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Published for the Journal of the Royal Geographical oociety by Murray, Albemarle Street, London, 1879.

posing Frislanda to be the Faroe Islands), with reference to Greenland, Norway, and Scotland. In order to elevate Frislanda to the dignity of Iceland, Admiral Irminger aims at treating the larger island of Islanda or Iceland as a myth; but this will not do, for on Islanda are laid down the names of the two Icelandic Bishops' Sees, Scalodin and Olensis (the adjectival form of Holum). It is manifest, therefore, that in the opinion of these two ancient Venetian voyagers, the authors of both narrative and map, we have two substantive realities, one Frislanda, the other Iceland, and that Frislanda is not Iceland, and Iceland is not Frislanda. Admiral Irminger is of a different opinion. I beg leave to side with the old voyagers. But it will be said that the Zeno map was sophisticated by Nicolò Zeno, jun., in 1558. True; in his guileless ignorance of the countries referred to, both in map and text, he misread "Eslanda " and "Le Islande," both meaning the Shetland Islands, for Islanda (Iceland), and accordingly endowed the latter island at its east end with a cluster of seven islands, bearing names mentioned in the text as really belonging to the Shetlands. In this we trace a blunder into which he could blamelessly fall, but there is nothing therein to warrant the extravagant supposition that he had evolved from his inner consciousness the island or group of islands named Frislanda, and had not only arbitrarily inserted it on the map, but, knowing no more of the Faroe Islands than the man in the moon, had invented and inserted in the narrative a story of events occurring therein, and agreeing in detail with the geography of the present day. If he could perform such a miracle as this, he would merit canonisation forthwith. But we have no need to resort to the supernatural. The most conclusive evidence that Frislanda and Iceland were transmitted in their entirety by Antonio Zeno, is given in the following words in a letter by him addressed to his brother Carlo. Speaking of a book which he had written, and which, in fact, he brought home with him to Venice, he says, "In it I have described the country, the monstrous fishes, the customs and laws of Frislanda, of Islanda (Iceland), of Estlanda (Shetland), the kingdoms of Norway, Estotiland, and Drogio."

And now that I have shown on the highest possible authority that Iceland is not Frislanda, nor Frislanda Iceland, I will proceed to show what Frislanda is. If we look at the Zeno map, the first thing which strikes our eye, standing at the extreme south of Frislanda, like a sentinel keeping watch and ward over the group, is the Island of Monaco (Venetian for Monk"). If we turn to a modern map of the Faroe Islands we see the same monk standing as sentinel in precisely the same


position. For five hundred years and more has that monk stood there patiently on guard, and if he could speak the name of the territory over which he kept ward, that name, whether uttered to-day or five hundred years ago, however the dialect might differ, would virtually be the same. A sturdy and imperturbable sentinel that, whom I venture to think that not even Admiral Irminger will succeed in upsetting. But let us now revert to the already quoted passage from the text, which says (page 6), "Zichmni being anxious to win renown by deeds of arms, had come with his men to attempt the conquest of Frislanda, which is an island somewhat larger than Ireland. The fleet under the charge of Zeno, consisting of thirteen vessels, sailed to the westwards, and with little trouble gained possession of Ledovo and Ilofe, and other small islands, in a gulf called Sudero, where in the harbour of the country called Sanestol, they captured some small barks laden with salt fish." Now be it observed that both here in the text, and in the Frislanda of the map, the Gulf of Sudero is mentioned; and if the reader will look at the modern map of the Faroe Islands, he will find between the Island of Sudero, the southernmost of the larger islands of the group, and the Island of Sandoe, the Sanestol of Zeno, Sudero-Fiord, which is the Gulf of Sudero. So that in three independent places we have the Gulf of Sudero, common to the text, the Frislanda of the map, and the Færoe Islands of the map of to-day. The identity is then unavoidable.

From Sandsbugt, in Sandoe, where Sinclair met Zeno, the text says that the fleet, making its course still westwards, came to the other cape of the gulf, and then turning again they fell in with certain islands and lands which they brought into possession of Zichmni. This sea was in a manner full of shoals and rocks, so that had Messire Nicolò and the Venetian mariners not been their pilots, the whole fleet would have been lost. By the advice of Messire Nicolò, the captain now determined to go ashore, at a place called Bondendon, and there they heard that Zichmni had put to flight the army of the enemy; in consequence of which ambassadors were sent from all parts of the island to yield the country up into his hands. Here they awaited his arrival, when Zichmni having complimented Messire

* Had Admiral Irminger done me the honour to read a note which I made on this passage in my book, he need not have insisted on this evidently blundering use of the word "Ireland" by Nicolò Zeno, junr. The note runs thus :-" From the Zeni's utter ignorance of Ireland, as shown in a subsequent part of the narrative, I have reason to suspect that the word rendered here Irlanda' was in the original text Islanda or Eslanda,' as written elsewhere in the text for 'Shetland.' The proportions of Frislanda and Estland (i.e. Shetland) on the Zeno map, are in accordance with this conclusion."

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Nicolò on his great zeal and skill, conferred on him the honour of knighthood, and rewarded his men with very handsome presents. Departing thence," the text goes on to say, "they went in triumphant manner towards Frislanda, the chief city of that island on the south-east of it, lying inside a bay, in which there is such great abundance of fish, that many ships are laden therewith to supply Flanders, Brittany, England, Scotland, Norway, and Denmark, and by this trade they gather great wealth."*

A glance at the map of the Faroe Islands will show how accurately this track of the fleet accords with the localities, and if at the same time the Frislanda of the Zeno map be consulted, it will be seen that Bondendon lies opposite to the town of Frislanda, the capital of the whole group, i.e. Thorshavn,† while on the modern map, Norderdahl, on the west side of the island of Stromoe, of which Bondendon is the phonetic representative, occupies the same position opposite Thorshavn, on the south-east of Stromoe, as the text describes.

In the course of this track there are two points to which Admiral Irminger raises objections. One is, that there are rocks but no shoals, where Zeno described the latter to be, but the expression occurs in a passage where there is much vaunting of the nautical skill of the Venetian mariners, and whether there are shoals there or not, rocks and shoals are not infrequent companions, and we must not be surprised at vanity exhibiting itself in a little braggadocio. Admiral Irminger's second objection is, "That there is no anchor ground at Norderdahl, but often a strong current and heaving of the sea." "The beach," he says, "in its whole length from Norderdahl to the southernmost part of Stromoe is a somewhat steep-to and rocky coast." Perhaps on this occasion there was no strong current or heaving of the sea, and, as there was a beach, we may reasonably suppose that Sinclair was able to communicate with Zeno, as the text describes, before his triumphant departure for Thorshavn, alias Frislanda.

While thus treating of the coasts and rocks in this part of the Færoe group, it is well that I should advert to another occasion, much later in the narrative, when great preparations were being made for an extensive voyage to the west, to a country called Estotiland. "Steering westwards," says Antonio

*In this sentence there is unquestionably much apparent exaggeration.

In medieval times it was a frequent custom to apply the name of the whole country to the capital.

I observe that Admiral Irminger speaks of Bondendon as "Mr. Major's and Admiral Zahrtmann's Norderdahl;" and of Sanestol as "Major's and Zahrtmann's Sandoe." I find no trace whatever of Admiral Zahrtmann having made these identifications. I alone am responsible for them.


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