bottoms and steep difficult banks. In fine weather the road is good, easy and pleasant, but heavy and troublesome for baggage-animals after rain or in bad weather, especially in the stream-beds or broken ground, where the soil is liable to become quicksand in places. Opposite Badwa'n the River Chór runs a few hundred yards to the s. of the road. Here its channel is very deep, and its banks impracticable except by ramping. About 5 miles out, to N., a mile distant from the road, are the ruins of Sayad Sa'lo, a large village, the inhabitants of which have removed to the Quetta district. At 6 miles out, the road passes Sayad Paind, 5 miles s. of which lies Karbe'la, whose inhabitants claim to be Sayads, but are disowned by them. The Karbe'las seem to be a sept apart, for neither Tari'ns, Ka'kars, Dura'nis or Sayads care to own them. About a mile off the road to N. lie three villages in quick succession, Hajiʼzi', Shahda'd, and Gauri, the first two are Sayad and the latter an Aʼliʼzai (Tor Tari'n) village. Two bad nullahs are passed just before reaching Sayad Paind and the River Chór shortly afterwards. The villages about here lie pretty thick, and the land is extensively cultivated. After passing Gauri the road goes through a graveyard, in which is a mound with a Sayad Pi'r's (saint's) tomb on the top of it. His name was Ajaiab. Shortly after this it runs past Ajabzai, a Sayad village: to the s. of this, about mile distant, is a copse or

enclosure of trees, said to have been the residence of Ajaiab, the Pi'r above mentioned. Here also to the N., about 4 miles distant, and close under the hills, are visible the huts of some Ka'kars of the Sulima'n Khe'l section. The road next passes the A'li'zai (Tor Tari'n) village of Sayamzai, and finally, after crossing a bad nullah, reaches A'li'zai (Tor Tari'n) itself, about a mile further on. All the villages, especially Shahda'd, are large for Afghan villages, and appear to be well-to-do. The inhabitants have a more civilised appearance than I have yet seen elsewhere, and seem well disposed towards us. A great number speak Hindostani.

A'li'zai, 5500 feet, is a large well-to-do Tor Tari'n village. The supplies were plentiful, principally as before, but the prices were much more reasonable. Bullocks, horses, camels, were offered for sale. I saw also large quantities of sheep and goats and donkeys grazing, and near A'li'zai plenty of cattle.

The country about looks fertile, and is a good deal under cultivation. The natural products noticeable en route are tamarisk, southernwood, moss, camelthorn, the onion-like weed above mentioned, and a mossy shrub with a long flower-stem to it. Trees also seem more plentiful than usual, and here and there near the villages are some fine ones. Near A'li'zai there is an interesting series of a'sya's (watermills) along the line of a stream, which is raised by embankments at the head of each a'sya', and then shot down into it by a wooden shoot. These mills are well worked, and used to pay a tax of Rs., 5 yearly to the Ameer's Government.

A fine and clear view of the peaks above mentioned, Chiltan, Takatu', Zarghu'n, Pi'l, Chappar and Kand is obtained here, all lying to the s. and E., and at this time of year all snow-clad: to the N. runs a low line of volcanic hills about 4 miles distant. Up to these the glacis above mentioned is longer and more marked than usual. A'li'zai lies on the slope, and from it, accordingly, an extensive view of the Pishin is obtained.

THIRD STAGE.

A'li'zai to Khu'shdil Kha'n. 11 miles. General forward bearing, 110°. 14th March.

The road at first runs through light sandy soil, more or less covered with detritus and scored by the rains. After about a mile it crosses the River To'ghai in its several branches, all of which have stony bottoms and no banks to speak of, and the water is about ankle-deep. At 4 miles it crosses the River Muzarai, a similar stream in all respects. At this point the hills to the N. of the Pishin approach to within a mile of the road, and the country is much water-washed and stony. The road then passes through a much broken country intersected by deep nullahs, which would give a good deal of trouble in wet weather, as far as the 9th mile, where it crosses the River Lo'ra. The soil in the broken land is clayey, and in wet weather slippery and bad for animals. At the point where the River Lo'ra is crossed the river has low and easy banks and a stony bottom. Its bed is about 50 yards broad, and the stream knee-deep. After this the road passes over a stony water-scoured country, and crosses several streams and torrent-beds, the water about ankledeep, for about a mile, when the River Barso' is reached—here of a similar nature and depth to the River Lo'ra-and a mile further on, through cultivated fields, lies Kh'ushdil Kha'n. As may be supposed, the road winds a good deal, but its general direction is E.S.E. It may be pronounced to be bad in anything but very fine and dry weather, and would always be troublesome for baggageanimals or wheeled carriages. It is, however, the best line to take, running as it does as near the hills as practicable, for all the streams, which are here

shallow with low banks, very soon cut deep into the sandy and clayey soil formed by the wash from the hills, and become formidable streams, with high overhanging banks, impracticable without ramping, while the land about them is much broken and cut into by the annual rains. There is a short cut from A'li'zai to Khu'shdil Kha'n by the village of Bagarzai, but it is not a desirable route on this very account.

The villages are numerous about this part of the valley, which is thickly populated. From a point on the road near the River To'ghai the following are visible. To N. Kaʼkozai and Madat (Abdal), both Achakzai villages-A'ta' Mohammad (A'li'zai) and Brahamzai (malik, Sayad La'l). To the s. and s.E. Ma'likai (Tor Tari'n), Ya'singzai (malik, Sayad To'ti) and Ya'singzai (malik, Sayad She'rbat), Sopan'zai (A'li'zai) and two Bagarzai villages (maliks, Sayad Paiyo and Sayad Alab). These villages vary in distance from 1 to 6 miles. At 7 miles out, about 1 mile to N., is another Brahamzai village (malik, Sayad Khama'ndai), on a hillock, and about half a mile to s. of this is Brahamzai proper, the malik of which is Do'st Mohammad,—by which the road passes, at this point turning s.; from here garden with trees near the River Lo'ra, belonging to Sayad Paiyo of Bagarzai, is seen. About a mile s. of Brahamzai lies Samaʼlzai (Sayad), through which also the road passes. Near this to s. is the remains of a small artificial hill, apparently an old fort-there are remains about it. It is like the fort at Quetta on a small scale. The natives know nothing about it, but call it Spi'n Khila (the White Fort). The To'r Tari'n village of Manzakai lies about a mile to s. on the side of a low hill. From Samaʼlzai are visible to E., at about 6 to 8 miles distant, three Lu'r Kha'nizai (Tor_Tari'n) villages, whose maliks are Mohammad Sa'dik, La'l Mohammad, and Vaki'l. After leaving Samaʼlzai the road runs E. again to Dab Kha'nizai, near which to N. is an empty fort called Zarra Khila, for a mile, and finally s. for another mile to the cluster of villages around the fort of Khu'shdil Kha'n, all of which are Tor Tari'n, except Allahda'd, which is Sayad. It appears that one Mu'lla Allahda'd was a Sayad Pi'r (saint), and there is a Zia'rat (sacred tomb) to him there. The Tor Tari'n villages are She'kha'lzai, Kamaʼlzai, Nu'rzai and Maʼlikya'r, and near the latter are the remains of a deserted village of the Ma'likya'rs, who moved to the present site not very long ago. At the head of the valley to the N.E., about 8 miles distant, are the remains of the fort of Ha'ji Kha'n, the head of the Amand Khe'l Ka'kars. Of these villages only Ya'singzai, Manzakai and Ma'lkya'r are of any size.

The country passed through is similar to that previously described, and its natural products and crops the same. The ground near the hills is uncultivated except in patches, but there is extensive cultivation along the line of villages, except in the broken ground, which is quite bare. Water is stored in small irrigation-tanks in places, and ku'ls and a'sya's are visible everywhere. There is a newly-dug ka're'z running between Dab Kha'nizai and Samaʼlzai, the wells of which are very deep, small and well dug. Sheep, goats and donkeys are to be seen all along the hills, and about Khu'shdil Kha'n cattle in quantities. There are trees about the villages and pistachio-trees along the hill-slopes to the E. of Khu'shdil Kha'n, otherwise the country is bare. The people en route appear, as before, to be well-to-do, speak Hindostani to a great extent, and have travelled a good deal.

Khu'shdil Kha'n, 5600 feet, is now an empty fort, partially ruined. It is built in the usual way, and is about 100 yards square. It was from this that the Ameer's naib (lieutenant), Nu'r Mohammad Kha'n, Ba'rakzai, governed, but he fled on our approach, and the place is now used as a Government godown (warehouse), in charge of another Nu'r Mohammad Kha'n, a Belo'ch, in our employ. The supplies now collected are of all sorts, and very plentiful; but the prices are very high. A road from this leads, viâ No'a Ba'za'r (Batazai, Tor Tari'n), to Quetta, and one is said to lead, via the villages of Mehtarzai

and Khunjagai, through a pass near Mt. Kand to the Zho'b valley. Khu'shdil Kha'n is said to be the site of a proposed British cantonment. Water, as usual here, is plentiful and good. There is a view over the valley to Mt. Khwa'ja Amra'n and the Gwa'ja Pass.

FOURTH STAGE.

Khu'sh-dil Kh'an to Sharan Ka're'z. 6 miles. General forward bearing, 108°. 17th March.

The road leads past the village of Kamaʼlzai (Tor Tari'n)-over a detritusstrewn country at an easy upward gradient, towards the hills to N.E. of the Pishin for about 3 miles, something s. of E., after which it turns northwards for a mile, bearing 75°. During this mile it crosses several torrent-beds, and is somewhat hilly. After this it follows the line of the River Sharan, in an easterly direction. At its entrance the gorge of the river is about 300 yards wide, but it rapidly narrows to about 80 yards, and at half-a-mile from the entrance the road descends into the river-bed, which is hard and stony. The hills on either side are not high, say 250 feet in the highest part, and are composed mostly of a soft slaty and shaly rock. The bed is narrow in places, not more than 20 yards wide, so that camels or baggage-animals, and all wheeled carriages, would have to go in single file. The river itself is usually an insignificant stream, and there are no signs of its ever becoming a formidable torrent. The road up it winds a good deal, but the upward gradient is not great. At about a mile from the camping-ground the road leaves the river-bed, and goes over a small kotal (pass); from this to the camp the gradient is steepish, but the ground is firm. Such a road must, from its nature, be impracticable during wet weather, but the stream would soon run down after heavy rains. It would be easy to find a line for a good road practicable in any weather along the river-side. No villages, or even huts, are met with after Kama'lzai.

Sharan Kaʼreʼz, 6300 feet. There is no village here, and no huts for some distance off the road. The hills are inhabited by Ka'kars, of the Sulima'n Khe'l, Amand Khe'l, Paʼnizai, and Shamozai sections, who do not here live in villages, and all their huts are removed some distance from the road for reasons of safety. The ka're'z was the property of Sayad Mu'lla Kha'lakda'd (=Allahda'd), whose zia'rat (tomb) is near Khu'shdil Kha'n, and now belongs to the Tari'n zami'ndars (landowners) of that neighbourhood; beyond this point it belongs to the ka'kars. There are several narrow, deep wells in it, and the water is good. The camping-ground is hilly and on broken ground, but the space is fair and the soil dry; it is, however, liable to high winds. The main range of the hills is about 3 miles to the E., but points near camp, for picquets, can easily be found, effectually overlooking the country. There is a fine view over the Pishin from many points near. A mountain path leads to Barsho'r to the N. in the country about Mt. Kand. Supplies are fair. The country passed through as far as the gorge of the River Sharan is much as before; cultivation near the villages round Khu'shdil Kha'n, and then stony water-scoured country, crossed by many small torrent-beds, and cultivated only in patches in the hollows. At this time of year, March, some of the wheat was about 6 inches high. The southernwood and camelthorn are thick, and the camel-grazing, consequently, is here plentiful and good. Barbary bushes may also be seen pretty thick in some of the torrent-beds. In the river gorge, grass, both fine and coarse, and reeds are to be found, especially about the damp ground, caused by the frequent springs in its neighbourhood. Wheat is also grown about the river wherever practicable. After the kotal the country is very broken, but the natural products are the same as before, and even in

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