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of Greece by Xerxes. Diodorus is not very well known, and possesses no very great merit as a historian. Altogether unphilosophical, he is sometimes even careless in his statements. Hence it has occasionally been found necessary to prevent misconception by referring in the Notes to the clear and simple details of Herodotus. Nor is the style of Diodorus very interesting; but his diction is both easy and correct. There are to be met with in his pages a few deviations from pure classical usage, which have for the most part been corrected in the Notes, and should always be observed by the tutor. But in general his Greek seems well fitted for boys beginning to translate, and well fitted also for practice in composition. Perhaps no author presents greater facilities for the very useful process of translation and re-translation.
The later Chapters comprise that masterly sketch of the Athenian Empire which Thucydides introduces into the First Book of his History. This extract, forming by itself an entire subject, narrates in clear outline the principal events which took place between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars, and is written. for the most part in the simplest possible language. The pupil has thus an opportunity of being introduced, earlier than usual, to the study of the first historian of antiquity, without being impeded by the difficulties which generally beset his style.
The Notes require a few words of explanation. Somet of them are historical, and a few critical; but most are simply grammatical, and confined to a single division of grammar. As it is hoped that this volume may be found useful by mere beginners, it is drawn up with especial reference to their use. In the Preliminary Observations an attempt has been made to explain the theory and laws of the Cases; and the Notes are chiefly intended to illustrate them. The pupil may well begin to translate without thoroughly comprehending the laws; but he should read the observations, by small portions, daily; and when he has mastered them, he should re-commence the text, and never be suffered to pass a single noun without referring it to one or other of the laws. By this means something of a scientific character will be imparted to his work; he will be taught from the first to look on words, not as isolated facts, but as parts of a system; capable of being referred, like the phenomena of natural science, to some distinct class, and of being explained in accordance with some known law.
For the Preliminary Observations and the Grammatical Notes the Editor is chiefly indebted to Rost's Greek Grammar; for the rest, he has availed himself of the assistance of the best editors of Thucydides, without thinking it necessary in each case to affix their names. The text, in the Chapters from Diodorus, is that of the
Tauchnitz Edition; in the chapters from Thucydides, Bekker's.
This volume then comprises; historically, a space of forty years, from the Invasion of Xerxes to the breaking out of the Peloponnesian War; grammatically, a theory of the Cases, with examples to illustrate it. Together they form a study which a schoolboy may well get through in a single half-year. The present volume is complete in itself; but the Editor trusts it may be followed by others, which will carry on the history of Greece through the times of Thucydides and Xenophon, and explain, on similar principles, other portions of the Greek grammar.
Ι. ΕΠ' ἄρχοντος μὲν ̓Αθήνῃσι Καλλιάδου, τῷ δὲ πρώτῳ ἔτει τῆς ἑβδομηκοστῆς πέμπτης ὀλυμπιάδος, Ξέρξης ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐστράτευσεν ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα διὰ ταύτην τὴν αἰτίαν. Μαρδόνιος ὁ Πέρσης ἀνεψιὸς μὲν καὶ κηδεστής ἦν Ξέρξου, διὰ δὲ σύνεσιν καὶ ἀνδρείαν μάλιστα θαυμαζόμενος παρὰ τοῖς Πέρσαις. Οὗτος μετέωρος ὢν τῷ φρονήματι, καὶ τὴν ἡλικίαν ἀκμάζων, ἐπεθύμει μεγάλων δυνάμεων ἀφηγήσασθαι. Διόπερ ἔπεισε τὸν Ξέρξην καταδουλώσασθαι τοὺς Ἕλληνας, ἀεὶ πολεμικῶς ἔχοντας πρὸς τοὺς Πέρσας.
ΙΙ. Ὁ δὲ Ξέρξης πεισθεὶς αὐτῷ ἤρξατο ναυπηγεῖσθαι κατὰ πᾶσαν τὴν παραθαλάττιον, τὴν ὑπ' αὐτὸν ταττομένην, Αἴγυπτόν τε καὶ Φοινίκην, καὶ Κύπρον, πρὸς δὲ τούτοις Κιλικίαν, καὶ Παμφυλίαν, καὶ Πισιδικήν, ἔτι δὲ Λυκίαν, καὶ Καρίαν, καὶ Μυσίαν, καὶ Τρωάδα, καὶ τὰς
ἐφ ̓ Ἑλλησπόντῳ πόλεις, καὶ τὴν Βιθυνίαν, καὶ τὸν Πόντον. Τριετῆ δὲ χρόνον παρασκευασά μενος, κατεσκεύασε ναῦς μακρὰς πλείους τῶν χιλίων καὶ διακοσίων. Συνεβάλετο δὲ αὐτῶ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ Δαρείος, πρὸ τῆς τελευτῆς παρασκευὰς πεποιημένος μεγάλων δυνάμεων. Καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖνος ἡττημένος ὑπὸ ̓Αθηναίων ἐν Μαραθῶνι Δάτιδος ἡγουμένου, χαλεπῶς διέκειτο πρὸς τοὺς νενικηκότας Αθηναίους. ̓Αλλὰ Δαρεῖος μὲν μέλλων ἤδη διαβαίνειν ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἕλληνας, ἐμεσολαβήθη τελευτήσας· ὁ δὲ Ξέρξης διά τε τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς ἐπιβολήν, καὶ τὴν τοῦ Μαρδονίου συμβουλήν, καθότι προείρηται, διέγνω πολεμεῖν τοῖς Ελλησιν. Ὡς δ ̓ αὐτῷ πάντα τὰ πρὸς τὴν στρατείαν ἡτοίμαστο, τοῖς μὲν ναυάρχοις παρήγ γειλεν ἀθροίζειν τὰς ναῦς εἰς Κύμην καὶ Φώκαιαν αὐτὸς δ ̓ ἐξ ἁπασῶν τῶν σατραπειῶν συναγαγὼν τὰς πεζικὰς καὶ ἱππικὰς δυνάμεις, προῆγεν ἐκ τῶν Σούσων. Ὡς δ ̓ ἧκεν εἰς Σάρδεις, κήρυκας ἐξέπεμψεν εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα, προστάξας εἰς πάσας τὰς πόλεις ἰέναι, καὶ τοὺς Ἕλληνας αἰτεῖν ὕδωρ καὶ γῆν. Τὴν δὲ στρατιὰν διελόμενος, ἐξαπέστειλε τοὺς ἱκανοὺς ζεύξαι μὲν τὸν Ἑλλήσε ποντον, διασκάψαι δὲ τὸν ̓Αθω κατὰ τὸν αὐχένα τῆς Χεῤῥονήσου ἅμα μὲν ταῖς δυνάμεσιν