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mals which there is good reason, to my judgment, for thinking were domesticated in Central Asia, because I do not think they were domesticated within that area, but because, I cannot deny, that it is probable they were also domesticated elsewhere. But it may fairly be suggested that the art, skill, and craft of domesticating these and the other six animals having been first learnt in Central Asia, spread thence; and that thus all or nearly all the acquisitions which man has made in the way of domestication, may thus owe their origin, if not in the way of actual blood-lineage, yet in that of being the fruits of man's experience acquired there, to the district in question.

pass by a natural transition to point out very shortly, not the cardinal necessity of the possession of the sheep, goat, ox, horse, camel, pig, and dog, for food and clothing, for locomotion, and for carrying on the processes of the hunting, of the pastoral and of the agricultural life; but how that necessity has been unconsciously recognised by man in certain of his earliest institutions.

Of these seven mammals, six are now distributed over the face of the whole habitable world; but long before this had become the case with any one of them, except possibly the dog, man had expressed unconsciously, if not quite inarticulately, his recognition of their value by using them in one way or another for one or another of his most sacred rites and ceremonies. The single Latin word SUOVETAURILIA denoting a particular kind of sacrifice of the swine, the sheep, and the ox, which is figured on many a tablet found in this as in other countries, and was performed at great crises of Rome's fate, may suffice as regards the three animals which speak so plainly to our eyes in those sculptures. To Eastern and to Western people it was indifferent (see Exod. xii. 5, Ps. 1. 9, and classical writers passim) whether sheep or goats were taken out of the fold for this purpose. As regards the dog, Livy (xl. 6) tells us that in the Purification of a Macedonian army the two halves of a dog's

in Süden von Ost-Sibirien,' 1862, i. 236) are as much or more to the point, as they apply to adult animals: "so muss ich gestehen, dass sie sehr friedlicher Natur sind und es mir mehrmals passirte mittelalte Wildschweine sich mir bis auf vier Faden weite nahen zu sehen." If the so-called "wild" boar is as tame as to allow this so many centuries after the invention of gunpowder, it is easy to understand that it may have been much more amenable to man's influence thousands of years before that discovery. As regards the dog, it seems probable that even within the limits of the Central Asiatic region we are dealing with, two very distinct wild stocks may have furnished corresponding tame ones. The large Indian dog, or Hyrcanian dog of the ancients, may very reasonably be supposed (as suggested by Fitzinger) to have been the parent-stock of the modern Thibetan mastiff, whilst Pallas says that the Kalmuck domestic dog is so like the jackal of the same region that it is impossible not to consider them identical. See 'Spicilegia Zoologica,' Fasc. xi. 2 B


body were placed, one on one side, one on the other, of the road along which the soldiers were passed. Similarly, we are told by the Arab Ahmed Ibn-Fozlan, who must have witnessed the proceeding with a good deal of repulsion, that a dog was cut in half and put into the ship in which a Norse chief was burnt in the tenth century on the banks of the Volga (see Anderson, Proc. Scot. Soc. Antiq.,' May 13, 1872, p. 522); and I have myself taken up, not without some effort in overcoming a certain reluctance, the bones of a dog who was keeping his mistress faithful company in a grave undoubtedly of the earliest Neolithic period in England."


As regards the horse, Achilles, fresh from his conversation with Xanthus and Balius, tells the Trojans (Il. xxi. 132) that even their wonted sacrifices of horses will not profit them; the Mongols (see Howorth's History of the Mongols,' i. 262, 289; and Yule's Marco Polo,' i. 265, cit. in loco), the Lusitanians (Livy. Epit. 49), and the Norsemen (see Ibn Fozlan, l. c.), all alike sacrificed horses on great occasions.

I have not found, nor did I expect to find, any account of the sacrificing of the camel, either in Semitic or classical literature; if, however, it be a sound principle that races as yet uncivilised would be likely to sacrifice or otherwise deprive themselves upon great occasions of the services of their oldest and most valued domesticated animals,† we ought to be able to show


* See British Barrows,' p. 518, 1877; Journal Anthropological Institute,' October 1875, p. 157.

As I am speaking of animals domesticated in Central Asia, I have not mentioned the ass which, as Dr. Sclater has shown (Proc. Zool. Soc.' 1862, p. 164), owns as its parent-stock the Asinus tæniopus of Abyssinia. Its history gives, however, an illustration of the principles enunciated above at least as striking as those of any of the eight Asiatic mammals just specified. From the references made to this animal in the Pentateuch, it would appear to have been domesticated in the region there treated of before either horse or camel, though subsequently to the ox. Pindar's reference to it as used for sacrifice by the Hyperboreans (Od. Pyth. x. 1. 52) will be to persons who will bear in mind its African origin almost as convincing evidence of the great antiquity of the date of its domestication as its appearance on the oldest Egyptian monuments of the Fourth Dynasty. Hecatombs, such as Pindar speaks of, are, numerically, figured on one tomb, reproduced for us by Lepsius. That the ass should so early have been introduced into Hyperborean regions even by a poet is a little surprising, considering that the horse, which is so much better suited for such climates, was already available there; but besides being surprising it is also significant. For the sacrificial and ceremonial use of this animal, see Orelli's Excursus ad Tacit. Hist.' v. 3, vol. ii., 1848, of his edition of the great historian, ibique citata. Dean Stanley's 'Jewish Church,' i. 96, ibique citata. 'Pindar, ed. Dissen and Schneidewin,' sect. ii. 1847, p. 353, ibique citata. For the linguistic Paleontology of the name, see Lenormant, Origines de Civilisation,' i. 319. For the use of the animal by the modern Hyperboreans see Middendorff, 'Sibirische Reise,' iv. 2, 2, p. 1322, where, however, that great naturalist, albeit reckoning "Pferdekenntniss und Pferdezucht als seiner Specialität," or one of them, leaves the difficulty above hinted at unexplained.

that the Central Asiatic nomads did so by the "ships of their deserts." And I find in Mr. Howorth's valuable History of the Mongols,' i. p. 426, the following passage:

"Ssanang Setzen now goes on to tell a story which crystallises for us a very curious phase of old Mongol manners. Altan Khakan had a son called Pubet Paidshi. The young man died, and his mother determined to kill 100 boys and 100 foals of camels, which were to be buried with him, and to accompany him as an escort to the other world. She had killed over forty boys when a tumult arose among the people."

Here I think I may leave this part of my subject, the significance of this series of facts being sufficiently self-evident. For as against these seven domesticated mammals which Central Asia may with so much probability claim as being her gifts to mankind, inasmuch as she either herself furnished their parentstocks, or at any rate furnished the necessary opportunities for gaining the knowledge subsequently used in domesticating similar stocks elsewhere, what can all the rest of the habitable globe set either as regards cosmopolitanism or as regards importance? As regards importance the other thirteen are all but insignificant; as regards cosmopolitanism, universal importation, that is, either for purposes of practical utility or animi voluptatisque caussa, as Cæsar put it, we can mention but the

African cat and the African ass.

I come now to the consideration of the facts and views with which botanists have supplied us as to the original homes of our cultivated plants. Our own inspection and recollection of the landscapes of the various countries in which we have travelled will enable us to estimate the greatness of the change, which man's migrations and transportations have effected in the sphere of all his labour under the sun. And I will begin what I have to say under this head by the apparent paradox that the argument which our cultivated plants furnish us with for determining the locality whence man issued to occupy the world and subdue it, and alter its external appearance, would, like some other arguments, have appealed with greater force to one of the civilised races of antiquity than it does at first sight to us. It is, herein also like some other arguments, cogent for all that. Let us state it. Fifty per cent. of our cultivated plants have been shown by De Candolle, Géographie Botanique,' pp. 986, 987, and by Elisée Reclus, 'The Ocean' (English Trans. ii. chap. 27, 292), following him, to belong to "Europe" and "Asie septentrionale et occidentale," that is to say, to the Palæarctic Region of Zoogeography. So far the figures are equal for cultivated plants and for domestic animals, and I do not feel it necessary

to dwell upon the differences which the other proportional numbers show as regards Africa proper and South America. What is of importance, however, to point out, is that to anybody living, not merely before the time of Columbus, whose discovery has been said to have acted upon the Old World much as the approximation of a new heavenly body, planet, or other, might act upon the whole earth, but before the time, say, of Tacitus and Agricola, what Africa and India had given him in the way of cultivated plants, would have seemed just as insignificant as what, putting the ass and the gallinacean birds out of sight, they had given him in the way of domestic animals. He might, if living in Italy, have said, as did Columella (iii. 9, 5, cit. Hehn, p. 423 l. c.), "Curæ mortalium obsequentissima est Italia, quæ pæne totius orbis fruges adhibito studio colonorum ferre didicit," and pointed out beforehand the airy inaccuracy of Goldsmith's apostrophe to that country in his Traveller.' He might, I am inclined to think, with the evidence available to him, have pointed out, and correctly, that the middle zone of deciduous trees which girdled then, as now, so many of the Italian hills with a belt of chestnuts, and much, therefore, of its distinctive character, was due to the intercourse of Rome with Pontus and Galatia in pre-Christian times. And he might have drawn thence the same conclusions which we may, I think, also draw as to the area on the world's surface whence man set forth westward on his career of occupation, having, as he had, available for his wants, vegetables, plants, and trees of no less value, and of no less prominence in the landscape, than are these of Palearctic, though not of Italian, origin, viz., wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt, buckwheat, millet (Panicum), peas, beans, hemp, flax, cabbage, turnip, plum, walnut, vine, cherry, olive. Of tea, coffee, sugar, even of rice, of oranges, and of several other of the gifts of the Indian region; or of coffee, or any one of the three, or four if we include Musa ensete, now flourishingly growing in Sicily, gifts of Africa proper, a man living at that time had as little knowledge as he could have had of the gifts to come from the still undiscovered New World, of the potato, of maize, of the pineapple, to which his all alien stone pine was to lend its name, of the equally incorrectly named artichoke, of the tomato, now somewhat variously obtrusive or intrusive in Mediterranean regions, or of tobacco, or of the prickly pear, or of the agave, though of the two latter in reference to what was then, and is still, such a large part of human activities, it can be said, as by Admiral Smyth (p. 17 of his Memoir of Sicily and its Islands,' 1824), that they "form impenetrable palisades for fortifications, and in the

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plains present very serious obstructions to the operations of cavalry."

My third map, with the distribution of the vine after Schouw, should be compared with my picture from Kaempfer's 'Amonitates Exotica,' Fasc. iv. p. 711, 1712, of what he calls, p. 714, the Messis dactylifera, the date-harvest of Persia, and speaks of as being lusus magis quam labores. The distributional limits of the "fruitful" vine and the "fruiting" date-palm now, as of yore, overlap each other, as was pointed out by Arago in his Mémoire sur l'État Thermométrique du Globe terrestre' (Euvres,' v. 216, ed. 1858) in Palestine, when from this fact, he, with much ingenuity, argued that 3300 years have not appreciably altered the climate of Palestine. For "la limite thermométrique en moins de la datte diffère très peu de la limite thermométrique en plus de la vigne;" and, what makes the argument, especially to those who have Kaempfer's picture of the luxuriant date-harvest before their eyes, entirely and beautifully perfect, he further (p. 217, l. c.) tells us, "à Abusheer (Bushire) en Perse, dont la température moyenne ne surpasse certainement pas 23°, on ne peut, suivant Niebuhr, cultiver la vigne que dans les fossés ou à l'abri de l'action directe des rayons du soleil." A more simple, but also a more conclusive proof that the Syrian climate has not materially changed within the historic period cannot be imagined.*


I began this Lecture with details as to the distribution of pines and firs by man's agency; I may fitly close those details by attempting something as regards that of one of the palm tribe. For, though Leopold von Buch was wrong in holding that the two natural orders were altogether mutually exclusive as regards natural geographical distribution, as a voyage in the


*It is strange to find that Arago could, when dealing with France, have swerved so far from the line of evidence he employed as to Palestine, as to have told the Chamber of Deputies (February 27, 1836): "Vous serez peut-être étonnés d'entendre que dans les environs de Paris, il y a quelques siècles, il faisait beaucoup plus chaud qu'aujourd'hui," vol. xii. 'Œuvres, Mélanges,' p. 434. for the context one might have been tempted to take the last of the words just quoted as applying to the month of February only; and in all gravity the title of chapitre xix. in the memoir already quoted, vol. viii. 'ŒŒuvres,' vol. v. ‘Nat. Scient.,” p. 239, "Observations prouvant que l'ancien climat se maintient dans une partie des Gaules," might seem to justify such an interpretation of words spoken under some provocation in debate. And the more so as a few pages previously (p. 214) we find Arago recognising the essential deceptiveness which must attach to une foule de documents historiques" in the following words: On remarquera que je devrai résoudre le problème que je me suis posé sans avoir recours à des chiffres certains, à des observations numériques. L'invention des thermomètres ne remonte guère qu'à l'année 1590; on doit même ajouter qu'avant 1700 ces instruments n'étaient ni exactes ni comparables.”

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