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fire like Vesuvius and Etna, and whether it be an extinct volcano or not, there is on the Danish map in a position corresponding with that fixed by Rafn, a hill named 'Suikärssuak.'"

As Mr. Major, in his chart accompanying the above Introduction, has laid down the above-mentioned monastery and the hill "Suikarssuak" in Tessermint-fiord, I spoke with Mr. Steenstrup concerning the Zenonian narrative before he left Copenhagen, when he in 1876 was sent out by the Danish Government on a voyage of discovery to South Greenland. I give here an extract of Mr. Steenstrup's notice thereon, addressed to the Government, concerning his examination of Tessermint-fiord, by which it comes to light that the hill" Suikärssuak" cannot have been either an extinct or any other kind of volcano. "I determined," Mr. Steenstrup says, "in the first half of September to examine a place on the island Sermesok, where it was supposed that Kryolith was to be found, partly in order to examine the ice near Cape Farewell, partly in order to visit Tessermintfiord, induced thereto by the comments in a paper published in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society' for 1873, of Mr. Major, to the voyages of Zeno. On the way we visited the hot springs on the island Unartok (before frequently described). Having changed boats at Nennartalik we pushed into the fiord Tessermint, passing the beautiful rock 'Suikärssuak,' which according to the Zenonian narrative should have been an extinct volcano, but such is not the case. Suikärssuak is a mighty granite rock, about 1300 mètres high, which by its compactness differs from all the other scattered summits forming the coast of the inner parts of the fiord. 'Suikärssuak' signifying the great,' solid, uncloven (rock).

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"Another rock, Kuingingek,' opposite to Nennartalik, on the southern side of Tessermint, might perhaps throw some light on the veracity of the Zenonian Carta.' A cape is laid down in the south part of Greenland, and named Trin-prom.' and in the text Capo di Trin,' which name Mr. Bredsdorff, in his treatise on those voyages, conjectures may be derived from Icelandic druni,' Danish Tryne'-trunk, snout, proboscis, 'Kuingingek' even signifying a trunk or a snout of a swine, with which the rock seems to have some likeness."


From all these facts we cannot admit that Zeno had been in Greenland, and surveyed and laid down in his Carta' the coasts, &c. The tracing of the land is not at all difficult, and it is not to be wondered at that the southland of Greenland is laid 6° too northerly--the position of the greatest part of the lands in his Carta' being even more incorrectly laid down than Greenland. But even if he had been there, the examination

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and tracing of a coast so extended, exposed to such troubles and hindrances, would have required such a length of time, that we may safely conclude that the charting of Greenland has not been the work of Zeno only and solely. He may have received his knowledge of Greenland from Icelanders, who at that time -300 or 400 years before Zeno-had maintained a lively commerce with Greenland, where many Icelanders had found a home, built churches, &c. From Icelandic tales he also might have learnt that the fishing-boats of the Greenlanders ("kajaks") were made like a weaver's shuttle."


We may safely assert that volcanoes never existed in South Greenland. Nobody, Zeno excepted, ever mentioned the like; and all his account of fire-vomiting hills on Greenland, and the heating of the monastery and private dwellings by springs of hot water, may refer to Iceland, where volcanoes are found, and hot springs frequently met with, which in many places are used to dress victuals, and could be made use of to a greater extent in heating dwellings, &c. &c.-which probably may have been the case in olden times.

I may remark that in my voyages to Iceland I have twicein 1826 and 1834-visited Reikholt, the dwelling of the renowned historian Snorre Sturleson, born 1178, and killed by his son-in-law, Gissur Thorvaldsen, 1241, who had built near his seat a basin of great stones for bathing, to which the water was led from a hot-water spring in the neighbourhood; the cold water being led thereto from a brook, that he might give the bath the wished-for temperature. The basin was of such solidity that in 1826 and 1834, after a lapse of about 600 years, I found it as perfect and fit for use (the very spring still existing) as if it had been built up in recent times. I was told that it was scarcely ever made use of; a circumstance which proves that Snorre Sturleson appreciated bathing higher than his


In Reikiadal I have seen small craters, of only a few feet diameter, where the hot water nearly filled the crater to the very brim, used for dressing the victuals; the kitchen-pots being hung between two iron bars over the crater, and sunk in it, the victuals in the pots thus in a short time being heated to the same temperature as the boiling water in the crater. Further, I visited a bathing-place in the neighbourhood of the dwelling of an Icelander, Ion Jonsson, in Reikiadal, contrived by means of various small craters full of hot water-great flat stones making the floor of a hut thatched with turf, like the common Icelandic dwellings. The patients entered the hut where the heated stones produced a great heat-those suffering from the gout placing themselves, enveloped in woollen covers, a longer

or shorter time on the heated floor. As no cold water was to be found in the neighbourhood, the water from the hot springs was led to a basin somewhat distant, where it was cooled.

Coffee cooked with the water had no bad taste whatever, and cattle drinking the water thrived very well.

Zeno had without doubt heard of similar places in Iceland; certainly never in Greenland.

It is to be regretted that the original narrative of Nicolò and Antonio Zeno has not descended to posterity in its integrity as penned by themselves, as it would certainly in that case have been a more precious geographical document than it is in its present state. Zeno the younger, the editor, himself confesses that he, when a child, had torn many of the letters in pieces, and that the Carta,' when it was edited, was rotten with age.

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VII.-Zeno's Frislanda is not Iceland, but the Faroes; an Answer to Admiral IRMINGER. By R. H. MAJOR, F.S.A., Secretary, R.G.S.

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IT was truly said by the learned John Pinkerton, in his History of Scotland' (vol. i. page 261, note), "that Zeno's book is one of the most puzzling in the whole circle of literature." In my edition of that book in 1873 I believed, and still believe, that I had solved all the puzzles therein contained. This belief is based upon the fact that I had demonstrated by the geography of to-day that the Frislanda of the Zeno was the Færoe Islands; and that by the happy discovery of a passage in Torfæus, to the effect that "in the year 1391 the Earl of Orkney slew Malise Sperre (his Norse rival to the earldom) in Shetland with seven others," had been able to correct the date of the map from 1380 to 1390, and, in so doing, to bring the dramatis persone and events described into perfect historical harmony, both as to time and place. Of these two main points the former is the only one to which we are now called upon to direct our attention. I also took great pains to bring into prominent light two stumbling-blocks, over one or other or both of which all my predecessors had tripped, and consequently failed. They are both of them absolutely and unavoidably necessary to be borne in mind if the Zeno book is to be duly criticised, but both one and the other are essentially obnoxious to severely matter-of-fact minds. The first is, the non-recognition of the reality that when proper names are written down

by a foreigner from the lips of natives of whose language and country he is otherwise entirely ignorant, such proper names must be recognised not by their literal rendering, but by their sound, in connection with the circumstances under which they were dictated. So difficult of recognition is this reality by many minds, that I have known persons who have acknowledged the principle in theory stumble at the very first example propounded to them in practice.

The second is the non-recognition of the real or apparent exaggeration-sometimes more apparent than real-almost universally prevailing in narratives of medieval voyages and travels. It is obvious that if the commentator of to-day endeavours to bring down such narratives to the dead level of his own present experiences, making no allowance whatever for the changes which have taken place in the lapse of time, he must either come to wrong conclusions, or else reject the whole story as worthless.

Now it must be confessed that, in finding a remedy for both these difficulties, speculation has to be resorted to, but happily, always within the wholesome check of following the track of the narrative in faithful sequence from a well-recognised beginning to a well-recognised termination. Where this can be done under the light of the historical and geographical knowledge of to-day, we can without hesitation accept the phonetic instead of the literal rendering of the proper names which fall within the track, while we can with equally good conscience, in a proper antiquarian spirit, look back to the habits and style of expression peculiar to the early period under consideration.

Where a subject is so puzzling as that of the Zeno, it is no wonder if propounders of new theories should arise; but if they will not avail themselves of the elucidations I have already given, it is no duty of mine to repeat them. When, however, an honoured veteran like Admiral Irminger propounds a new theory, and adduces primâ facie plausible arguments in its favour, I willingly make it a duty to listen respectfully to what he has to advance, and to answer him as clearly as I may.

The phonetic principle Admiral Irminger seems to accept, but he has not, I fear, made due allowance for the changes incident to the lapse of time.

In the Zeno narrative is a description of the formal taking possession, both by land and sea, of Frislanda, which I have shown to be the Faroe Islands, by the chieftain Zichmni, whom I have shown to be Henry Sinclair, Earl of the Orkneys and of Caithness; the taking possession of the coasts and islands being committed by him to Nicolò Zeno. With reference to this expedition Admiral Irminger makes a long extract from

the Zeno text, including the following passage:-"This fleet of Zichmni sailed to the westwards, and with little trouble gained possession of Ledovo and Ilofe, and other small islands in a gulf called Sudero; where in the harbour of the country, called Sanestol, they found Zichmni, who came by land with his army, conquering all the country as he went;" and the admiral's comment is, "As Zichmni came by land, Sanestol (Major's Sandoe) must have been continent with the place from which he has come directly." And some lines afterwards he says:“From whence he came is not said, but by land it is not possible to come to that little island." No one more ready than myself to acknowledge that one does not generally come to an island by land, whether that island be small or great, but it is quite possible to come by land to a bay in an island, though that island be small; and this is all that the text requires, viz. “In the harbour of the country, called Sanestol [i.e. the harbour of Sandsbugt], they found Zichmni, who came by land with his army." This explanation, however, does not neutralise Admiral Irminger's formidable statement, that by land it is not possible to come to that little island. I will venture an audacious conjecture. Suppose Earl Sinclair and his men crossed over to Sandoe in boats. Boats have been used for crossing from one island to another before now, while, as Admiral Irminger points out, there was a capital landing-place at Skaapen, on the north side of Sandoe; and, in fact, the Admiral is "perplexed that Zeno was not at the outset directed to this landing-place in order to transport the army to Stromoe for the conquest's sake." Admiral Irminger has not realised that the so-called army— whatever number of men that might mean, probably the merest handful-was with Sinclair himself, while Zeno had a special task entrusted to him, which was, that while Earl Sinclair was making his triumphant progress on land, he himself was to take formal possession of the coasts and islands, for which purpose accordingly he proceeded with the fleet to the westwards and northwards.

These and other minor difficulties, to which I shall recur hereafter, force Admiral Irminger to the conclusion that the Frislanda of the Zeno cannot be the Faroe Islands. I will therefore address myself to this principal question at once, in order that a large hole being made for the cat, there may be free passage' for the kittens, and so time may be saved. The first fact which confronts us is, that neither Nicolò nor Antonio Zeno, from whom the narrative and map are derived, is of the same opinion as Admiral Irminger; for on the map we find laid down both Frislanda and Iceland, and, roughly speaking, for a map made 500 years ago, in their proper positions (sup

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